In the last decade, Nigeria has been under the yoke of hideous security challenges ranging from Boko Haram insurgency, herdsmen atrocities, kidnappings, hostage takings and abductions, militancy, banditry and the menace of cultism. By all objective standards, Nigeria could rightly be described as one country in a state of unconventional war in multiple fronts. The armed forces of Nigeria and indeed the entire security architecture have been strained and stretched to the limits. Successive Governments have tried to degrade and defeat this rampaging horde of terrorist groups without the desired results. There is therefore the urgent and compelling need for a paradigm shift from the strategy of military option and counter insurgency. A new model of engagement within the context of mass political education is being advocated by this paper as a viable strategy to subtly galvanize the society and defeat organized terrorism now ravaging Nigeria. To realize this objective, the paper adopts the historical and interpretive research method. The paper also recommends that Nigeria’s educational system should be revamped with emphasis on core values of patriotism, civic obligations and responsible citizenship.
Citation: Chike A. Ezenwa and Nwachukwu C. Igwilo (2021) Political Education and Nigeria’s Sustainable Security Goals, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.1, pp.52-59,
Victims understanding of government through actions and communication: The case of Garissa University College terror attack (Published)
This study falls within the government communication field. In the study, we aim at exploring what citizens make of government from its actions and communication. The study was contextualized in the government actions and communication during the 2015 Garissa University College terror attack. Terrorism is violent communication aimed at discrediting the position that governments protect citizens’ lives and property. How government deals with the attackers and how it communicates to citizens who eagerly await government communication reveals something about the nature of government. Although government communicates to the citizens, studies have been silent on citizen feedback based on the messages and actions of the government. This study adopted a qualitative approach and took a hermeneutic phenomenological design where terror victims’ lived experiences were interrogated to elucidate some perceptions towards government and government communication. Three methods were used to generate data, namely: interviews, observation and document analysis. The study findings revealed that terror victims interacted with government — an interaction that revealed a government that send mixed signals on its capacity to handle the situation.
Religion, just like culture, is a way of life, which is built upon faith in a given factor, attribute or being. It is the faith that builds up how the individual who is entangled to the religion would conduct himself in any given circumstance. The concept of religion is a way or mode of faith or belief which a person has taken for a given period. It requires a complete emotional, physical, spiritual and psychological being of any follower. Religion is faith in anything in expectation of a reward or aid; either in the present life and world or in another. The teachings of various religious groups operate in a way and manner wherein the people of a given religion see themselves only as worthy of the expected reward and others as not being worthy of any reward and thus, infidels. This, in line with other factors; to some extent, create a form of radicalism and indoctrination amongst the followers. Religion has a way of compelling its followers to abide by any directive and prescription given in line with the doctrines and beliefs of the religion. Terrorism, on the other hand, has to do with any form of violence or conduct which is at the expense of the peaceful co-existence of the people of a given area at any given time; which tend to be seen as internal aggression or external insurrection against the state. Arguments have it that the issues relating to religion do in one way or the other relates to terrorism; while others say that the role of religion is not to provoke but to quell terrorism. In whatever dimension; this paper is meant to make a discourse on the issues of religion and the fight against terrorism. The paper will have a global view of the major concepts, with close instances of the issues of religion and terrorism as it enclosed on the Sub-Saharan countries; most especially Nigeria.
Politics and Terrorism: Case Study of Pakistan (Published)
Pakistan is facing a wave of terrorism and political actors and its policy makers are trying to find solutions to effectively execute counter terrorism strategies and bought peace back in Pakistan. Pakistani politics lacks consistency where its political culture is weak and political systems keeps on changing that effects the working and performance of formal politics and government. This research study intends to find a relationship of formal politics on the terrorism in Pakistan. The case study for the research study is Pakistan but it is reviewed in both Pakistan’s terrorism history and global patterns of terrorism. It also considers the politics of Pakistan through history and patterns of formal politics that includes political culture and political systems in Pakistan. One of the major research objective was to elaborate on the causes and effects of the relationship between politics and terrorism in Pakistan. World have seen four major waves of terrorism, where Pakistan was affected maximum by forth wave of terrorism also known as religious wave of terrorism that came in 1980s. Pakistan have seen two major political systems i.e. dictatorship and democracy, where in authoritarian regimes political culture diminished and decisions and policies were made without political involvement from elected members. Democratic regimes promote political activism and inclusive culture, which in turn enable government to understand needs of people and execute policies in better manner. Evolving democracy have flourished national and grass root level politics due to which they have taken comprehensive measures to eliminate terrorism in collaboration with military establishment like military courts and counter terrorism operations. Qualitative research, analysis and systematic data analysis shows that Formal politics, active political culture and democratic system can play positive role in elimination terrorism to spread and eliminating it from Pakistan. The result outcomes of this study will benefit all the researchers whose aim is to pursue their research on the relationship of politics and terrorism. It provides policy recommendations for different stakeholders so that they can perform better policy making.
