Literacy in Nigeria, even by the sub-Saharan Africa standard, is low. Much lower is critical and digital literacy. These two aspects of literacy hold the key to national development and security. This study examined these two aspects of literacy as crucial components of the literacy programme in Nigeria. The core elements of textuality for effective interpretation were studied. The study also took a look at digital literacy as a component of Nigeria’s educational programme as a means to enhance classroom interaction and bridge some existing gaps in availability of resources and time. National development and security were seen to hinge on developing critical and digital literacy. The procedure adopted in the study was qualitative.
The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)
This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This is known from the results of observations made by the researchers themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher conducted a research development aimed at (1) to analyze the development process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of 75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28, while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.
Texts, in their various forms are not created in a vacuum, but they are contents of certain messages which the reader decodes for use. Being language use in naturally occurring situations, a text involves meaningful linguistic manipulations as well as ideational and interpersonal interaction in its realization in what is expressed as cohesion and coherence in textual building. Every meaningful text is an embodiment of cohesive network within the discourse (internal) and the other experimental (external) factors in the making and understanding of such a text. In this paper, we closely examine what a text is and made a case for its interchangeable use with discourse without contradictions. Much attention is also given to the cohesive devices which form the main network of links, ties and chains within a linguistic text but with the evidences that a text may be cohesively well-structured without the status of a coherent text which is the ultimate. Finally, a pedagogical intervention is recommended to cushion the problem associated with the acquisition of the required knowledge of cohesion and coherence in textual creation.