Effect of Public-Private Partnerships on Revamping Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya: A Case of Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) and Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Partnership (Published)
Lack of financial and managerial capacity impedes many governments’ ability to meet obligations in regard to the national educational systems. In order to make meaningful improvements in education, governments may have to consider alternative methods such as public – private partnerships so as to meet their commitments to education. Establishing PPP with the private sector especially corporations who possess valuable financial and material resources and expertise can assist governments to expand and improve the quality of education services leading to achievement of education for all (EFA) goals. This paper aims at establishing the effect of Public-Private Partnerships on revamping Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya focusing on a case of KAM and GIZ Partnership. The study sought to establish how employment opportunities through KAM and GIZ Partnerships have revamped Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya and to assess the financial assistance from KAM and GIZ Partnerships on revamping TVET in Kenya. The paper was centered on Classical Liberal Theory. The study targeted a population of 882 students and staff of TVETs in Nairobi County. The paper used stratified random sampling to select a sample of 268 respondents who received the questionnaires. Self-administered questionnaires and interview guides were used for collection of primary data. The questionnaires were administered using the drop and pick later method in order to allow the respondents have enough time for responding adequately to the questions. SPSS Version 25.0 was used for data analysis. The paper used descriptive statistics since it enabled the researcher describe meaningfully the score or measurement distribution by using a few indices. Conceptual content analysis was used in the analysis of the qualitative data from the open-ended questions. The study concluded that Public-Private Partnerships positively and significantly revamps TVET in Kenya. The Kenya government should develop a public-private partnership policy framework especially in education to guide corporate/business organizations involvement.
The capacity of any organisation to function in line with its strategic objectives depends largely on its employees. But employees are not needed for themselves, rather, for their skills and competences which have limits but can be enhanced through training and development for efficient organisational performance. However, some organisations are reluctant to invest in staff training and development under the assumption that they can price skilled employees from their competitors to solve their immediate performance needs rather than invest long term in staff training and development. Consequently, the role of staff training and development tends to be downplayed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether organisations can do without staff training and development. Using the exploration of secondary data from relevant previous studies in a mainly qualitative method, this study found sufficient evidences that strongly link staff training and development to employee and organisational performance. The study asserted that although organisations are at liberty to determine when, how and to what extent they embark on staff training and development, they inevitably have to in their pursuit of organisational success.
Enhancing Public Personnel Competence Through Training: The Role Of Public Service Institute Of Nigeria (PSIN) (Published)
Improving the competence level of public personnel is very imperative for efficient service delivery. Governments world over has as its key objective the rendering of prompt and efficient services to its citizens and at the same time be as accountable and transparent as possible while carrying out these responsibilities. For a government to fulfil its objective to its citizens it must ensure that its workforce is well and able to live up to the demands of fulfilling these objectives. This cannot be achieved without a competent, efficient, effective and result-oriented public service. The public service is constantly evolving with increasing service delivery demands from the citizens. The importance of equipping public servants with the right training to satisfy the citizens’ demands can only be met when the public servants have the required competence to meet these challenges. This paper relied on documented secondary data as its source of data collection and adopted the qualitative review analysis as its methodology. The paper also used the Expertise Theory as the framework for explaining how public personnel competence can be enhanced through training and human resource capacity building. Constant training and human capacity building development have been proved to be the best, widely accepted and most efficient solution to the problem of enhancing competence in the Nigerian public service. This is inview of the importance of constant training and human resource capacity building as expressed by scholars and the Nigerian government in various committee reports, recommendations, and White papers on public service reforms. The focus of this paper is to examine the role of Public Service Institute of Nigeria in enhancing public personnel competence in the public service. The findings show poor funding and lack of political will on the part of the government to implement several reform recommendations on public personnel training. The paper therefore, recommends increased funding of the Institute and enhanced political commitment to address the training needs in the public service.
The global competition and swiftness of changes emphasize the importance of human capital within organizations, as well as the swiftness and ways of knowledge gaining of that capital. Learning and development as many refer to it now is one of the most important aspects of our lives and our work. Many people view training as an activity that produces the result or outcome of learning and learning is typically viewed as new knowledge, skills and competencies or abilities. In this report we will discuss the training and development and its importance now a day for all organizations in order to achieve and reach their objectives and goals through set a training plan and then translate this plan to real training courses for each employee to refine and improve their skills, knowledge…est. Also we will talk about the several types and methods of training and development. Finally, how much value or interest that this training and development can offer to the employees and the company itself.
