Tag Archives: Traditions

Cultural Dualism and Commitment, Rituals and Rites Among Igbo Societies, 1900 – 2000 (Published)

The extremities of modernity and Christianity, and the concomitant innovations emanating from them, caused the syncretism observable in Africa. The microcosm was definitely upset. Equally discernible were consequent dualisms in life styles, festivities, rites and allegiances. Among the cultures affected were rituals, initiations into manhood, exclusive and secret societies and rites of passage/burial. The economic implication of the dualized but single burial/passage rite was the paying of levies/dues to the traditionalists on the one hand, and to the Church, on the other, per a single burial outing. This was to the extent that the cultural commitment of the African was tested; and what were left became re-evaluated. Factually, the beauty of rituals/rites became predicated on dualisms. The order of a burial rite usually read: interment follows immediately after church service and traditional obsequies continue. It, therefore, made economic sense to subscribe to a single species (either traditional or Christian) of rite to reduce both costs and lipservice to the Christian and trado-spiritual cosmogonies. The paper concluded that the extent of commitment to cultures determined the best approaches to the observation of rituals, rites and initiations. For instance: The burial rite of the Ntalakwu in Bende Local Government Area of Abia State was indeed a best approach. It plugged undue economic wastes and lipserving two systems (not masters). This was exemplified at the burial of Pa Azubuike who was neither a former Churchgoer nor a Christian but a full initiate of the Ekpe, Aku Akang and Eketensi cults. The practiced rhythm and staccato of the Eketensi renditions was awesomely electrifying in a 21st century Igbo community. The burial was hundred percent traditional. It was unheard of, and by all indices, was courting the Christian hell on earth. This paper was written through oral interviews, and the use of primary and secondary sources.

Citation: Okoko C.O., C. Godcan-Eze I.E., and  Oparah O. (2022) Cultural Dualism and Commitment, Rituals and Rites AmongIgbo Societies, 1900 – 2000, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research, Vol.10, No.3, pp.33-52,


Keywords: Christianity, Commitment, Cultural, Modernity, Traditions, rites

Influence of Media Globalization on the Traditions of Igbo People in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State (Published)

This study focused on Influence of Media Globalization on the Traditions of Igbo people: A study of Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Three research questions guided the study. This study has demonstrated that the mass communication students of Ebonyi State are aware of the social media sites and had access to them. Findings also indicated that media globalization is seen as a cultural phenomenon. And that media globalization has a strong influence on the existing cultures of Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The influence of media globalization as observed from the study has both negative and positive impacts. Media globalization as observed from the study manifests greatly in the area of dressing, which is obvious from the way in which most youths in Ohaukwu dress. Worship is another area in which the influence of media globalization manifests. The value system of the people is another choice indicated by the respondents while language and mode of eating were also identified as the manifestation of media globalization in the area. The influence of globalization is exerted on the peoples’ culture mostly from the broadcast media while films and cinemas are other media through which the influence is exerted. Others are music, the print media, ICTs, advertising messages, and educational materials. It was also discovered that contact with all the sources of media globalization existing in the area of study is very often. This fact was attested to by all the sampled respondents. To this end, the researcher recommended that Government as a matter of policy must ensure that there is total orientation and effort at enlightening Nigerians on the need to harness and promote their cultures as well as developing same for economic gains.


Keywords: Ebonyi State, Igbo people, Ohaukwu local government area, Traditions, media globalization

Socio-Cultural Significance of Bonwire Kente and Daboya Benchibi (Published)

