Tag Archives: Trace Metals

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ground Water Sources in Agona District in the Central Region of Ghana. (Published)

This study was done to determine the concentration of trace metals in groundwaters in the Agona East district of the Central region of Ghana. Ground water samples were collected from 3 hand dug wells and 15 boreholes in the study area. All samples were analyzed for seven trace metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al) using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of the trace metals from the various areas range from 0.824 to 0.1.122 mg/L for Cu; 0.116 to 0.312 mg/L for Zn; <0.002 to 0.364 mg/L for Cr; <0.006 to 0.065 mg/L for Mn; 0.156 to 1.236 mg/L for Fe; <0.002 to 0.028 mg/L for Cd and 1.44 to 3.188 mg/L for Al. Four of the trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cd) had their concentrations within the WHO standards for drinking water. Aluminium, Iron and chromium had their values above the WHO limits at most of the sampling sites.

Keywords: Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Concentration, Groundwater, Toxicity, Trace Metals

Distribution of Trace Metals in the Coastal Waters of Caspian Sea, Baku, Azerbaijan (Published)

In 2015, dissolved As, Cu and Pb levels were measured for the winter and summer seasons in the coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan. Ten stations were sampled around the vicinity areas of the Hovsan channel and Hovsan WWTP discharge outfall, while control samples were obtained 3 km away from the effluent. Levels of heavy metals were assessed using ICP-MS. Due to the rapid dilution, the concentrations of trace metals increased from coastal to seaward stations. High values of As and Pb were recorded in the Hovsan channel area and control zone in summer, while in winter it was constant high for both area. The hot spot area for Cu was observed in the Hovsan channel site in winter. Heavy metals and solids were generally considerably deleterious at discharge area. The high levels and behavior of the metals were assessed, and it is therefore, correlated to salinity, nitrites and ammonium. Moreover, As and Cu appear to co-vary more with Ammonium and Nitrite ions in the control area for the winter samples compared to the summer samples.

Keywords: Arsenic, Caspian Sea, Coastal Pollution, Copper, Lead, Trace Metals

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ground Water Sources in Agona District in the Central Region of Ghana (Published)

This study was done to determine the concentration of trace metals in groundwaters in the Agona East district of the Central region of Ghana. Ground water samples were collected from 3 hand dug wells and 15 boreholes in the study area. All samples were analyzed for seven trace metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al) using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of the trace metals from the various areas range from 0.824 to 0.1.122 mg/L for Cu; 0.116 to 0.312 mg/L for Zn; <0.002 to 0.364 mg/L for Cr; <0.006 to 0.065 mg/L for Mn; 0.156 to 1.236 mg/L for Fe; <0.002 to 0.028 mg/L for Cd and 1.44 to 3.188 mg/L for Al. Four of the trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cd) had their concentrations within the WHO standards for drinking water. Aluminium, Iron and chromium had their values above the WHO limits at most of the sampling sites.

Keywords: Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Concentration, Groundwater, Toxicity, Trace Metals

The Quality and Characteristics of Cotton and Sunflower Oil Bleached Using Clays from Iliri, In North Eastern Uganda (Published)

Bleaching is known to alter the composition of edible oils as it removes impurities and certain food nutrients.  The characteristics of bleached oil are strongly related to type bleaching medium, temperature at which bleaching is done and other factors. In this study we compare peroxide, free fatty acid, acid and iodine values, copper and iron content of bleached and crude oils to establish the quality and characteristics of cotton and sunflower oils bleached using clays from Iliri. A known mass of bleached oil (0.2 g) digested in the perchloric-nitric-hydrofluoric acid mixture (3.0 mL) then with distilled water as aspirated to atomic absorption spectrophotometer Shimadzu-AA-6200 and absorbance of copper recorded at 324.8 nm. Similarly, another oil portion was treated, aspirated and absorbance of iron was determined at 478 nm when ammonium thiocyanate had been added.  Oil dissolved in ethanoic acid-chloroform-water- potassium iodide-starch indicator was titrated with sodium thiosulphate to obtain peroxide value of oil. And oil dissolved in butan-1-ol was titrated with ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution to get acid and free fatty acid values.   The percentage decrease in copper content was higher than for iron.  The content of iron in cotton oil decreased by 66.4 % when bleached with iliri clay leached in 30% hydrochloric or sulfuric acids yet that in sunflower fell by 62.9 and 60.0% when respectively bleached in 30% hydrochloric and sulfuric acid.  The content of copper in cotton oil decreased by 82.5 % when bleached with Iliri clay leached in 30% hydrochloric acid and 85.0% for 30% sulfuric acid leached clay.  That in sunflower fell by 73.3% when bleached with clay leached 30% hydrochloric acid and 83.3% when bleached with 30% sulfuric acid.  The acid values showed that the acidity in sunflower oils is largely due to oleic acid, cotton-seed oil corresponded to linoleic acid.  The levels of free fatty acid were found to lie in range from 3.8-3.2 for all clays used showing no significant rise. The peroxide values of bleached oils lay between 1.2 and 0.8. The bleached oils were found to be fit for human use because the quality was high.

Keywords: Acid, Bleached Oil, Clays, Iodine Values, Peroxide, Trace Metals

Proximate and Elemental Analysis of Some Nigerian Coal Deposits (Published)

Studies were carried  out on the proximate and elemental contents of coal deposits in three Nigerian States (Enugu, Benue and Delta) employing standard laboratory procedures and instrumentation. The fixed carbon and ash contents of Benue and Enugu coal samples deposits were found higher than Delta coal deposits. Heavy metals like arsenic, lead and cadmium were present at higher concentrations in Delta coal sample deposits than in the other coal sample deposits studied. Trace mineral contents of Enugu coal deposits were found to be higher than others implying that it is of higher economic value.

Keywords: Coal Deposits., Heavy Metals, Trace Metals