Characterization of Nano-Sized Hydroxyapatite Particles Synthesized From Fish Scales Using Calcination Method (Published)
Hydroxyapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 material is one of the biomaterial used for orthopedic medicine which was successfully synthesized from Tilapia scales using calcination method in this study. The synthesized hydroxyapatite is white and in powder form. The synthesized hydroxyapatite was characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis which confirmed hydroxyapatite as major phase, crystalline and nano sized while Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy identified the functional groups of the hydroxyapatite. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis indicated the grain size of the synthesized hydroxyapatite particle in nano metric region. Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed the thermal stability of the hydroxyapatite. The in-vivo cytotoxicity test using Wistar Albino Rats did not indicate any toxic effects of the material at acute level. The research indicted potentiality of fish scales in producing HA material and also provides a means of cleaning up the environment as tons of fish scales considered of no use are being discarded daily by converting them into useful products.
Survey of Tilapia consumption in Benue State Nigeria: A case study of Makurdi Metropolis (Published)
This study examined and verified the interest of consumers on Tilapia consumption in makurdi metropolis Benue state. 50 structured questionnaires were used by random sampling techniques to collect Data from respondents. Statistical analysis was carried out using frequency distribution and statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) the study reveals high consumers preference for Tilapia consumption, it was observed that family size and educational level have a significant positive effect on consumption of Tilapia. The result also revealed significantly high (p<0.05) tilapia consumption among married (60%) and students (48%). Family size of 6-10 accounted for 26% while 1-5 made up 18% consumption levels respectively. Fourteen percent (14%) of the study shows that tilapia consumption is high in Makurdi and can contribute to the economic growth of Benue state and Nigeria at large. Therefore, fish farmers should engage themselves in production of tilapia for improved wellbeing and overall benefits of farmers, marketers and the nation.
This study was designed to evaluate morphological variations of cichlids from the Kainji lake, Niger State in Nigeria. 200 samples of cichlids comprising four species (Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia zilli, Pelmatolapia mariae and Sarotherodon galilaeus) were collected from the lake and a total of thirty morphometric measurements and meristic counts were recorded. Data was corrected to eliminate size effect on sample and subjected to discriminant function analysis to determine rate of divergence among species. Results obtained revealed significant variation in some morphometric parameters measured and all six meristic counts recorded. Growth pattern revealed negative allometric growth for O. niloticus (2.29), T. mariea (0.72) and S. galilaeus (2.47) while T. zilli, had a positive allometric growth. Discriminant analysis showed some levels of overlap across species for both morphometric measurement and meristic count. Interspecific distance was closest between T. zilli and O. niloticus (14.70) while the farthest distance was recorded between T. zilli and S. galilaeus (52.40). The observable overlap among species despite morphometric and genetic differences may have been as a result of similar species adaptations in response to the prevailing environmental conditions.