The COVID 19 Global Pandemic: A Panacea for Diversifying to Hospitality and Tourism in Nigeria (Published)
The COVID 19 global pandemic has provided Nations another opportunity to look inwards on the development and expansion of its economic activities and growth! The hospitality and tourism industry has proven to be one of the most valid sectors for diversification of economic activities in Nigeria, considering the continuous dropping of crude price in the international market, and the fast growing demand on the bio-fuel products in the world today! The researchers are of the opinion that developing the hospitality and tourism in Nigeria is one of the most viable options to continuously increase the Nations GDP! The realistic test and interviews were conducted and presented in simple percentage table, and graphs were also deployed to show the reliability of the test! It was concluded that hospitality and tourism still remain the most viable economic activity and sector that will always stand the challenges of time, if properly developed! And was recommended that the government and agencies in charge of tourism and hospitality should fully divert its attention to the development of the hospitality and tourism sector in Nigeria
Tourism Service Quality Affecting the Satisfaction of Foreign Tourists: A Case Study Of Ho Chi Minh City (Published)
In recent years, there is competition among tourist destinations that has been very drastically. This competition of service quality has forced destinations to restructure to increase their competitive and to attract tourists. Therefore, the study goal is to find out the determinants affecting the satisfaction of foreign tourists in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC). The researchers surveyed 600 foreign tourists who are visiting HCMC destinations and answered 29 questions but sample size of 565 samples processed. The data collected from June 2019 to December 2019 in HCMC. Simple random sampling technique. Cronbach’s Alpha and the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) analyzed and used for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique. Foreign tourists’ responses measured through an adapted questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale. Finally, the finding of the study has tourism service quality factor which affecting the satisfaction of foreign tourists in HCMC with significance level 0.01.
Community Management Institutions: A Strategic Approach for Common-Pool Resource Preservation and Tourism Sustainability (Published)
The abundance of common-pool resources on a territory, at zero cost, opens the appetite for egoists to abuse their utilization. Tourism, that is based on the exploitation of local resources, participates in their degradation over time. Hence, the necessity to control the access to these resource, a responsibility allocated usually to local authorities. However, experience has shown that the participation of communities in the management of common-pool resources leads to resource preservation, especially in small communities characterized by a strong social capital. This article aims to suggest community management institutions as an effective strategy to maintain common-pool resources and the well-being of the community, taking into consideration, their ability to create faith in the community what facilitates the internalization of community norms, enhances the self-control and increases the chances for local resources preservation. The effectiveness of common management institutions is illustrated by the case of Faqra in Lebanon.
The vision of tourist guides to the profession of tourism in terms of economic in Jordan (Published)
The study aims to know the direction of the prosecution’s tour to the professional guide of tourism from an economic and in Jordan. Hence the study to see the look of the prosecution’s tour to the professional guide of tourism from an economic and in Jordan and you can develop this skill in the future because of their essential role in the process of Tourism. The study found a range of results, the most important being that there is a significant relationship between seeing the prosecution’s tour to the professional guide of tourism from an economic and in Jordan and job and monthly income, the study recommended a set of recommendations the most important stakeholders work to improve the economic reality of the counseling profession tourist disbursement of bonuses For be suitable for its work, and to encourage the tourist guide the amount, the need to actually improve job skills of tourist guides, and facilitate the work of the tourist guide.
