Effects of Tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum L.) seedlings root dip in Shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) bark extracts on root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) infestation and tomato yield in Adamawa, Nigeria (Published)
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne javanica) have been established to cause serious yield loss to crops worldwide and that of tomato in particular. Their control or management has been a problem lowered chemical control though successful are harmful to environment and human health and they are also costly to the resource poor farmers in Nigeria. Therefore, an experiment was set up to determine the efficacy of plant extracts which are easily broken down and could be less costly. A field experiment was conducted to test the efficacy of bark extracts of shea butter (Vitellaria paradoxa) on Meloidogyne javanica infestation on tomato using seedling root dips. The field experiments were laid out in a split plot design at Loko and Mayo Belwa locations, the two factors were concentration and time of exposure, four different concentrations (control, 10, 30 and 60%) and four different exposure periods (5, 15, 30 and 60 mins) making sixteen treatments replicated three times. Concentrations were assigned to main plot while exposure period allocated to subplots. Data were taken from the two locations on number of flowers, number of fruits, cumulative fruits weight (g), number of nematodes in 100g of soil and number of nematodes in 10g of roots. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and means were separated with Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5% level of probability. The results of the field experiment at both Loko and Mayo Belwa location, showed that the root dip with 60% concentration exposed for 60 minutes in shea butter bark extracts recorded the highest number of flowers/plant 61.25 and 53.50 for concentration, 47.92 and 43.92 for duration at Loko and Mayo Belwa respectively. Number of fruits/plant 24.41 and 21.58 concentration and 17.33 and 15.08 duration, heaviest cumulative fruit weight/plant 2671.7 and 2461.6g concentration and 2320.3 and 2094.4g duration, nematode population in 100g of soil 372.4 and 461.3 concentration and (678.8 and 786.8 duration) and nematode population in 10g of roots/plant 124.2 and 189.9 concentration and 363.5 and 469.8 duration) at Loko and Mayo Belwa respectively. In conclusion, this study showed that V. paradoxa bark extracts was able to control M. javanica in the field as root dip. Therefore, this plant material has the potentials of replacing the environmental unfriendly and harmful nematicides found in the market today.
Using tomato to assess the bio-productivity of two different ecosystems in four different land slopes (Published)
Unplanned agricultural activities characteristic of Nigerian agricultural system and southeast in particular strongly exposed the watersheds to adverse climatic conditions and consequently reduce their productivity. The bio productivity of two different ecosystems in four different land slopes using tomato as a test crop were evaluated in Amawbia southeast, Nigerian. An experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) were conducted on four slopes of the watershed, while complete randomized design (CRD) were used for the pot experiment carried out on the soil of the two management systems (managed and unmanaged ) and NPK at the rate of 150kg/ha with three replicates. The data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and significant mean differences were detected using the least significant difference (LSD). The findings from the study showed that plain (slope 4) recorded the highest value in the parameters assessed. Values increased as slope gradients decreased in both managed and unmanaged system as well as natural environment and NPK results. In managed plots, natural environment of the four slopes studied significantly increased growth and yield component of tomato than the unmanaged plots. Slope four (plain) of the unmanaged plots were found to have recorded statistically similar result with the managed plots in all the parameters assessed except for the plant height, stem girth and the dry weight of tomato respectively.
The Effect of Two Biofertilizers under Two Crop Combination on Microbial Population and Early Plant Growth in Sandy Loam Soil (Published)
Biofertilizers are becoming increasingly popular in many countries and for many crops, but very few studies on their microbial population and early plant growth in sandy loam soil have been conducted. Therefore, this research evaluated two different biofertilizers: treated Ageratum spp. and Crotoloria spp. in the Soil Science Department Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam Anambra State, Nigeria during 2016 cropping seasons in the growth shelter of the Faculty of Agriculture, using two different test crops (Moringa and Tomato) which was laid out in complete randomized block (CRD). The experiments were conducted in pots with dimension of 17cm × 19cm in length and depth in which the bottoms were uniformly perforated for proper aeration. 10 seeds were planted after which 8 seedlings were thinned down 10 DAP, later, the remaining 2seedlings were harvested 60 DAP to evaluate the biomass production in each stage respectively. Significant biomass and soil microbial population increase due to biofertilizer use were observed in all experimental treatments. The biofertilizer effect on moringa and tomato growth did not significantly differ. Nevertheless, positive effects of the biofertilizers occurred on the biological properties. However, the trends in these results seem to indicate that biofertilizers might be most helpful in rainfed environments. However, for use in these target environments, biofertilizers need to be evaluated under conditions with abiotic stresses typical of such systems such as drought, soil acidity, or low soil fertility.
