Tag Archives: Transmission

Influence of Community Transmission of Covid-19 on School Management in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated influence of community transmission of COVID-19 on school management in Enugu State, Nigeria. Three research questions were formulated. The research design used was descriptive survey. The sample of the study was 334 respondents selected from the study area using simple and accidental random sampling techniques. The instrument used for the study was 16-items, modified rating scale questionnaire titled “Community Transmission and School Management Rating Scale (TSMRS)” was used for data collection. This instrument was duly validated by experts and its reliability estimate was established at .86 using Cronbach Alpha reliability method. Simple percentage, statistical technique was used for the study. The results showed that the provision of nose masks, hand washing soap and alcohol based sanitizers for the schools were above average in the study area. Based on the results, recommendations were made, among others, that the government should engage media organisations and the citizenry on media literacy to fight against the spread of inappropriate and infections information and government should endeavour tot structure special and comprehensive palliative programmes for citizens as alternatives.

Citation: Elechi Catherine Nkiru, Ukwuaba, Loretta Chika, Ph.D & Ekpenyong David Oboqua (2021) Influence of Community Transmission of Covid-19 on School Management in Enugu State, Nigeria, British Journal of Education, Vol. 9, Issue 10, pp.1-9,

Keywords: Community, School Management, Transmission, corona virus disease

Nigerians Perspectives on Covid-19 Pandemic and How It Affects Their Lifestyle and Financial Status (Published)

Covid-19 is a viral disease that originated from Wuhan province of China. The virus has rapidly crossed borders, infecting and killing people in many countries including Nigeria. Undoubtedly, the pandemic has massive impact on the activities of Nigerians, including social lifestyle and income. The age-long communal behavior of Nigerians, like attendance to religion gatherings, ceremonies, and sports, has been hampered due to covid-19 pandemic. Also, due to this pandemic, Nigeria´s economy has declined drastically. This study was conducted to understand the perspective of Nigerians about Covid-19, and how it affected their lifestyle and financial status. Method: An online survey was conducted using the combination of few open ended and closed ended questions to gather data from a total of 325 respondents in Nigeria. Results: Majority of the respondents had adequate knowledge about the Covid-19 infection, its preventive measures, and its mode of transmission. Furthermore, over half of the respondents admitted that the pandemic has adversely affected their social lifestyle and financial status. Conclusion: There is need for provision of financial assistance and distribution of palliatives to all Nigerians during this pandemic. The government should also ensure the safety of all citizens, as social vices increase amidst the pandemic. A policy against increment of price of commodities should be established and implemented.

Keywords: COVID-19, Income, Lifestyle, Preventive measures., Transmission, palliatives, pandemic


The occurrence of interference that causes partial loss of intelligence in air navigation signal is largely dependent on total environment around radio navigation aid systems (navaids). Directional antenna polar diagrams can be measured in horizontal or vertical mode. Usually the horizontal mode means a rotation of the test antenna in the electric or E-Plane and magnetic or H-plane for the vertical mode. This paper compares the effect that selected roofing materials have on Navaids transmission distance. To achieve this, a transmitter, a receiver and a computer to measure signal level transmitted through roofing materials at a frequency of 9.4GHz are used. The study considered effects of decra, iron, steel, aluminum, plastic and clay materials on navaids transmission distance. The study found that effects of roofing materials on transmission distance varied depending on the type of selected roofing material. Signals via plastic materials decreased with distance as those via aluminum increased with distance. However the overall effect of roofing materials on transmission distance was not significant since the received signal was within the recommended strength. Also the materials had path loss exponent factors of between 3.0 to 3.7 which meant that the rate at which the signal was propagated through these structures was significantly slower than in free space where exponent factor is 2. It is recommended that studies be directed in conducting experiments in open fields and factoring in sources of variability arising from the environment so as to relate to the actual scenario of flight navigation

Keywords: Distance, Navaids, Roofing Materials, Transmission