The aim of the research is to develop a vision for the professional work of the workers in the tourism sector and highlight their problems with tourists. A number of controls work to regulate the behavior of workers in the tourism sector, taking into account the traditions and customs of the profession. Some negative behaviors may occur from some workers in the tourism sector due to some misconduct of some tourists The study is conducted on the employees of tourism, and distributed 150 questionnaires, of which (130) returned a questionnaire It was excluded (30) questionnaires, so relied on (100). The study found a number of results, the most important of which are problems between the workers in tourism and tourists due to the gender variable, and there are problems between the workers in tourism and tourists due to the variable age. The study recommended the following: To spread tourism awareness among the tourism workers with the importance of developing a language and career development by organizing lectures, seminars, conferences, institutions, governmental and non-governmental bodies. Providing tourist training courses for all employees in tourism and giving them courses in different languages in cooperation with colleges and institutes of tourism and hotels
Up-grading and Enhancing Sustainable Linkages of Rwanda’s Tourism Value Chains: Opportunities and Bottlenecks (Published)
The Rwandan government’s Economic Development and Poverty Reduction S4trategy II (EDPRS 2, 2013-2018) highlights enhancement of connectivity and linkages within the country’s economy as one of the priority areas for economic transformation. In the highlights, emphasis is put on the need for deepening the integration of key value chains of the economy. After a comprehensive analysis of Rwanda’s global competitiveness, tourism was identified as one of the key sectors that would spur economic development in the country. Important as it is, however, the linkage of this sector to the rest of the economy was found to be weak and hence compromises on its ability to deliver on certain targets as expected. This paper thus identifies opportunities as well as the bottlenecks within tourism value chains in Rwanda and recommends possible solutions. A questionnaire survey was used to obtain data related to visitor expenditure, targeting visitors at land border points and Kigali International airport. Focus group discussions were also conducted in gathering data on value chains analysis and identification of intervention programs that would remove any bottlenecks in the system.
Domestic Tourism: Untapped Opportunities for Sāmoa (With Special Reference to Accommodation Providers) (Published)
Tourism is both a key contributor to the economy of Sāmoa and the leading source of foreign exchange. The seasonal nature of tourism is particularly detrimental to the accommodation sector. In many countries, the development of domestic tourism is actively promoted as it plays a vital part in tourism sustainability. Sāmoa however, like many other countries appear to be overlooking the potentials of domestic tourism in their development and tourism strategies. The present study uses secondary data and case studies to examine the advantages and opportunities created by domestic tourism. Secondary data found that the key areas of focus highlighted in the Strategy for the Development of Sāmoa SDS) 2005-2007, 2008-2012, Sāmoa Tourism Development Plan (STDP) 2009-2013, Sāmoa Tourism Sector Plan (STSP) 2014-2019, and Sāmoa Tourism Strategic Marketing Plan (STSMP) 2014-2019, indicate that domestic tourism development is not a key focus of tourism development. Using Talanoa research method (TRM), primary data was collected from 20 stakeholders in the tourism industry. Using Thematic Analysis, it was found that there were a mixture of views for and against the development of domestic tourism in Sāmoa.
Cantho City is at the center of the Mekong Delta, one of the leading localities in the region to attract domestic and foreign tourists, especially since Cantho became a centrally-run city. Infrastructure and tourism facilities are upgraded and more and more complete. According to statistics, 70% of visitors to Cantho visited the water garden, floating markets Cai Rang and Phong Dien. Besides, tourists are combining visits to the garden, the village and experience the type of home-stay tourism in the vicinity. The researchers surveyed 500 tourists in Cantho City. The surveying time is from 7/2017 to 2/2018. Data processed by SPSS 20.0. The research results showed there are three key factors affecting Cantho tourism development with level significance 5 percent. Based on the research result, the researchers had solutions contributed to the sustainable tourism development.
In recent years, Cantho tourism is on the rise, the number of international tourists as well as domestic tourists increasing quickly. Cantho tourism is becoming more and more known in the world, many destinations in the Can tho are voted as the favorite destination of international tourists such as Ninh Kieu, Cai Rang… Cantho tourism is increasingly receiving the attention of the whole society. The quality and competitiveness of tourism in Cantho city are issues that receive a lot of attention and discussion. A multi-dimensional approach is to assessing tourism quality that will contribute to the formation of sound solutions to improve the quality and competitiveness of tourism in Cantho City. Therefore, the researchers want to find out the key factors affecting Cantho tourism development. Data surveyed 500 tourists in Cantho City. The surveying time is from 7/2017 to 2/2018. Data processed by SPSS 20.0 and method used by the multiple linear regression analysis. The research results showed there are three key factors affecting Cantho tourism development with level significance 5 percent.
