Tag Archives: Temperature

Arrhenius-Type Relationship of Viscosity as a Function of Temperature for Mustard and Cotton Seed Oils (Published)

The knowledge and evaluation of transport behaviors of fluids are very important in heat and mass flow. In this study, we adopted a statistical technique for regression analysis and statistical correlation tests. An equation modeling the relationship between the two parameters of viscosity Arrhenius-type equation, such as the Arrhenius energy (Ea) or the pre-exponential factor (A) was used. In addition, we introduce two other parameters; the Arrhenius temperature (T) and Arrhenius activation temperature (T*) to enrich the discussion. The viscosity data from two vegetable oils at different temperature ranges gives excellent statistical results. In addition, the model in this case is very useful for engineering data and permits the estimation of one non-available parameter when the other is available. The Activation energy Ea, Entropic (pre-exponential) factor A, Arrhenius temperature TA and the Arrhenius activation temperature for the mustard oil were observed to be 374.37381 J/mole, 12.39260595 cP, -17.89797783 oC, 45.051 oC respectively while Activation energy Ea, Entropic (pre-exponential) factor A, Arrhenius temperature TA and the Arrhenius activation temperature for the cotton seed oil are respectively 451.90611 J/mole, 8.210386507 cP, -25.8292961 oC, 54.381 oC . The coefficients of regressions (R2) for the graph of the natural log of viscosity versus reciprocal of temperature (Figures 2 and 4) for the mustard oil and cotton seed oil are 0.9996 and 0.9996 respectively. Since the correlation coefficient is the measure of how well a collection of data points can be modeled by a line, we can hence conclude that the natural log of the viscosity of both seed oil samples versus the inverse of their respective temperatures have a very good fit.

Keywords: Correlation, Model, Temperature, arrhenius parameters, statistics, vegetable oil, viscosity

Investigating the Optical Study of Electrodeaposited GaSe thin film at Different Temperatures (Published)

The GaSe thin films have been obtained by cathodic electrodeposition technique onto the fluorine tin oxide (FTO) glass substrates from aqueous acidic solutions at various temperatures of 3230K, 3330K, 3430K, and 3530K. UV-VIS spectrophotometer was used to measure the optical absorption of GaSe thin film at their temperature variations. The optical study illustrated that the direct energy band gap of 3.0 eV, 3.0 eV, 2.8 eV, and 4.0 eV were appraised for electrodeposited GaSe thin film layers at different temperatures of 323 0K, 333 0K, 343 0K and 353 0K respectively. The thickness of the thin film layers increases along with the increase of electrodeposited temperature.

Citation: Olusola O.O., Awodun A. O., and Aladejana A. L. (2021) Investigating the Optical Study of Electrodeaposited GaSe thin film at Different Temperatures, International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Physics, Vol.8, No.2, pp.36-43



Keywords: GaSe, Temperature, electrodeposition technique, optical study

The Effect of Climate Change on Human Health in Damaturu (Published)

The frequency and intensity of rainfall and temperature health related incidences are expanding from micro-scale to global scale with intensive direct and indirect impacts. This study assessed the effect of temperature and rainfall variability on human health in Damaturu, Yobe State from 2009 to 2018, which was achieved by determining the annual trends of temperature and rainfall occurrence in relation to diseases incidence in the study area.  Multi-stage stratified systematic random sampling technique was adopted. Based on the National water rehabilitation house numbering in Damaturu, the study area was stratified into three strata where two communities from each of strata were selected using systematic random sampling. Data was collected using questionnaire, meteorological records of temperature and rainfall occurrences and hospital records of diseases incidences. The findings of the research established that rainfall and temperature variability are significantly associated with the prevalence of seasonal diseases incidences in Damaturu. Malaria incidences have high correlation with rainfall and temperature variability at significant level of 0.033 whereas measles and diarrhoea indicate a positive correlation. These indicated that about 38%, 14% and 8% of variances in malaria, diarrhoea and measles incidences respectively are associated with temperature and rainfall fluctuation in Damaturu.  The combination of higher temperatures, prolonged dry season and floods coupled with scarce water resources and poor sanitation made traditional and newly established settlements more vulnerable to outbreaks of diarrhoeal and malaria incidences in Damaturu town. The study recommended that meteorological agencies in collaboration with health agencies should develop a proactive solution that will provide a timely and accurate forecasting and projection of vulnerability of the population in Damaturu to climate sensitive diseases and infection.

