Tag Archives: Thermal Comfort

Simulation Study of Thermal Comfort in Residential Building Types: The Case of Lokoja, Nigeria (Published)

Thermal comfort is an important factor for the design of buildings that offers comfortable indoor environment for the wellbeing of building occupants. There are several residential building typologies at different locations in the world. These includes bungalows, duplexes and block of flats.  Despite previous studies on thermal comfort in Nigeria, there is a lack of research data on the performance of different building types, especially in terms of thermal comfort. Hence, this study evolved to investigate three popular types of residential buildings in Nigeria. The research outcome aims to provide data for theoretical evolution on the thermal behavior of these building types. The paper used dynamic thermal simulation, natural ventilation mode to analyze three residential buildings in Lokoja, Nigeria using hourly weather data for a period of 10 years. The simulation results showed that the annual operative temperature for the three cases were 33.360C, 33.620C and 33.650C. This revealed that there is no significant difference between the operative temperatures of the three case studies. However, there were marked differences between both the monthly and annual solar gains of the case buildings. The total annual gains for the three case studies were 24118.27kWh, 20497.90kWh, and 39493.09kWh. Although there was no significant difference in the performances of the case buildings, there performed differently in terms of both operative temperature and solar gains. The simulation results confirmed thermal discomfort in residential buildings in the study area. This calls for improvement in the design of residential buildings in the study area to enhance thermal comfort and reduce energy demand due to overdependence on mechanical cooling systems. This study has provided data that is expected to guide design professionals and other stakeholders in the building industry in their decisions regarding the thermal performance of residential building types in the study area and in similar climates.   

Keywords: Simulation, Thermal Comfort, building types, operative temperature, solar gains

Investigating Indoor Ventilation in Multi-habited houses: A case of Ogbomoso, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated the indoor natural ventilation condition in multi-habited houses in the traditional core of Ogbomoso. Factors affecting natural ventilation in buildings such as orientation, external spacing, landscape and opening conditions were assessed through physical observations and direct measurements. Data on indoor air movement (velocity) was obtained with the use of kestrel 4500 pocket weather and environmental metre after due calibration with the climatic data of Ogbomoso which had earlier been obtained from the Nigeria meteorological station; the data was obtained in order to assess the level of ventilation and air movement in their various spaces. A living room, a bedroom and a kitchen (which are spaces where residents spend most time) were randomly selected in each multi-habited building for the purpose of the study. Obtained results were compared with the standard values given by scholars Borda-Dias and Chand. The study found all factors affecting natural ventilation to be grossly inadequate when compared with standards just as low air velocity level was also recorded in all their spaces (0.08 minimum and 0.48m/s maximum observed as against minimum of 0.50m/s recommended by Borda-Dias). The study concluded that there is a likelihood of high dependency on active driven mechanical devices in the study area if suitable indoor thermal comfort is to be achieved. The study recommended that a more awareness level on natural ventilation systems should be created and a rehabilitation of multi-habited homes in the study area is suggested.

 

Citation: Abdulrasaq Kunle Ayinla and Ilelabayo Ismail Adebisi (2021) Investigating Indoor Ventilation in Multi-habited houses: A case of Ogbomoso, Nigeria, International Journal of Civil Engineering, Construction and Estate Management, Vol.9, No.3, pp.1-15

Keywords: Energy, Natural Ventilation, Thermal Comfort, multi-habitation, natural cooling

AN EVALUATION OF THERMAL COMFORT CONDITIONS IN AN URBAN ENTERTAINMENT CENTRE IN HOT-DRY CLIMATE OF NIGERIA (Published)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental design parameters on thermal comfort conditions in an urban entertainment centre located in the hot-dry climate of Nigeria. Building designs in Nigeria now tend towards mix-use functions as in the case of an urban entertainment centre, therefore, making thermal comfort a necessity. Unfortunately in the hot-dry climatic regions of Nigeria, buildings fulfill this requirement through total dependence on mechanical means of cooling to solve for overheating. It was evident that some design parameters caused this undesirable situation. The study therefore focused on understanding and evaluating the effects of design-dependent elements such as materials of building envelop, thermal mass, the size and orientation of windows, shading and vegetation on thermal comfort conditions in the case study building. Data loggers were used to record temperature and humidity data in predetermined rooms. Data was collected during certain periods in April, May, and June 2013. Hypotheses were developed and statistically tested using ANOVA. The study showed that temperature based on ASHRAE standards 55-66 and OSAHS 1997 was above comfort range in all the spaces investigated. Further, the results showed that the effect of thermal mass was almost the same for most of the spaces, primarily due to the fact that most of the building had been constructed with thick concrete walls. In terms of thermal performance, the building materials used, number and orientation of the exterior walls, orientation and size of windows and also sun shading with surrounding vegetation were most effective design parameters for the spaces investigated.

 

 

Keywords: Building Orientation, Data Logger, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Mass, Urban entertainment centre, material of building envelope

An Evaluation of Thermal Comfort Conditions in an Urban Entertainment Centre in Hot-Dry Climate of Nigeria. (Review Completed - Accepted)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of environmental design parameters on thermal comfort conditions in an urban entertainment centre located in the Hot-dry climate of Nigeria. Building designs in Nigeria now tend towards mix-use functions as in the case of an urban entertainment centre, therefore, making thermal comfort a necessity. Unfortunately in the hot-dry climatic regions of Nigeria, buildings fulfill this requirement through total dependence on mechanical means of cooling to solve for overheating. It was evident that some design parameters caused this undesirable situation. The study therefore focused on understanding and evaluating the effects of design-dependent elements such as materials of building envelop, thermal mass, the size and orientation of windows, shading and vegetation on thermal comfort conditions in the case study building. While conducting this study, data loggers were used to record temperature and humidity data in predetermined rooms. Data was collected during certain periods in April, May, and June 2013. The data collected was analyzed statistically and hypotheses were tested using ANOVA. This study showed that temperature based on ASHRAE standards 55-66 and OSAHS 1997 was above comfort range in all the spaces investigated and that the effect of thermal mass was almost the same for most of the spaces owing to the fact that most part of the building had been constructed with thick concrete walls. In terms of thermal performance the building materials used, number and orientation of the exterior walls, orientation and size of windows and also sun shading with surrounding vegetation were most effective design parameters for the spaces investigated.

Keywords: Building Orientation, Data Logger, Thermal Comfort, Thermal Mass, Urban entertainment centre, material of building envelope