Tourism as Factor for the Presence and Continuation of Harm Full Traditional Practices in Hamer Community, Ethiopia (Published)
The main objective of this research is to examine whether tourism is key factor for the presence and continuation of HTP in Hamer. In order to collect necessary data, structural interview survey with local people, informant in-depth interview and focus group discussion were conducted. Data collected from local people through interview was entered into SPSS version 20 and then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square test and binomial tests. Data collected through focus group discussion and in depth interview were analyzed using descriptive, explanatory and narrative methods of qualitative data analysis techniques. The finding shows that out of the three most prevalent HTP, Whipping of women (as part of the bull jumping ceremony) was found to be directly influenced by tourism. Chi-square analysis shows that there was no significance difference between the supporter and opponent of continuation of the practice of whipping among Hamers. Local peoples, local government, local associations, private hospitality and tourism sectors have gained economic benefit from tourism. Majority of local people constituting 90 percent practiced bull jumping and evangadi dance primarily for non-tourism related purpose. 67.5 percent local people believed that tourist could visit their village in the absence of bull jumping and evangadi dance. Informant and deductive analysis shows tourism is factor for the continuation and practice of whipping in Hamer community. Therefore, special attention should be given to whipping besides to teaching females of the community
Pitfalls of Tourism Development in Ethiopia: A Case of Bahir Dar Town and Its Surroundings, a Historical Perspective (Published)
The history of tourism is one of the neglected themes in Ethiopian history which has received less scholarly attention. In Ethiopia, the development of modern tourism as an important economic sector traced back to the imperial regime. This was when the Ethiopian Tourist Organization (ETO) was founded in 1961. Since that period, until the overthrow of the regime in 1974, the development of tourism has shown a remarkable and smooth upward trend in the arrival of tourists. However, shortly after the military government assumed power in 1974, the growth of tourism was highly subjected to adverse political and socio-economic crises. This became evident when the tourism sector experienced a downward trend in its history, whereby the number of tourists steadily decreased from 1,267 in 1974 to 141 in 1977 in Bahir Dar and its surroundings and from 50,220 to 28,984 in 1977 at the national level. However, the seizure of power by a new government in 1991 brought about a relatively conducive environment for the growth of tourism which is evident in the adoption of free market, relative stability, and infrastructural development. Thus, this paper sheds light on the history of tourism and its challenges throughout the three consecutive Ethiopian regimes: the imperial, Derg, and EPRDF. This was done in the context of the changing political regimes in light of the political, economic, and ideological shifts. In order to realize the intended objectives, primary sources of information were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with tourists, experts, hotel managers, and tour guides. In addition, government reports from published and un-published sources were also consulted.
Regulating access to common resources and organizing their exploitation is, usually, the responsibility of local authorities and the object of local governance. However, in ski resorts, participating the private sector in territorial management could have a better impact on resource preservation due to the seasonality of ski dynamism and its impact on network efficacy. This article aims to study the concept of local network governance and to examine its influence on sustainable development. The effectiveness of this governance is illustrated by the case of Mzaar ski-resort in Lebanon.
City Branding: Exploring the Brand “Beirut” As a Tourism Destination in the British Market (Published)
In this study, the Beirut brand is evaluated in the context of British consumers. Tourism and Destination Branding Tool was used in determining the questionnaire. Accordingly, questionnaire was designed and distributed to randomly chosen 383 British people. Sample size was achieved through using sample size calculator over the internet. However, only 100 questionnaires were totally filled by the participants and therefore, only those were included in the analysis. Descriptive statistics were used just as it is used in STCRC study. In this perspective tourists’ general expectations from the short and long term holidays were determined and compared with the results of experience gained in Beirut. Findings showed that British people mostly look for fun and entertaining places which also have a good accommodation. In long holidays they also look for good restaurants and sport facilities. Nevertheless, Beirut is found by them as far below compare to their expectations. In fact, they were not satisfied with their stays in Beirut and not willing to come back to the city in the future. This result also showed itself in the drop of the tourist coming to the city. In this context number of preventive measures should be taken by the government urgently to correct this situation.
