Tag Archives: Toxicity

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ground Water Sources in Agona District in the Central Region of Ghana. (Published)

This study was done to determine the concentration of trace metals in groundwaters in the Agona East district of the Central region of Ghana. Ground water samples were collected from 3 hand dug wells and 15 boreholes in the study area. All samples were analyzed for seven trace metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al) using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of the trace metals from the various areas range from 0.824 to 0.1.122 mg/L for Cu; 0.116 to 0.312 mg/L for Zn; <0.002 to 0.364 mg/L for Cr; <0.006 to 0.065 mg/L for Mn; 0.156 to 1.236 mg/L for Fe; <0.002 to 0.028 mg/L for Cd and 1.44 to 3.188 mg/L for Al. Four of the trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cd) had their concentrations within the WHO standards for drinking water. Aluminium, Iron and chromium had their values above the WHO limits at most of the sampling sites.

Keywords: Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Concentration, Groundwater, Toxicity, Trace Metals

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Ground Water Sources in Agona District in the Central Region of Ghana (Published)

This study was done to determine the concentration of trace metals in groundwaters in the Agona East district of the Central region of Ghana. Ground water samples were collected from 3 hand dug wells and 15 boreholes in the study area. All samples were analyzed for seven trace metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cd, Al) using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The concentrations of the trace metals from the various areas range from 0.824 to 0.1.122 mg/L for Cu; 0.116 to 0.312 mg/L for Zn; <0.002 to 0.364 mg/L for Cr; <0.006 to 0.065 mg/L for Mn; 0.156 to 1.236 mg/L for Fe; <0.002 to 0.028 mg/L for Cd and 1.44 to 3.188 mg/L for Al. Four of the trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Cd) had their concentrations within the WHO standards for drinking water. Aluminium, Iron and chromium had their values above the WHO limits at most of the sampling sites.

Keywords: Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), Concentration, Groundwater, Toxicity, Trace Metals

Determination of Acute Toxicity and Effects of Dried Carpel of Annona Senegalensis Extract On Alkaline Phosphatase, Amino Transferases and Body Weight in Mice (Published)

Annona senegalensis is an evergreen shrub that is used for ethnomedicinal purposes and as a source of food. The toxicological potential of dried carpels of Annona senegalensis was investigated by determining the acute toxicity and the effect of the plant extract on body weight, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum level. Cold methanolic extract of the plant was concentrated using steam bath. Acute toxicity testing was carried out to determine LD50. While sub chronic toxicity screening was conducted on the animals grouped in to 3 test groups and a control group comprising of 12 animals per group treated with 100, 300, 500 mg/kg concentrations of the extract and distilled water, respectively. The body weights of the animals were taken at regular intervals and their serum analysed weekly to ascertain the biochemical activities of ALP, ALT and AST. The LD50 of the extract indicated a very high safety profile with no mortality. There was no significant (P ˃ 0.05) difference in the weights of the animals after treatment except for 500 mg/kg which exhibited a significant (P ˂ 0.05) decrease from day 8 up to day 23. Generally, there was a significant increase in the serum level of ALP and ALT with respect to time and concentration in the test groups except for AST which showed a concentration dependent decrease. However, the control had the highest serum level of the analyzed enzymes which were significantly (P˂0.05) higher than the test groups. The result concludes that dried carpels of A.senegalensis possess no significant toxic effects which justifies why the local dwellers in northern Nigeria have been utilizing it as part of their foodstuff without obvious complaints or toxicity. The consumption dried carpels of Annona senegalensis as part of their food stuff for its hepatoprotective property and hypolipidemic effect should be encouraged.

Keywords: Annona Senegalensis, Carpels, Enzymes, Methanolic Extract, Toxicity

Catalogue of the Medicinal Plants Used In the Treatment of Urinary Infections in the Area of Al-Haouz Rhamna (Central Morocco) (Published)

In the framework of the ethnobotanical studies on medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in the treatment of urinary infections(pyelonephritis, cystitis and urethritis) and to better knowledge of these plants, we are interested in the area of Al Haouz-Rhamna (central Morocco) which presents a rather important floristic richness due to varied climatic and ecological factors. The ethnobotanical surveys, based on 1700 interviews, were conducted during two periods in 2012 and 2013, among actors of the traditional medicine and the population of this region. This study led to identify and establish a catalog of 135 plant species are distributed between 106 genera and 50 families, with important predominance: Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Fabacea. A total of 135 plants, 35 species were reported as the most efficient plants against urinary tract infections and 30 species were shown to be toxic. En the more, it is important to note that the majority of users of medicinal plants have limited knowledge in the field of traditional medicines and are unable to distinguish between the following urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis, cystitis and urethritis. Similarly, the majority of the recipes used in the treatment of urinary tract infections is presented in association with two or more species and are prepared as decoction (55.81%) from different parts of medicinal plants. The information reported by this study could be a very valuable source of information for the study area and may also be a synthetic approach that can form the basis for phytochemists and pharmacologists interested in research on plants used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and as a base for future generations.

Keywords: Al Haouz-Rehamna, Pharmacology, Phytotherapy, Toxicity, Traditional Medicine, Urinary Infections.