Tag Archives: Trade

Management of Trade/Entrepreneurship Education n Public Senior Secondary Schools for Smooth Transition Into the World of Works in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated management of trade/entrepreneurship education in public senior secondary schools for smooth transition into the world of works in Rivers State, Nigeria. Four research questions guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population of the study comprised of all the 234 principals in the 234 public secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. The purposive sampling technique was used. A self designed instrument titled Management of Entrepreneurship Education for Smooth Transition into the World of Works Questionnaire (MEESTWWQ) containing 35 items was used for data collection. Face and content validities were ensured by experts.  The internal consistency reliability co-efficient of 0.89 was determined using Conbach Alpha statistics.  Frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. It was found among others that of all the 35 subjects recommended on the FRN, only catering, dyeing/bleaching, data processing and book keeping were taught. It was recommended among others that the inspectors from the Ministry of Education should extend their inspection to subjects in the trade/entrepreneurship centers for smooth transition into the world of works.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Smooth Transition, Trade, World of Works

Is Privatization Correlated with Macroeconomic Management? (Evidence from Some Selected African Countries) (Published)

The study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic management and privatization. Many African countries have embarked on one form of privatization reform or the other since 1980 as one of the stringent conditions for accessing capital from the IMF and the World Bank. Secondly globalization and the gradually integration of the African economy into the global economy also means that Africa has to strategically develop its domestic market to cushion itself from fluctuations and probable contagion associated with global economic crisis that are always inevitable Stiglitz (2000) and Ojeaga P. (2012). The methods of estimation used are the OLS, linear mixed effects (LME), 2SLS and the GMM method of estimation. It was found that macroeconomic management has the capacity to affect the success of the privatization reform process. It was also found that privatization was not promoting growth in Africa.

Keywords: Africa, Game theory, Macroeconomic Management and Privatization, Trade

Slamming the Legal Guillotine on Deceptive Advertising: The Situs of Liability (Published)

This article examines the legal consequences of deceptive advertising with particular attention on who should bear the liability of such deceptive advertising. The primary objective of the study is to show that both the manufacturer who procures an advertising agent and the procured agent will be liable under the Nigerian law. The consumer is mostly motivated to go for a particular product by the persuasive force of an advertisement. Where the advertisement becomes awry, the issue of liability becomes germane. The article demonstrated clearly why the manufacturer and the advertising agent procured for the purpose of disseminating the deceptive advertisement are liable.

Keywords: Deceptive Advertising, Legal Consequences, Market, Trade, liability

Slamming the Legal Guillotine on Deceptive Advertising: The Situs of Liability (Published)

This article examines the legal consequences of deceptive advertising with particular attention on who should bear the liability of such deceptive advertising. The primary objective of the study is to show that both the manufacturer who procures an advertising agent and the procured agent will be liable under the Nigerian law. The consumer is mostly motivated to go for a particular product by the persuasive force of an advertisement. Where the advertisement becomes awry, the issue of liability becomes germane. The article demonstrated clearly why the manufacturer and the advertising agent procured for the purpose of disseminating the deceptive advertisement are liable.

Keywords: Deceptive Advertising, Legal Consequences, Market, Trade, liability

Competition in European Union- Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning Of the European Union, Exemptions and State Aid (Published)

Doing ‘the right thing’ in a profitable way seems to be a trend that is increasingly gaining field among business. This triggers undertakings to innovate, create new technologies and adapt the supply chain management of their production and distribution processes, which often turns out to require costly investments. Moreover, market parties often are forced to operate together with like-minded undertakings. This cooperation has instigated a lot of discussion in the framework to the current European competition law under which the behavior of market parties is scrutinized. Researches show that undertakings attach great importance to the competition policies, however, these are not always as clear and predictable. In this framework this paper, aims to identify the criteria that agreements between undertakings should fulfill in order to be considered as an exemption under Article 101(3) TFEU. In this perspective importance takes also the state-funded aid granted directly by Member States, in cases when it distorts or is likely to distort competition and adversely affects trade between Member States. Results will shed light on the so called grey area, in which these undertakings operates and unsure whether their collective actions are qualified as permissible under Article 101.

Keywords: Antitrust Laws, Block Exemption, Competition, Market Liberalization, State Aid, Trade, Vertical Restraints

CHINA – NIGERIA RELATIONS: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES (Review Completed - Accepted)

The study centred on China- Nigeria Relations. China-Nigeria Relation spans a wide spectrum of areas: politics, trade, investment, aid, technology, science, culture, education, health and military. The growing economic ties between China and Nigeria require detailed analysis to determine the prospects and challenges so as to ascertain the benefits on both sides. Qualitative analysis was the main anchor and its descriptive in nature, drawing largely from secondary sources from analytical standpoint. The prospects are: adequate infrastructure in Nigeria through China’s financial resources will improve investment climate in the country, ability to do quality work at a fast rate, simplification of their access to capital, strengthen infrastructure, revive the agricultural sector, china provide trade not aid, Nigerians could borrow from Chinese character of discipline, purposeful leadership and deliverability, China’s investment focus in agriculture, light industry, machinery, infrastructure, construction, information technology and tourism will be added impetus to Nigerian Economy. Nigeria may gain from technical assistance and scientific cooperation. The Challenges are: Domestic firms may lose as a result of lack of competitiveness, trade imbalance, stifles technological transfer, tax evasion, slave wages, poor working conditions, Economic inequality, uncoordinated leadership and policy. Strong pressure must be placed on Nigerian leaders to effectively balance Chinese engagement to maximize growth and opportunity.

Keywords: China, Economy, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Infrastructure, Nigeria, Relations, Trade

New Trends in the Ahwiaa Wood Carving Industry in Ghana: Implications for Art Education and Socio-Economic Growth (Published)

Asantes in Ghana are noted for their expertise in variety of specialized visual arts such as wood carving. Ahwiaa wood carving industry has developed; though production techniques have remained stereotype. Tools have greatly remained simple, materials the same, variations in form have not changed much and conventional treatment has not promoted creativity and originality, yet some new trends, new approaches are noticeable today. At present, globalization, trade, education, religion, changes in societal values and cultural practices, political and economic challenges, technology, trade (commerce), knowledge explosion have generated new approaches in the Ahwiaa wood carving industry. Besides, no organized documentation has been done on the Ahwiaa wood carving industry, so that the researchers almost always have to rely on oral tradition as a source of information from wood carvers. The researchers employed the qualitative descriptive method to carry out the study. The data were collected using interviews and observation. The researchers found out that the tools used are simple tools made by the local blacksmith which are sharpened and maintained by oiling and storing after use. The main material is wood, formerly acquired by felling special trees from the forest. Today, the log for carving is bought from Timber contractors. The carving of an item follows specific processes, according to tradition. Women were prevented from carving in the past; today women are free to carve if they so wish. The researchers recommend that School of Business, departments of Sculpture and Integrated Rural Art and Industry at KNUST should organize workshops for carvers at Ahwiaa and introduce them to modern wood carving technologies, entrepreneurial skills and business strategies to equip them to promote tourism and socio-economic development of Ghana as well as their personal development

Keywords: Socio-economic development., Technology, Trade, Tradition, Visual Art, Wood Carving