The study of plant response to the lighter fractions of petroleum products. Place and Duration of Study: M.Auezov South Kazakfstan State University, Institute of Ecology and Biotechnology, between May 2012 and September 2014. We investigated 7 types of oil products (4 grades petrol, toluene, benzene, xylene) and 20 frequently encountered plant species in the south of Kazakhstan (from Poaceae -6, Fabaceae -8, Brassicaceae -4, Asteraceae -2) were used. We studied the morphometric changes and the percentage of germination of seeds of plants. It has been found that the light fractions of oil products have acute toxic effects on all plants. Grade AM-96 petrol (A – car, M- measuring the octane number) and xylene have been proven to be the most toxic among the studied oil products, including petrol of various standards, xylene, toluene, and benzene. The reactions of the studied species of plants to certain types of oil are differentiated, and among the studied species of plants, the representatives of the mustard family proved to be the most sensitive to the effects of light fractions of oil products, while representatives of the grass family were sensitive to the effects of toluene, benzene and xylene. The most resistant species are cultivated maize, kidney bean, cultivated chickpea, long-staple cotton, Helianthus annuus, Cynodon dactylon and alfalfa.