Effect of Organic (Cow Dung Slurry) and Inorganic (N: P: K 15:15:15) Fertilizer on the Growth and Yield of Tomato (Lycopersicon Lycopersicum) in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria (Published)
A pot experiment was conducted in April 2018 in faculty of Agriculture, Kogi state university, Anyigba. The experiment was laid in a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments in four replications and results obtained were subjected to analysis using ANOVA and means were separated at 5% level of probability using Fisher Least Significant Difference Test. The treatment consisted of a control (T0), 2 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T1), 4 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T2), 6 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T3), 8 tonnes/ha of cow dung slurry + 50 kg/ha of NPK 15:15:15 fertilizer (T4).Data were collected on plant height, number of leaves, stem girth, number of branches, number of fruit per plant, and fruit diameter respectively. It was observed that the organic and inorganic manure used increased the soil physical-chemical properties as well as the performance parameters of the test crop (Tomato). Recommendation was made at the rate of 6t/ha of cow dung slurry +50kg of NPK 15:15:15 (T4) for optimum yield and performance of tomato.
Effect of Neem Seed Cake and Inorganic Fertilizer on Yield of Tomato and Soil Properties in Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria (Published)
Field trials were conducted at the Institute for Agricultural Research Irrigation Farm, Samaru Zaria, in the northern Guinea savanna ecological zone of Nigeria in 2009/2010, 2010/2011 dry seasons to study the integrated effect of neem seed cake and inorganic fertilizer on tomato. The treatments consisted of three levels of NSC (0, 2 and 4 t ha-1) and four levels of inorganic fertilizer (0, ¼, ½ and Full Fertilizer recommended Rate (FFR, NPK 15:15:15) for tomato in northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Mean fruit weight and fruit yield were determined. Matured ripe fruits were analyzed for biochemical properties such as reducing sugars, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid and titratable acidity. Effect of treatments on soil properties were also determined by analyzing the treated soils after harvest. Results obtained showed that tomato responded positively to the treatments. Highest fruit yield of 14.54 and 19.70 t/ha were obtained from 2tons/ha neem seed cake + ½ Fertilizer rate in 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 respectively. Although the effect of complementary application of NSC and inorganic fertilizer on tomato was not significant among the treatments of such combinations, highest fruit yield increase over the control were 103.1% and197% for 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 respectively. Effects of treatments on ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total soluble solids and reducing sugars were not significant. The concentrations of plant tissue N, P and K were higher than the control at the end of second year of experiment. In the first year of trial pH (H2O) varied from 6.2 to 6.7, whereas in the second year, it varied from 6.1 to 6.3. The values of soil OC and N increased over the years. Combinations of 2NC + ½ FR and 4NC + ½ FR proved superior for tomato fruit yield and mean fruit weight than other treatments in this study.
Comparative Evaluation of Lycopene and Heavy Metal Contents Of Two Species of Tomatoes Within Awka Metropolis (Published)
Tomato Species belong to edible vegetable fruit obtained from tomato plant which serves as a food source to people irrespective of culture, religion and belief. Two species of the tomato samples were bought from five different local markets within Awka metropolis, Anambra State. The samples were washed with deionised water, and lycopene content extracted using solvent mixture of n-hexane, acetone and ethanol in the ratio of 2:1:1 respectively. The extract was subjected to Uv spectrophotometer for lycopene content at 503nm. The moisture content was examined via difference in weight in an oven at 1050c. The washed samples were blended and digested with acid mixture of 10ml perchloric acid, 25ml concentrated nitric acid and 4ml sulphuric acid. The level of heavy metal in the digest was evaluated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed lycopene range of 18.82mg/kg to 98.52mg/kg. The higher concentration of lycopene was associated with Beefsteak species with average value of 73.13mg/kg, while a lower average level of 40.76mg/kg was implicated in cherry specie. Lead was the metal with lowest average concentration of 0.083ppm. The metal with the highest average concentration in the tomato samples was chromium (0.520ppm). The observed trend in the metal concentration for all the samples was Cr (0.520ppm) > Cu (0.493ppm) > Fe (0.453ppm) > Zn (0.421ppm) > Cd (0.121ppm) > Pb (0.083ppm). Only Pb was within the permissible limit as stipulated by WHO (Pb-0.1mg/L), all other metals were above the permission limit as stated by FAO and WHO of 2011. Expectedly the tomato had high moisture content (95.7%). Statistical treatment of the data showed the existence of a strong inverse correlation between Fe and Pb concentration in the tomato sample (r = -710, p = 0.020). There was no statistical correlation between lycopene content and the total metal concentration (r = -0.349, p = 0.324).
Level Application of Cultivators for Scientific Recommendations to Control Tomato Leaf Miner, Tuta Absoluta (Published)
The research aimed to determine level of application among growers for scientific Recommendations to control tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta in Rabiaa District generally, identify the relationship between the level of application and independent variables. The research included (94) growers, which they were selected randomly, and they represent (50%) of the total population (188) growers. Data collected by interview using a questionnaire method. The Data were analyzed for: means, frequencies, weighted percentage and spearman-rank correlation. The research revealed that the level of application was medium-low. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between level of application and each of fallowing variables (age, level of education, years of work in agriculture and annual income), Also the results showed that there were no significant relationship between level of application and each of fallowing variables (type of tenure, agricultural cultivated area, agricultural information sources).
