Tag Archives: Training & Development

Impact of Working Environment and Training & Development on Organization Performance through Mediating Role of Employee Engagement and Job Satisfaction (Published)

In today’s challenging and competitive environment organizations and institutes are making continuous effort to improve the performances of their employees. To investigate this notion this study has used a deductive approach with a cross-sectional research design & self-completion survey instrument. This approach has been used to collect data from 300 respondents. Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) technique has been used for analysis and result generation. Employee engagement and job satisfaction are found to act as mediator between working environment, training & development and organization performance. Working environment, training & development, employee engagement and job satisfaction appear to be effective ways in developing a strong relationship with organization performance. The present study could facilitate and provide a guidelines to consider implementation of practical applications regarding enhancing the employee engagement. This study suggests that employee engagement and satisfaction play the mediating role between working environment, training & development and organization performance

Keywords: Employee Engagement, Job Satisfaction, Organization performance, Training & Development, Working Environment

Assessing the Human Resource Management Practices of Public Banks from Employees’ Perspective: Case Study of Selected Branches of Ghana Commercial Bank, Kumasi (Published)

Human Resource Management (HMR) Practices and their impacts on employees’ performance have received enormous cover in literature. This work took a look at five selected HRM practices and assessed their impact on employees’ performance. The main objective of the study was to examine the impacts of these HRM practices on the performance of employees in four selected branches of Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB). The sample for the study was 80 employees from the selected branches of the bank. Data for the study was collected through the administration of structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as charts, tables and regression analysis were used to analyze and present the data collected. The study established a very important relationship among HRM practices and employees’ performance. The selected HRM practices which formed the independent variables are training & development, motivation, performance appraisal, internal communication, and reward/remuneration while employees’ performance stood as the dependent variable. It was found that, the independent variables together explained 98% of the variance in employees’ performance. Internal communication came in as having the strongest relation with employees’ performance in respect of all the independent variables. It contributes a high percentage of 41% to explain the variance in employee performance. Performance appraisal showed up taking the second slot in the rank of significance in terms of the individual contributions of the measurement dimensions. It accounted for 26.6% of the overall relationship among the selected HRM practices on employees’ performance. Motivation came in third place of significance accounting for 22.9% of the overall variance in employees’ performance considering the selected employees’ performance measurement variables for the study. Training & Development of employees took the fourth most significant slot among all the five (5) measurement dimensions employed in the research. It accounts for about 21% of the variance in the overall impact of the measurement dimensions on employees’ performance and lastly 15.1% of the employees’ performance is explainable by reward/ remuneration. Recommendations were then given in accordance with the research findings

Keywords: Employees’ Performance, Human Resource Management Practices, Internal Communication, Motivation, Performance Appraisal, Reward/ Remuneration, Training & Development

Impact of Training & Development on Employees’ Performance in Banks Of Pakistan (Published)

The study is being carried out taking into consideration the significance of both Training & Development (T & D) and Employee Performance for the businesses at all levels and in all sectors. Banking sector is chosen as representative due to its backing up role in the economy of any country. It is most crucial for services businesses to keep their employees’ knowledge and competencies up to the mark because of the global saturation occurring in services. Economies are becoming services’ led so competition is being added up and strengthened by leaps & bounds. In such a situation, it becomes of prime concern for the organizations particularly servicing organizations like banks to capture new knowledge for serving competitively, store & preserve this knowledge, and then deliver it to the employees using some organized & methodical approach. Now what such an approach could be other than designing strategic and well suited T & D programs. Taking an account of all this, a descriptive & quite explanatory approach is being chosen to carry out a study for checking out the impact that T & D has on the performance level of employees working in the banks of Pakistan. Three objectives were designed for the study; assessment of current practices, impact check, and proposition for better investment into T & D. This has been done selecting six representative banks of Bahawalpur (Bank Alfalah Limited, Muslim Commercial Bank, Habib Bank Limited, Allied Bank Limited, National Bank of Pakistan, and Bank of Punjab) as sampling unit. Employees in these banks were given a structured questionnaire that was designed to particularly measure the influence of T & D on respondents’ skills like Job knowledge, work quality & quantity, functional skills, and their motivation & loyalty. Data collection was done taking sample size of 150 employees while receiving 104 valid responses using convenience & referral sampling. Analysis was done through the application of frequency tests & bar charts on the response rates in SPSS. This gives the study a quantitative and empirical direction for results. So, then we checked the influence of T & D on the skills and attitudes mentioned above for associating these to employee performance level in banks of Pakistan as presented in the conceptual model. Major findings were that most of the employees agreed to the item statements by making it clear that T & D had a positive impact on their Job knowledge, work quality & quantity, functional skills, and their motivation & loyalty and these are all linked to their performance either strongly or moderately but in a supporting direction. Hence, the study concluded up with T & D positively impacting the employees’ performance in the banks of Pakistan.

Keywords: Employee Performance, Loyalty, Motivation, Training & Development, functional skills, job knowledge, quality & quantity of work


In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to a student. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future required performance by enhancing ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the student attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training & development is determined by the student’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms.

Training and Education Differentiated Training Education Application Theoretical Orientation academic Experience Classroom Learning Specific Tasks General Concepts Narrow / Perspective Broad Perspective strategic Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help students grow. Education is theoretical learning in classroom. Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. A student, for example, who undergoes training, is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education. In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more students are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. Hence, an institution must consider elements of both education and training while plan training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help students grow. Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions.

Keywords: Actual performance, Standard performance, Training & Development