Keywords: Rainfall, Temperature, disease incidence, variability

Physico-Chemical Parameters of Woji Creek, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

The water quality of Woji Creek of Rivers State, Nigeria, were study between November 2015 to May 2016. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in all the parameters recorded. The values recorded ranged from 7.13 ± 0.42 to 7.58 ± 0.67 (pH), 30.02 ± 1.52oC to 31.03 ± 1.92oC (Temperature), 6.34 ± 5.13mg/L to 9.65 ± 7.91mg/L (Alkalinity), 7.81mg/L ± 3.56mg/L to 12.74mg/L ± 4.79mg/L (Salinity), 6.41mg/L ± 3.20mg/L to 8.4mg/L ± 3.62mg/L (flow Velocity), 15.31mg/L ± 7.19mg/L to 29.31mg/L ± 15.58mg/L (Conductivity), 10.06mg/L ± 4.74mg/L to 15.08mg/L ± 4.51mg/L (TDS), 3.25mg/L ± 2.33mg/L to 7.59mg/L ± 11.30mg/L (TSS), 2.21mg/L + 0.72mg/L to 2.85mg/L ± 2.92 (BOD), 11.96mg/L ± 3.98mg/L to 14.78mg/L ± 3.74mg/L (COD) and Dissolved Oxygen (3.64mg/L ± 1.30mg/L to 7.00mg/L ± 2.33mg/L). There were obvious fluctuation in the ecological variables (p < 0.05) except DO concentrations that were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The physico-chemical parameters of Woji Creek were favourable for fish production although some were to a large extent above the WHO limits. The study revealed that environmental regulatory bodies can achieve good water quality by protecting the water bodies from negative impacts of abattoir and domestic wastes, industrial effluent and refuse through satisfactory wastewater treatment and management practices such as waste reduction, reuse and recycling.

Keywords: Abattoir, Sediments, Temperature, refuse and recycling

Electricity Production from Pv Panel and Impact of Temperature to Production on the Panels (Published)

DC voltage occurs when light falls on the terminals of the solar panels. The resulting performance values of electricity, the amount of light falling on varies depending on the angle of incidence and climatic parameters. The yield of the electrical energy obtained from conversion according to the structure of the battery is between 10% and 20%.

Keywords: Effect of Temperature, Modul, Pannel, Solar Cells, Temperature

Calculating the Wind-Chill Index for Selected Stations in Iraq (Published)

The Wind-Chill Index (Ko) is used to express a sense of human comfort depends on where the wind speed and temperature together, if considered the human body is a thermal machine liberate energy on an ongoing basis anything that affects the heat loss from the body, which in turn affects the nature of the sensation rate warming to his body and thus affect the rest, and can predict all sense of human beings too hot or cold through calculate the Wind-Chill Index. The aim of this research to clarify the relationship between air elements of each of the temperature and wind speed, can be human comfort through calculate the Wind-Chill Index, using temperature and wind speed data for the period (2005-2015) of the general body from the Iraqi meteorological organization and seismology for selected stations in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad and Basra), by using of statistical sophisticated programs (Simple Linear Regression and Spearman Rho Test), It was found that the monthly average calculation for the period of the study Wind-Chill Index that the highest value for the index were in Baghdad station 642.47W/m2 for the month JAN, and it found that the lowest value was in Basra station -193.26W/m2 for the month JUL, and found when the seasonal average for calculate the Wind-Chill Index, the winter has high values in addition to the month MAR also has high values in the Mosul and Baghdad stations, except Basra station the month MAR is considered ideal, either for the summer months, it owns and lowest values in Basra and Baghdad stations, where he extends decline to include the month of MAY of the spring and the month SEP of autumn, either Mosul station, the decreasing values includes the month SEP of all autumn, but the rest of the months illustrates months close to human comfort, except Baghdad station the month NOV is a cool, also found through analysis the annual average for Wind-Chill Index the highest value was in Mosul station 288.53 W/m2 in 2013, the lowest value of Basra station 146.45W/m2 in 2015, and found through the statistical operations between temperature and Wind-Chill Index that there is a strong inverse relationship degree of correlation -0.99, as well as the relationship between wind speed and Wind-Chill Index, is a strong inverse relationship, Medium and low in Mosul station reverse correlation is weak the rank correlation -0.252, the station Baghdad high inverse correlation degree of correlation -0.748, while the Basra station, it is an inverse relationship to moderate correlation -0.594.