Training Of Office Technology and Management Education Students for Job Demands and Self-Employment in Ekiti State, Nigeria (Published)
Office technology and management (OTM) education is an integral part of business education programme in Nigeria. The course is expected to provide occupational skills for its recipients in business or office related occupations either as employees or self-employed. However, it has been observed that most graduates of this progamme at both colleges of education and university levels are unemployed despite the presumed acquired skills and knowledge. In view of this, the study sought to examine the training of OTM education student vis-à-vis the job demands in business environment in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Thus, three research questions are raised and answered. The research design adopted descriptive survey. The population of the study consisted of 4,030, made up of 15 OTM lecturers in College of Education, Ikere Ekiti and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti and all the 4,015 registered operators/managers of private establishments with the Ministry of Commerce and Trade in Ekiti State in 2018. The sample of the study was 1,220 respondents made up of the entire 15 OTM lecturers in the two institutions and 1,205 randomly selected respondents across the 16 local government areas, representing 30% of the population of the operators of business establishments. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the three research questions. The results revealed that most of the needed ICT facilities for effective training of these students to meet job demands are not enough and that most OTM lecturers require additional ICT- related training to produce competent and qualified OTM education graduates for improved employability. Thus, the study concluded that most OTM education graduates are not adequately prepared to meet the expected job demands in a technologically-driven office environment. It is therefore recommended that government should provide needed modern-day instructional facilities for this programme and sponsor OTM lecturers on relevant ICT packages.
This paper comes to explore teachers’ views on their training needs in the inter-school violence handling. The quantitative approach and the questionnaire tool were selected. The target population was the primary education teachers of Achaia Prefecture, and the sample consisted of 100 teachers who were selected by convenient sampling. Based on the findings, participants believe that incidents of school violence occur in their school units moderately. However, the existence of such incidents is a deterrent to the functioning of the school, thereby emphasizing the need for further training in related matters. They wish to be trained in topics such as Counseling, School Psychology, Social Psychology, Intercultural Education and Cognitive Psychology through the processes of in-school training and training sessions. The appropriate coordinator of the educational program is the Regional Centers for Educational Planning and the Universities. Regarding the degree of motivation for participating in a similar training program, the link between theory and teaching and the more complete response to modern school requirements are considered very important.
Assessment of Support Services Available for Staff on Probation in University of Education, Winneba (Published)
For staff on probation to be effective and efficient, they need to be properly supported in their line of duty. Planned and systematic probation periods are usually used by organizations to increase commitment and maximize employee contribution as quickly as possible. Another importance of the probation is to give newly appointed employees sufficient support and guidance to enable them become effective and efficient members of staff. Despite these, it seems support services available to staff on probation in the University of Education, Winneba are not adequate. This study adds to the existing knowledge focusing on the special case of the University of Education, Winneba. Data was collected by administering questionnaire. The study targeted all senior members and senior staff of the Winneba and Ajumako campuses of the University of Education, Winneba who were on probation or had just been confirmed with a sample size of fifty (50). Data collected was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The study revealed that most newly appointed staff were not satisfied with the support services available for their probation; due to inadequate orientation given, lack of regular feedback on performance and absence of socializing activities. The study recommended that the University of Education, Winneba should institutionalize support services by having a comprehensive guide to manage probation periods to monitor and ensure easy integration of all staff.
Improving Training Quality of Vietnam Private Universities: A Case of Lac Hong University in the Context the International Integration (Published)
The objective of the study is to analyze the key factors affecting the training quality of Lac Hong University in order to meet the context of international integration in Vietnam. Based research results, the researcher has the managerial implications for improving the training quality of Lac Hong University (LHU) in Dong Nai province. This is one of the most important roles to develop LHU and enhance the measurement scale as well as the theoretical model illustrated to the relationship between the key factors and the training quality. The official quantitative studied with a sample of 500 students studying at LHU. The data collected from June 2016 to May 2018 and random sampling technique. The Data analyzed Cronbach’s Alpha and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) which used for multilinear regression. The tested results have the key factors affecting the training quality of Lac Hong University with significance level 0.01 based on 475 samples and 25 samples lacked information.