Fighting the Enemy Within: An Evaluation of the Role of the Nigerian Criminal Justice Administration on Terrorism (Published)
The act of Terrorism dates as far back as the 1st century. It is a global concern that keeps evolving. In Nigeria, the threat of terrorism has been on the rise and is more prevalent in the North East, despite the many laws against it. This leads to a feeling of insecurity and fear, for many Nigerians. This study assesses the role of the Nigerian Criminal Justice Administration in ensuring safety for all, which includes fighting terrorism. The article critically explores Nigerian government’s reliance on mainly military actions, as opposed to empowering the Criminal Justice Administration. The work underlines the consequences of not appropriately fighting terrorism, and it’s effects on a nation like Nigeria. The study uses secondary data analysis, and the doctrinal approach is adopted to examine the role of the Nigerian Criminal Justice Administration in fighting terrorism. This article finds that the weak nature of the Nigerian criminal justice administration has affected the ability to make effective counter-terrorism policies. The study recommends that the Nigerian Government needs to enhance the operational and legal frameworks at all levels, and strengthen the criminal justice structure, to appropriately fight terrorism.
Psychosocial Implications of Fulani Herdsmen Religio-Organizational Terrorism in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) (Published)
The research examined psychosocial implications of Fulani herdsmen religio-organizational terrorism in Eastern-Nigeria (Biafra). Research participants were individuals or inhabitants affected by the Fulani herdsmen attacks. The research adopted analytical design. Instruments were secondary sources of information explored to collect facts. Fulani Herdsmen religio-organizational terrorism in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) is characterised by religious/ethnic cleansing, physical injury and starvation, genocide, abduction and sexual abuse. Psychosocial theories reviewed were psychoanalysis, cognitive dissonance, frustration-aggression, and terror-management. Findings of the research were that Fulani Herdsmen terrorism leads to the following psychological results – mental health challenge, withdrawal tendency, life frustration, and trauma; as well as the following social results – social anxiety, tribal hatred, high insecurity/crime, and family disintegration. Recommendations were made to intensify security effectiveness and efficiency, as well as political will and synergy to stop Fulani Herdsmen religio-organizational terrorism in Eastern Nigeria (Biafra) in particular and Nigeria in general.
In efforts to provide safe and conducive environment for citizens as well as foreign nationals conducting businesses on her shores, the Nigerian state have over the years constituted several regular law enforcement and security agencies mandated to maintain law and order as well as prevent and fight insurgencies including the terrorism they characterize. The Yan Tatsine uprising during the second republic and Boko Haram extremism cum attacks of the fourth republic have however raised doubts in certain quarters on the intelligence gathering ability of these state security outfits. While some scholars and policy makers have in this light called for a total overhaul of some if not all of these governmental agencies, this paper opts to take a critical look into the role of local vigilante organizations in assisting the state in her war against terror and other violent crimes such as rape and kidnapping. Focusing on the activities of some vigilante cells in Borno State which aligned in 2013 as ‘Civilian JTF’ to rout-out Boko Haram from their communities, and adopting the group theory approach to political inquiry, this study which assesses and confirms the positive activities of the vigilantes, also calls on the government at various levels to work out a synergy of these vigilantes’ activities and those of the conventional state security forces/services for the enhancement of the entire Nigerian security system.
Harnessing Cyberspace Intelligence and the Fight against Boko Haram in North-Eastern Nigeria (Published)
Intelligence gathering is key to the war against terrorism. However, intelligence in the 21st century cannot make the desired impact without the use of cyber-space and cyber-intelligence. This is because terrorists in their resolve to over-come national boundaries in order to inflict terror on the populace find cyber-space as handy tool to use. Therefore, this paper argues that checkmating and monitoring the cyber-space is not an option but imperative to succeed the battle against terrorism. Evidence abound that Boko haram insurgents in Nigeria have appreciable track record of making use of cyber-space to perpetrate their atrocities. However, this paper discovers to its chagrin there is near lack of monitoring of Nigeria’s cyber-space. As a result, the terrorists are having a field-day in its usage. This has negative consequence on the nation’s quest to defeat boko haram. The paper therefore, challenges the security hierarchy in Nigeria to as a matter of urgency rise to the occasion.