This paper examines the role of brochures and allied printed materials for tourists, in terms of determining their chosen destinations and also, deciding upon activities to engage in at these destination sites. Data was collected during 2016; we examined 1,560 responses of hospitality professionals at multiple locations in the United States, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland and Greece. The key finding is that the role of brochures and printed material still play a significant role in tourists’ choices, and has not been adequately replaced by the Internet, kiosks, or other “more modern” marketing/promotional channels.
The Effect of Syrian War on French People’s Decision to Travel to Lebanon: Remedy through Branding (Published)
The aim of this study was to find out the effects of War in Syria on the decision of French people to travel to Lebanon. Based on a survey, the study findings showed that people in France are aware of the Syrian War as well as the subsequent occurring refugee crisis. The war and refugee crisis are highly affecting their decisions to travel not only to Lebanon but also to other Middle East countries such as Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Jordan. Demographic characteristics of the people play as well an imperative role on their decisions to travel to Lebanon. Branding Lebanon as a tourist destination based on the attributes that influence French travellers can be a fundamental part of the remedy
Compliance of Basic Standard of Home-Stay in Nepal (Published)
The concept of tourism is explained in Sanskrit literature also which denotes the meaning of tourism as: going out from house for pleasure and knowledge, going out of the country for economic gain and going out to places for religious purposes. Home-stay is the newly emerged concept of tourism which promotes the rural tourism. Home-stay is one source of income for rural people. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the compliance of basic standard of home-stay in Nepal. The study was conducted in Ghale-Gaun of Lamjung district, Amaltari of Nawalparasi district and Pathra of Tanahu district of Nepal. Purposively sampling technique was used to select the households. Total 102 home-stay entities were selected from the three districts. The study found good compliance of basic standards of home-stay in Nepal. Nawalparasi district has adopted all criteria of compliance than other two districts. The study calculated the total value and found the total compliance of standard of home-stay as prescribed by the Nepal government. The data shows that 86%, 100% and 89% home-stay of Lamjung, Nawalparasi and Tanahu districts respectively adopted the standard of home-stay prescribed by the Government of Nepal. There was need of commitment from home-stay operators as well as monitoring from the concerned authority to ensure the quality service of home-stay.
Tourism as Factor for the Presence and Continuation of Harm Full Traditional Practices in Hamer Community, Ethiopia (Published)
The main objective of this research is to examine whether tourism is key factor for the presence and continuation of HTP in Hamer. In order to collect necessary data, structural interview survey with local people, informant in-depth interview and focus group discussion were conducted. Data collected from local people through interview was entered into SPSS version 20 and then analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, chi-square test and binomial tests. Data collected through focus group discussion and in depth interview were analyzed using descriptive, explanatory and narrative methods of qualitative data analysis techniques. The finding shows that out of the three most prevalent HTP, Whipping of women (as part of the bull jumping ceremony) was found to be directly influenced by tourism. Chi-square analysis shows that there was no significance difference between the supporter and opponent of continuation of the practice of whipping among Hamers. Local peoples, local government, local associations, private hospitality and tourism sectors have gained economic benefit from tourism. Majority of local people constituting 90 percent practiced bull jumping and evangadi dance primarily for non-tourism related purpose. 67.5 percent local people believed that tourist could visit their village in the absence of bull jumping and evangadi dance. Informant and deductive analysis shows tourism is factor for the continuation and practice of whipping in Hamer community. Therefore, special attention should be given to whipping besides to teaching females of the community.