The Contribution of Education Staff Training to Crisis Management among Teachers: A Case Study of the Prefecture Of Ilia (Published)
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the views of the directors and deputy directors of the schools in the prefecture of Ilia regarding their training and its contribution to crisis management among teachers. The sample of the survey consisted of 61 directors and deputy directors (out of a total of 79) of the elementary schools of the prefecture of Ilia. Quantitative methodology was used to analyze the data (Frequency method), while the internal cohesion index (Cronbach) was checked. According to the findings, the vast majority of the sample has faced some forms of crisis among teachers and considers that the most common type of crises is interpersonal. Directors and deputy directors believe that the main causes of crises are the individual factors, the style of management and the organizational weakness. Finally, the overwhelming majority of the sample argues that the manager needs to have specialized knowledge on crisis management issues between colleagues and therefore the training of education staff on these issues becomes necessary and obligatory.
Microfinance and Performance of Micro and Small Enterprises; Does Training Has an Impact (Published)
Access to finance is considered as very important for gaining high performance of Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs). Yet it has been observed that despite the availability of access to finance the performance of several MSEs is poor, which is a major hurdle in the growth rate of MSEs. The purpose of this study was to find the difference in certain performance indicators of MSEs who owners have been given training against those whose owners have never been given any kind of training. In order to conduct study survey research has been conducted and a sample of 384 MSEs was selected on simple random basis. The findings revealed that all the performance indicators including sales increase, income increase, assets increase, employment increase, and meeting household expenses have shown a significant difference among the two groups. The findings of the study are very important for the policy makers and the people who are involved in microfinance industry.
Studying the Training Quality and Students’ Satisfaction towards the Fourth Industrial Revolution: A Case of Lac Hong University (Published)
The 4.0 Industrial revolution has grown tremendously throughout the world affecting all sectors and fields of social life. Besides, the training of knowledge and skills for employees is also very different. Previously, LHU trained in-depth technical a branch, but now the boundaries between the branches are becoming increasingly blurred and interdisciplinary tendencies have become associated with information technology becoming popular. Therefore, the article objective is to study the training quality and students’ satisfaction towards the industry 4.0 at Lac Hong University, Dong Nai province, Vietnam. The research results surveyed 400 students who are studying at LHU and answered 20 questions. The primary sources of data collected from July 2017 to March 2018 at LHU and simple random sampling technique. Hard copy distributed among 7.000 students of LHU. In addition, the researchers have statically results about the training quality and students’ satisfaction.
Conceptual Study of Value Curve in Knowledge Sharing of Organizational Training and Education (Published)
The knowledge sharing is the core of knowledge management in organizational training and education, but we pay few attentions to the value of knowledge sharing in the past. This research aims at some confuse idea related to knowledge sharing, then we propose more explicit knowledge value categorization, and infer the hypothesis of the value of knowledge owner curve. The main contribution of present study is to classify the value in knowledge sharing process into the knowledge value and knowledge owners’, and explaining what the value of organization increased is come from knowledge owner decrease, finally knowledge owner value can be divided into expert’s power value and the value of sharing will and ability. Put these two above values together, the knowledge owner value becomes a concave upward curve. It is to say the value of knowledge owner is under the influence of expert’s power and descend in the early stage, and then raising thereafter because this sharing will and ability are predicted to get applauses. The present study proposed related hypotheses, it still have to carry on some testing to verify in the future. However these hypotheses still show some new concept of value in the subject of the knowledge sharing currently, it enable us to find different thinking. We hope the results of present study can suggest a better way to encourage knowledge sharing according to different viewpoints of value of organizational training and education in the future.
The purpose of this study to check the impact of human resource management (HRM) practices on employee’s performance in the sports industry Sialkot, Pakistan. The techniques were used for collection of data is random sampling. A questionnaire was adopted and distributed to the employee’s of sport industry Sialkot, Pakistan. To create link the human resource management practices with employee’s performance. For analysing the data the correlation and regression was applied. At the end we have to see that human resource management (HRM) practices (compensation, training, employee involvement, and performance appraisal have positive impact on employee’s performance. Evidence showed that human resource management (HRM) practices (independent variable) contributed positive impact on employee’s performance (dependent variable).
Gender Differences on Medical Students’ Perception of Peer Tutoring Learning Strategy on Clinical Skills Training At Macarthur Clinical Skills Laboratory (MCSL) (Published)
The study investigated medical students’ perception of peer tutoring learning strategy on clinical skills training at Macarthur Clinical Skills Laboratory (MCSL) during their Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) sessions. It adopted the descriptive survey design. The population of the study was 98 medical students, 66 of these students were randomly selected .Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The instrument titled Peer Tutoring and Clinical Skills Training (PTCST) was used to collect data and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using Cronbach Alpha. Data was collected after exposing the students to clinical skills practical sessions for two weeks. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation and the null hypotheses were tested using independence sample t-test. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female medical students’ responses on their perception on the influence of peer tutoring on clinical skills training during Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM); irrespective of their gender, practicing among classmates enhanced their retention of the basic clinical do –steps, build up their confidence level as well as determined their proficiency level through the instant feedbacks. It was also revealed that during this practice sessions the medical students were sensitive to their gender differences and wished to maintain their dignity during clinical skills practical sessions. The researchers therefore recommends that Peer tutoring learning strategy should be adopted in clinical education while a chaperon should be made available for students during clinical skills practical sessions.