The ultimate goal of Humanism is human flourishing; making life better for all humans, and as the most conscious species, also promoting concern for the welfare of other sentient beings and the planet as a whole. The focus is on doing good and living well in the here and now, and leaving the world a better place for those who come after. This paper aims at presenting Humanism and its policies if well applied as a way of not only curbing violence, terrorism, genocide and all forms of social ills associated with our contemporary and global world of today, but also a way to bring about the much needed peace, harmony and progress in this era that has been battered by these ills.
Economic Analysis of Terrorism in Nigeria (Published)
The different agitations and goals of the perpetrators of terrorism in Nigeria seem to define the root causes of terrorism in Nigeria. This study provides an in-depth economic analysis of terrorism in Nigeria, it linked terrorists costs-benefits matrices (as incentive to violence) to the root causes of terrorism such as; economic deprivation, socio-economic conditions, and population group with different identities. The effects of terrorism on Nigeria progress accounts for the dislocation and distortions of both industry and education in the affected parts of the country (this has also re-enforced terrorists activities). The study recommended among others that counter-terrorism measures must therefore take into account these root causes of terrorism in Nigeria with the view of making the price of terrorism and the opportunity costs of terrorism very high, so as to reduce the incentive to terrorists activities in Nigeria.
Terrorism has been part of human development dating back to the era of the struggles for independence and liberation but still defy attempts at an accepted definition. Hence, it has become increasingly necessary for governments to tackle this menace by whichever counter-terrorism measures possible. However, one pivotal means is the use of military force introduced by the then President of the United States, George W. Bush through his “War on Terror” speech on September 20, 2001. This paper tries to assess the pros and cons of this measure and other counterterrorism strategies.
The Role of Sports Clubs in Reducing Terrorism in Tabuk Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Published)
In this article, the authors discuss the role of social youth clubs in reducing terrorism in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, as applied to Tabuk region. Therefore, this paper tries to achieve these objectives: first, identify the role of social youth clubs in reducing terrorism among youth, second, identify statistical differences of said role according to the residence variable. A descriptive study through a social survey via questionnaire for 450 youth at seven local clubs: Alwattany, Alsqoor, Alhawraa, Alkhalidy, Diabaa, Haqle and Temaa, divided into 312 in the city and 128 in villages in Tabuk region in the Kingdom. The research used the simple random sample technique, by applying SPSS software which was then verified to test the indications of reliability and validity. It concluded that social youth clubs contribute to thereinforcement of relationship bonds among youth and to a positive change in intellectual, cultural, social and economic conditions through filled leisure time and free work that help achieve a sense of loyalty and belonging and therefore a reduction of terrorism.
Reexamining India’s Counter Terrorism Strategy (Published)
Terrorism in India is looked at as one of the aspects of maintenance of Law and Order which is a subject matter of federal units under the Indian constitution. Hence the Police Departments of the States which are responsible for maintaining law and order deal with terrorism, which is not enough. Central Government of India and Central Security Forces should be playing an important role in Planning and execution of confrontation with terrorism. But technicalities of the constitution do not make it possible. That is why; Central Government has set up a National Counter Terrorism Centre. It has not yet been put into practice, because of the resistance by federal units. If India wants to manage terrorism in real sense, then it is imperative to consider terrorism as a federal Crime and National Emergency like incidents. In order to prohibit such criminal acts, India needs to initiate a comprehensive internal security like US and Israel.
This paper addresses the issue of terrorism in Nigeria, particularly in connection with the Boko Haram Islamist Sect. Terrorism, as a global phenomenon, is an ill-wind that blows no one any good. Recently, it has extended its ugly tentacles to Nigeria, precisely after the Presidential Election of April, 2011. Since then, Nigerian citizens have been on the defensive because of the great onslaught of man by the Boko Haram boys. The rampage has been on the increase and the attempt by the government to stop it has proved abortive. This has become of great concern to most Nigerians and the writer; hence, the emergence of this topic. The aims of this work are to highlight some of these religious riots encouraged by Boko Haram, to examine the root causes of the riots and to know their goals, organisational structure and sources of funding, and to proffer possible solutions that will make for the effective management of the crises.
Dilemma of indiscipline in Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Toro Local Government Area Plateau State Nigeria, Implications for Corruption and Terrorism (Published)
This research was prompted by the dilemma of indiscipline in secondary schools in Toro local government area of Plateau state. The essence of the study was to identify risk factors of indiscipline, its effects on students’ academic performance, its’ implications for teacher effectiveness and relate its’ potentials for corruption and terrorism. The purpose was to come up with more effective alternative ways to address the phenomenon. The study had six objectives. Ten research questions guided the study. The theoretical anchor was Ivan Pavlov operant conditioning theory which explains maladjusted behavior. The sampling frame was made up of 102 secondary schools, 2887 teachers and 31604 students. The survey design was adopted. The convenient sampling technique was used. The simple percentage and averages were utilized to analyze the data. The sole instrument used was a structured questionnaire. The basic suggestion advocates a rethink of the effectiveness of the teachers and the state of school environment. The government should provide scholarships at secondary and tertiary levels for deserving students, implement free education, and also explore avenues of providing lucrative jobs for graduates as motivating factors. Disciplinary cases should be referred to juvenile courts. The system of education should provide differentiated curriculum.