Sustainable Tourism Practice; a Panacea for Reviving Bilikisu-Sugbon Tourist Attraction and Reducing Poverty in Oke-Eri, Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigates the current status of the Bilikisu Sugbon tourist attraction in Oke-Eri, Via Ijebu-Ode-Ibadan Express way, Ogun State, Nigeria. It also assess the standard of living of the residents of the Oke-Eri community. The attraction, haven received lots of attention from scholars in archaeology and other disciplines, and also government of Ogun State in the past with the goal of making it a befitting tourist destination has remained in a poor state.A survey was conducted to gather information on the current status of the tourist site. Random sampling technique was used to select 100 local residents of the community and 50 tourists during the 2015 Christmas celebration and another 50 during the 2016 Eid’L Fitri Festival celebration, and questionnaires were administered to them accordingly. Also, purposive sampling method was used to select specific people and groups in the community for personal interview and focus group discussion respectively. Key informant interview method was also used to gather information from three community chiefs and two management staff of the Ogun State Tourism Board. Data gathered were subjected to analysis and presented using frequency counts, simple percentile, charts, chi square.Findings of the study revealed that, the economic activity in Oke-Eri is very low (P<0.05) and there is a high level of poverty in the community despite the tourism potentials present there. It was found that, reviving the Bilikisu-Sungbo tourist site would help in reducing poverty and enhance the socio-economic status the community (P<0.05). The study also revealed that what led to the dilapidation of the attraction after it was earlier developed by the Ogun State Government in the early 1980s was political instability and lack of sustainable development practice. The study concludes that, there is urgent need for the Ogun State government to be committed to the reconstruction of the Bilikisu-Sugbon tourist site in Oke-Eri either through direct investment or encouraging public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative, in order, to redeem the image of the attraction, foster socio-economic growth of the community and reduce poverty in the community. The study therefore recommends that there must be a sustainable master plan in place, public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative should be considered and the local community should be actively involved in the reconstruction process and management of the attraction when re-opened to the general public as a tourist site as part of requirements for ensuring sustainability.
Marketing Activities and Perceptions towards Domestic Tourism and Domestic Tourists (A Case Of Accommodation Providers In Sāmoa) (Published)
Effective Marketing strategies and techniques have contributed to the competitive survival and development of many tourism operators worldwide. Given Sāmoa’s geographic isolation as a holiday destination, marketing activities should aim to target both international and domestic tourists. However, the Sāmoan Government tends to focus predominantly on the promotion of international tourism. Domestic tourism and travel by local tourists is an area neglected by some tourism operators and domestic marketing and promotional activities are limited. This paper presents the results of a small scale study designed to investigate marketing activities, perceptions towards domestic tourism and the idea of locals as tourists from the view point of operators in the Accommodation Sector. Convenience Sampling identified a sample of 50 Accommodation providers for the study. The percentage method analysis confirms the existence of marketing activities. In spite of this, existing marketing activities are primarily designed to target international tourists. Talanoa Research Method (TRM) was used to conduct in-depth interviews. Thematic Analysis highlighted some interest among operators to invest in marketing activities however financial constraints, high preference for international tourists and personal motives limited interest and investment in marketing activities to target local tourists
Post-Ebola Financial Analysis of the Economic Fortunes of the Tourism/Hospitality Sub-Sector in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study was a post-Ebola analysis of the impact of the dreaded disease (Ebola) on the tourism and hospitality industry, with particular reference to Eateries, Hotels, Guest Houses and allied businesses in Cross River State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to determine the extent of the scare on consumption of the tourism/hospitality industry’s goods and services resulting from the outbreak of the Ebola virus crisis. The goods and services in focus include forest products which were vulnerable to contamination by primary carriers of Ebola disease, while the services include bed spaces, which constitute essential demands of tourists. The trades most affected were hunting, eateries, forest products (including bush meat), etc. Survey design was adopted in the study. The data gathered were statistically analysed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Results indicate that: the financial viability of forest products (including local bush meat) and other allied businesses are still significant; and the profitability of tourism/hospitality businesses in Cross River State, Nigeria, still significant, especially after the World Health Organization (WHO) had issued a “No-Ebola” certification on Nigeria. The study is concluded by recommending proper education for operators in the tourism/hospitality sub-sector whose products and services were the most vulnerable during the Ebola crisis, on the need to switch to alternative businesses that will preserve the eco-system in compliance with the pursuit of the global Green-House Gas emission minimization.