Adequacy of Workshop Facilities in Colleges of Education (Technical) For Training of Trade Teachers of Technical Colleges in North Eastern States of Nigeria (Published)
The purpose of the study was to determine the adequacy of workshop facilities to facilitate effective teaching and learning process in Colleges of Education (Technical) in north eastern States of Nigeria. Two research questions guided the study. The research adopted a descriptive survey design. The study was conducted in Bauchi, Gombe, Taraba and Yobe States of Nigeria. The population of this study consisted of forty-five (45) workshop instructors. Data were collected through the use of checklist and questionnaire. The instrument has a reliability coefficient of 0.76. The findings showed that Workshops space in Colleges of Education (Technical) in North eastern States of Nigeria were inadequate.. Most of the equipment, tools, and machines available in the colleges were not enough to cater for increasing population of students’ enrolment. The study recommended that the Federal and States owned Colleges of Education (Technical) should be provided with adequate workshops and training facilities to cater for the increasing students’ population. This will in turn promote teaching and learning.
Training and Development Strategies: Approaches for Performance Enhancement in Goal Oriented Firms. (A Survey of Commercial Banking Firms in Nigeria) (Published)
This research paper is a critical analysis of Training and Development Strategies; as approaches for performance enhancement in goal oriented firms with emphasis on Twenty-one commercial banking firms in Nigeria. This study adopted simple empirical survey method or quasi-experimental method which places premium on survey of sample. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point Likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e. Strongly Agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), And Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). For secondary sources of data textbooks, journals, and annual reports of 21 commercial banking firms’ and stock exchange fact book, were used. The sample size for the study is 398 derived from the employee population of 21 commercial banking firms totaled of 64, 846 as at January, 2017. This was determined using Taro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Oikin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity test determination and Cronbach Alpha for reliability test determination was applied in this study. Bowley’s Allocation formula was applied in determining the individual commercial banking firms sample size. Multiple Regression test was used in processing the three (3) formulated hypotheses. The study findings revealed that Training and Development Strategies adopted by commercial banking firms in Nigeria for employees have positive relationship on productivity of the banking firms. Again, Training and Development have enhanced employee’s skills acquisition and knowledge base of employees. The last finding showed that training and development programme/strategies have impacted on organization employees by modifying their behaviors and their work attitudes to conform to set standard and norms of the commercial banks for service delivery and sound operations. The study recommendations are that, executive management of the commercial banking firms in Nigeria should also ensure that operational analysis, organizational analysis, individual analysis is periodically carried out to determine training and development needs in areas of skills inadequacy, knowledge gap, attitude and behavioral aspects to warrant proper Training and Development hence customers of the banks needed to be treated with absolute care in order to attract higher market share and profits by banks. Again, the study recommended emphasis on e-product s training for commercial banking firms in Nigeria to enhance sustainability and competitive advantage hence this will enhance growth in a positive direction especially in this era of globalization.
