This research work studied the effect of capital structure on earnings per shares of listed conglomerate firms in Nigeria. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of between Capital Structure and Earnings per Share of Conglomerate Firms in Nigeria. The secondary data are obtained from annual reports of companies, relevant literatures and Nigerian Stock Exchange Fact Books. The multiple regression analysis i.e Ordinary least square (OLS) was used to test the relationship between Capital Structure Indicators; Ratio of Total Debt to Equity (TDE), Ratio of Short Term Debt to Total Assets (STDTA) and Ratio of Long term Debt to Total Assets (LTDTA) and Firms’ financial performance indicator; Earnings per Shares (EPS). The result shows that all Capital Structure indicators have significant impact on the performance of firms. The study concluded that a well configured capital structure management function plays a vital role on the level of profitability of the conglomerate firms. The study then recommends that Nigerian firms should try to match their high market performance with real activities that can help make the market performance reflect on their internal growth and accounting performance.