Impact of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Yield, Lycopene and Some Minerals in Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill) Fruit. (Published)
Lycopene, an antioxidant contained in tomatoes, which is found to reduce the risk of cancer can be affected by management practices. A field experiment was carried out behind Recreational Centre of Institute of Agricultural Research and Training (I.A.R&T), Moor Plantation, Ibadan (latitude 7o22’N and longitude 3o50’SE). The experiment was done during the rainy season of 2014 between May and July. Effectiveness of organic and inorganic fertilizers in the growth, yield and nutrient composition of tomato were compared in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments which include sole application each of NPK and Organic fertilizer, there complimentary application and the control replicated three times. Tomato premier (variety UC-82-B) was planted at 50 cm × 50 cm at 1 seedling per stand. The Aleshinloye Compost (Grade B) organic fertilizer was applied two weeks before transplanting at 100 kgN/ha at the appropriate plots while NPK 15:15:15 was applied 2 weeks after transplanting at 100kgN/ha. Parameters assessed were plant height (cm), number of leaves, number of branches, stem girth (mm) while the yield parameters observed were days to 50 % flowering, number of flowers/plot, number of flowers aborted, number of rotten fruits/plot, number of fruits/plot and fruit weight (g). Nutrient component determined in the laboratory were lycopene, potassium and sodium. The fertilizer sources did not affect the growth of tomato but were better than the control plots. At 8 weeks after transplanting (8 WAT), NPK 15:15:15 treated plant had more flower abortion of 34.7 than the lowest flower abortion of 24.67 from the control plots. NPK 15:15:15 at 100 kgN/ha gave the highest fruit yield of 18.60 t/ha while the lowest yield (4.07 t/ha) was obtained from the control plots. Highest value of lycopene content of 2.65 % was found in plots supplied with NPK but is comparable with the control plot but higher than other sources. Potassium content of 20.80 % was lowest in NPK plots while potassium accumulation of 23.20% was highest in the control but not different statistically from each other. Sodium content had highest percentage in untreated plot with 0.43 % and sodium ion was lowest in NPK + organic treated plot which have the value of 0.31%.
Economic Implications of Tomato Production in Naushahro Feroze District of Sindh Pakistan (Published)
In the present study, attempt was made to explore the economic implication of tomato in Nausharo Feroze Sindh. For this purpose 60 growers were selected from different villages of District Naushero Feroze of Sindh province during the year 2013 using survey method of study. The data on various costs, physical and revenue productivity were collected from 60 randomly selected tomato farmers. Result revealed that the education level of selected growers was in order of 25.00% primary (5years), 36.66% of middle (8years), 16.66% matriculate (10years) 3.33% educated from college and university, 1.70% graduate the 18.33% of tomato respondents were illiterate. Results further indicate that farmers incurred an average per hectare fixed costs. Rs 33187.00 include Rs 700.00 for land tax, Rs 32487.00 for rent of land. The results revealed that tomato farmers incurred an average per hectare cost of Rs 19780.75 as labor cost. An average per acre marketing cost of 30457.65 on tomato capital input used, and an average per acre marketing cost was Rs. 4191.73 On an average per acre spent a total cost of production of Rs. 87617.13. An average per acre Physical productivity was 186.00 in mounds. An average per acre Revenue productivity was Rs.158750.00 and the Net income was 71133.00 an availed input output ratio 1:1.81 it means that with the investment of Rs.1.00 in tomato enterprises they yielded Rs.1.81. The cost benefit ratio of the cultivation of tomato at 1:0.81 it means that the tomato growers fetched Rs.0.81 on each rupee investment of tomato. The poor production implies that the soil quality, inadequate canal water, insect pest and poor extension services could be the causes this low production. The empirical result indicates that significant increase in input of tomato in the study area could be traced mainly to use of latest technology.
Growth and Fruit Yield of Tomato As Influenced by Combined Use of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer in Kabba, Nigeria (Published)
Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of integrated use of chemical and organic fertilizers on growth and fruit yield of tomato in Kabba College of Agriculture. The experiment involved five treatments which are as follows: 125kh/ha NPK+3t/ha poultry manure, 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha cow dung, 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha kitchen waste, 125kg/ha NPK 15:15:15 and Control. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated four times. The parameters taken on soil chemical properties are soil pH, total nitrogen, available phosphorus and soil organic matter. Growth and yield parameters taken are as follows: plant height (cm), number of leaves, and stem girth (cm), number of fruit per plant, fruit length (cm), fruit diameter (cm) and yield per land area (kg/ha). Result obtained from parameters studied (Plant height, leaf numbers, branch number, stem girth, fruit number per plant and fruits weight) revealed that tomato performed better (P<0.05) with the application of 125kg/ha NPK+3t/ha poultry manure application. The also, study showed that use of inorganic and organic fertilizer had better effects on growth and yield of tomato. Therefore, for good yield and better productivity of tomato, a combination of 125kg/ha NPK fertilizer + 3t/ha poultry waste is recommended for tomato production in the study area.