This paper examines the issue of Boko Haram insurgence and its implications on socio-political economic in Nigeria. We used survey questionnaire based on economic, social and political activities in the country, data were collected from stakeholders with evidence from newspapers. The findings include the following; the activities of the insurgency have crippled the economic activities which are as results of unemployment, poverty and illiteracy in the Northern-part of Nigeria. This suggests that this may constitutes serious threat to lives and property of Nigerians thereby hindering business activities and discouraging foreign investors. We find that the role of religious leaders encourage the activities of the insurgency, the political elite in the Northern-part of Nigeria also contribute to the insurgency as a result of bad governance. We recommend that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues, use modern methods of intelligence gathering, adequate training, and motivation among security personnel and encourage the youth in going to school.
The study investigated effects of insurgency on girls’ education in north eastern region of Nigeria. Girls’ education is paramount to the national growth and societal development in Nigeria. However, achieving education for all Nigerian girls, the north eastern region need a safe, secured teaching and learning environment. The study examined the historical perspectives of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria. The sample for the study was 180 teachers of primary and secondary schools, selected on the basis of 30 teachers from each state of the 6 states that constitute north eastern region of Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire title: Effect of Insurgency on Girls Education Questionnaires (EIGEQ). Two research questions were formulated, data collected were converted to mean, standard deviation and used to answer the research questions. It was therefore recommended that the Nigerian government should provide free and compulsory girls education at all levels of education, show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to end the insurgency in north eastern region and provide adequate security in schools. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in encouraging girls’ education in their respective communities.
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study presented the historical analyses of the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on educational management in Northern Nigeria. Education is the key to national development in Nigeria. However, achieving quality education for all Nigerian need a safe, secured, violent free teaching and learning environment for school leaders, teachers, students and families in northern region of Nigeria. The study examined the historical overview of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria, The origin of Boko Haram insurgent group, the historical analysis of Boko Haram attacks on schools in other cities in Northern Nigeria, the effect on educational management. An important aspect of this article posited on the challenges facing school administrator, teachers and students in the region .It was therefore recommended that the federal government should show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to the northern region and provide security in schools with bomb detectives’ equipment. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in preaching against the killings perpetrated by Boko Haram insurgent group and a special orientation to sensitize the people on security matters in all schools and their communities.
It is a fact that no other issue has occupied the centre stage of global discourses in recent times more than terrorism and its attendant counter. It is also a fact that the dominant strategy adopted against terrorism so far, and in the recent times is military action. Surprisingly however, just as terrorism has caused severe destruction to lives and property, just as it has dangerously threatened global peace and security, it is an observable fact that the adoption of military action against terrorism has always led to almost equal level of devastation within the affected territories. Thus, the search for an alternative strategy that can address the scourge, with minimal devastative consequences has become very necessary. The aim of this paper is to examine how effective use of language and other communication tools could be harnessed in this regard. The paper holds that terrorism is a product of loss of trust, mutual suspicion, betrayal, deceit among other factors. It is a reactionary mechanism for settling scores. The paper therefore, asserts that effective use of language holds great panacea towards engendering mutual trust and peaceful co-existence, and by extension, also, holds the potential to forestalling terrorism. The paper has adopted as its theoretical background, Critical Discourse Analyses. It is a relevant linguistic framework that seeks to analyse how language captures the power play in human co-existence. Furthermore, the paper has been segmented into internally related sub-headings for clarity and orderly presentation. The paper in its conclusion does not rule out the need for military action as option to counter terrorism. It however submits that there is need to look beyond military action for further solution, especially from the point of view of avoiding terrorism instead of fighting terrorism
The Nigerian Government has enjoyed cordial relationship with the government of the United States over the years especially given the former’s quantum of oil deposit and the latter’s access to exploiting same. However, the emergence of Boko Haram insurgence has been a source of concern to both countries especially as it portends danger to their interests. Despite the efforts of both countries in finding a lasting solution to the problem, the desired result is yet to be attained. In view of this, the study examined the effectiveness of the US security strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome the crisis of Boko Haram. Intractable conflict theory was adopted in arguing that it would be difficult to resolve the crisis of Boko Haram but it can, at least, be managed if proper strategies are put in place. Finally, the work discovered that in line with American foreign policy of zero tolerance to international terrorism, its strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome Boko Haram crisis have not been very effective.