Individual Attributes Mechanics in the Effect of Life Skills Training on Behaviour Modification of Juvenile Delinquents in Eldoret and Kakamega Rehabs (Published)
There is a growing concern with the growth and prevalence of Juvenile delinquents (JD) in rehabilitation centres in Kenya. Juvenile delinquency has become an intricate social problem that significantly influences all members and processes of a social structure. In January 2016, Eldoret Juvenile Remand Home alone had 155 juveniles which is its full capacity. It is against this background that this study examined psychotherapeutic interventions in behaviour modification of JD and recommended measures that would increase the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions in rehabilitation centers of JDs in Kenya. The purpose of the study was establish effect of life skills training and behaviour modification of juvenile delinquents in Eldoret and Kakamega rehabs. The area of study was Eldoret and Kakamega rehabs. The study adopted Glaser Psychological Reality Theory on Maladaptive Behaviour and Merton Functional Theory of Juvenile Delinquency as the theoretical framework. Further a conceptual framework was also used in the study. The study used descriptive and explanatory research survey designs. The target population was comprised of delinquents in Kakamega and Eldoret Rehabs, administrators, trainers and counselors in the rehabs and probation officers. A sample size of 149 respondents comprising of 127 JD, 13 trainers, 5 probation officers, 2 counselors and 2 administrators of the Eldoret and Kakamega rehabs participated in the study. Saturated sampling catered for the delinquents, probation officers, rehab administrators and trainers. Research instruments that were used in this study included questionnaires, interview schedule and document analysis. A Pilot study was carried out to ascertain validity and reliability of the instruments and a reliability coefficient of 0.7 was deemed acceptable. Descriptive statistical tools and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Study findings showed that life skills training had a positive and significant effect on behaviour modification. This implies that life skills training is an important tool in bringing discipline among juvenile delinquents and for overall rehabilitation programmes which can enhance behaviour modification. There is therefore need for psychotherapeutic intervention at both individual and group level for delinquents so that they can change their behaviour. There is thus need for life skill training so as to reduce violence, aggression, and destructive behaviour in adolescents. Thus there is need for psychotherapeutic interventions for behaviour modification of delinquents in Kenyan rehabilitation centers.
Relevance of Experiential Learning in the Training of Extension Agents in Nigeria: A Proposal (Published)
Extension agents have been described as essential backbones for extension services. The efficiency of the activities of extension agents as multi-purpose staff is determined by the quality of the training received. In other words, for extension agents to excel in service delivery opportunities must be given for training and retraining in the current trends and issues experientially in extension work. It is against this background that this paper proposes the kind and the nature of training for Nigerian extension workers. To this end, the paper examines the nature of extension work, role and qualities of extension agents, overview of extension agents training in Nigeria with a view to determining the kind of training that will facilitate their work as multi-purpose change agents. The paper concludes that curriculum of Adult and Non-formal Education in Nigerian higher institution of learning should reflect current trends in extension services and be made relevant to the real life situation to enable extension agents discharge their responsibilities as multi-purpose workers. Also opportunities for retraining through seminars, conferences, workshops, etc should be made available to practising extension workers.
In the rural areas of Pakistan, farmers mostly use their family labor including women for production of crop. Rural women are very active in diverse agricultural activities (i.e. pre-harvest, post-harvest). Women from poor households engage in a variety of income-generating and expenditure-saving activities. They are twice as likely as men to be involved in agriculture related activities. Pakistani rural women lagging behind as compared to other developed country women due to many reasons like lack of training programme about new techniques of crop production, lack of resources, little support by agricultural extension services etc. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess the training needs of the rural women in crop production Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah, which will be helpful for extension organizations to develop their future strategies for rural women. A sample of 120 female respondents was selected randomly from Tehsil Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah through multistage random sampling technique. The results of the study revealed that a large majority (70.8%) of the respondents were illiterate. A simple majority (50.8%) of the respondent spent 2 to 4 hours in land preparation and sowing practices. While about one-fifth (19.2%) of the respondents spent 2 to 4 hours in broad casting of seed/fertilizer. However, in crop production activities including broadcasting of seed/fertilize (mean= 3.35), plant protection (mean= 3.52), thinning (mean= 2.84) and grading of seeds (mean= 2.81) they were less competent and need to educate and train about these tasks.
Motivation and Teachers’ Performance in Selected Public Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State (Published)
This study investigated motivation and teachers’ performance in selected secondary schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design of an ex-post facto type. Four research hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire tagged “Teachers’ motivation and performance in secondary schools”. The questionnaire was validated and the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.81 while the reliability was confirmed at 0.78 using a split-half correlation coefficient. Research questionnaires were administered to two hundred (200) teachers that were randomly selected from four major (4) administrative zones in LGA but only one hundred and eighty-seven (187) were adequately filled and used in the analysis. Data were analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Regression statistical methods. The findings of this study reveal a significant positive relationship between teachers’ job performance and motivation in ensuring quality education in secondary schools (r = .567; p>.05). The study also indicated that reward system, professional training and development, work situational factors accounted for 10.4%, 29.1%, and 13.9% respectively of the variance in the motivation of teachers in public secondary schools. It was therefore concluded that the importance of motivation in the day-to-day performance of teachers cannot be overemphasized, especially when it comes to being rewarded for a job done and being happy on the job. It was recommended that for higher performance as well as for employees to have sense of belonging, Management must introduce Management By Objective (MBO) approach so that all staff will take part and be able to contribute meaningfully to the development of the organization.