Benchibi and Kente are traditional woven fabrics ingeniously crafted with two different design concepts. Benchibi is produced by the people of Daboya in the Northern part of Ghana whilst Kente is a product mainly of the middle and southern part of Ghana with Bonwire as its traditional centre in the middle part of the country. The study aimed at analysing the socio-cultural significance of the two traditions. The study fulcrums on the qualitative research and employed observation and interview. The study analysed the socio-cultural characteristics of the two fabrics traditions, using descriptive method of analysing data. The purposive sampling technique was employed to select eight people, two (2) weavers and two (2) opinion leaders from each of the study area. The research revealed that both woven traditions are embedded with socio-cultural significance that embodies various characteristics such as values, morals, history and philosophies of the areas noted for the production and use of the fabrics. The study revealed that Benchibi and Kente have different beautiful crafted style in terms of weave, designs and materials used, which play very significant roles in the socio-cultural behaviour of the two traditions. The study concluded that both weaving cultures play very distinguished social and cultural roles in the lives of the people of the respective areas. It is therefore recommended that the physical features, aesthetic and artistic components of these weaving traditions need rigorous documentation to help in recording the social and cultural life of the people through fabric weaving.

Keywords: Aesthetics, Benchibi, Kente, Socio-cultural, Traditions

Yearning for Freedom in a Prison without Bars in Two Novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt/ Silence of the Butterflies by Laylā al-ʿUthmān and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī / I Do not Cry Anymore by Zaynab Ḥifnī (Published)

The crisis of freedom that the Gulf woman lives in under a patriarchal male culture that is biased against her and against the Arab woman in general, turns her into a prisoner who lives behind moral bars. Under these circumstances, the Gulf woman’s writing becomes a conflict with the man’s concepts and the patriarchal male mentality of her society. However, by writing, she reveals the issues of her scandalous oppression, and emancipates herself from her shackles. Writing is one of the forms of freedom, through which she regains her voice that has been stolen from her as a woman and a creative artist. This study seeks to reveal the manifestations of oppression that the woman is exposed to in the feminist Gulf literature in two novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt by  Laylā al-ʿUthmān, and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī  by Zaynab Ḥifnī as samples. The study will reveal the woman’s figurative ‘prison’ and ‘jailor’: the prison of society with its norms and traditions, and the prison of the Man and his domination as images of her oppression by marriage, and by the siege of social norms, the culture of silence,  her prevention from choosing her job and her creative freedom. In return, the study will observe the features of her revolution and rebellion against all these figurative “prisons” such as her refusal of the traditional marriage, her resistance by writing, her search for love, and breakage of the sex taboo. The woman manifests herself between the character of the ‘prisoner’ and the ‘rebellious’ woman, between her ‘yearning for freedom’ and her ‘revolt’ against the ‘bars’ in order to realize herself and break the taboos.

Keywords: Females, Freedom, Prison, Society, Traditions, bars, males

Traditions and Social Stratification, Cultural Barriers for Women Empowerment: The Example of Sereer Women in Senegal (Published)

Deeply rooted in their culture, the Sereer Siin community organizes their social gender relations in an absolutely phallocratic mode. In this respect, it is opportune, in this analysis, to put on surface the role and place that traditions have transferred to the woman Sereer Siin in social stratification. It will also be interesting to highlight the intrinsic link between lineage and political, social and economic function among the Sereers Siin community.

Keywords: Enslavement, Lineage, Sereer, Traditions, Woman, phallocratic


The Anglican mission came into Igboland in the last half of the nineteenth century being the first Christian mission to come into Igboland, precisely in 1857, with Onitsha as the first spot of missionary propagation. From Onitsha the mission spread to other parts of Igboland. The process of the spread was no doubt, marked with the demonstration of the power of the Holy Spirit; hence the early CMS missionaries saw the task of evangelizing Igboland as something that could not have been possible without the victory of the Holy Spirit over the demonic forces that occupied Igboland by then. The objective of this paper is to historically investigate the claim that the presence of the Anglican Church in Igboland marked the origin of Pentecostalism among the Igbo. The method employed in this investigation was both analytical and descriptive. It was discovered that the Anglican mission introduced Pentecostalism into Igboland through their charismatic activities long before the churches that claim exclusive Pentecostalism came, about a century later. The only difference is that the original Anglican Pentecostalism was imbued in their Evangelical tradition as opposed to the modern Pentecostalism which is characterized by seemingly excessive emotional and ecstatic tendencies without much biblical anchorage

Keywords: Anglicanism, Evangelicalism, Missionaries, Pentecostalism, Traditions