Keywords: Human comfort, Iraq, Spearman Rho Test, Temperature, Wind speed

Challenges of Ripening Of Sugarcane at Tendaho, Metahara and Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estates (Published)

Ripening in sugarcane refers to an increase in sugar content on a fresh weight basis before commercial harvest. In Ethiopian Sugar Industry ripening of cane especially at the early and late periods of crushing shows a decline against the mid periods of crushing.  Thus, an effort was made to show the trend of ripening and associated losses by considering the problem of ripening at Tendaho, Metahara and Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estates. To have concrete information, cane plantation harvest result, meteorological and experimental data were used. Furthermore, reviews about ripening, research and developments of chemical ripeners, conditions and considerations for good response, environmental and economic issues related to ripeners were made. From the trend analysis and experimental data it is concluded that the conventional ripening method by withholding water has draw back in exploiting the maximum attainable recovery potential at Metahara, Wonji-Shoa and Tendaho Sugar Factories. At Wonji-Shoa, the loss in sucrose percent cane from the peak value attained in the crushing months ranged from 0.02 to 0.95 %. Similarly, at Metahara, the deviation in sucrose percent cane from the peak in the crushing moths ranged from 0.32 to 1.10 %. In general, maximum loss in sucrose percent cane was observed in the early and late periods of crushing. Temperature and residual moisture plays an important role in the ripening of cane and the challenge also seems to occur at Finchaa and newly emerging sugar factories located in the lowlands of the country

Keywords: Rainfall, Temperature, chemical ripeners, dry-off period, ripening, sucrose, sucrose loss.

Empirical Study of Geo – Spatiotemporal Variation of a Tropical Diurnal Temperature Harmonic Characteristics on Hourly Time Integration (Published)

This work investigates the daily temperature variation as an important factor of the solar energy striking the earth’s surface each morning. Literature records that a shallow layer of air directly above the ground is heated by conduction and heat exchange between this shallow layer of warm air and cooler above is not sufficient enough. On regular days when the clouds are clear, air temperature vary by 770F (250C) from just above the ground to waist height. Incoming solar radiation exceed outgoing heat energy for many hours after noon and equilibrium is usually reached at mostly 91.40F (330C), observed as unusually very high. These characteristics are inferred by variety of different factors such as large bodies of water, soil type and cover, wind cloud cover/ water vapor, and moisture on the ground. The temperature variations are greatest very near the earth’s surface which was represented by time aided characteristics in this region of study. However, sunny days are found to typically have high records of diurnal temperature variations. Nonetheless, low lying humid area in the vicinity of study have the least of variations. This explains why the tropics used in this study have high temperatures of up to 1000F (380C) by 1.00pm on bright sunny days and have lows of 69.80F – 82.40F (210C – 280C) under raining situations.

Keywords: Geo–Spatiotemporal, Temperature, Temporal, Time integration

Effect of Different Temperatures on Some Biological Parameters of Anisopteromalus Calandrae, (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Population Fluctuation of the Parasitoid and their Insect Hosts of the Genus Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Published)

Population fluctuation of some different insect species of the genus Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their parasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae, (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were studied at El-Beheira Governorate (Egypt). The present results show that during the first year 2013 S. oryzae reached its peak in August where the average number was 510 adult per kilogram wheat. While S. granarius and S. zeamais reached its peak at December and September achieved 401 and 300 adults per kilogram grain, respectively. The parasitoid A. calandrae was active from March to November and reached its peak in August achieved 112 parasitoid per kilogram. The parasitoid sex ratios of A. calandrae increased gradually with increasing temperature and reached its peak in August of the year 2013 recorded 2.3 female to 1male. The duration of immature stages of the parasitoid A. calandrae decreased with increasing temperature where it was extended from 26.89 day at 20°C to 11.55 day at 35°C. The parasitoid total numbers also increased gradually with increasing temperature from 20°C to 30 °C, recorded 67.67 at 30 °C. Then, the numbers decreased also at 35 °C recorded 62.67. The results illustrated also that there were significant difference in sex ratio between the temperature of 20 °C and 35 °C. Where, at 20°C the sex ratio was 2 females:1male. Whilst, at 35 °C the sex ratio was 2.3 females:1male. No significant differences in the sex ratio were observed between the temperature of 20, 25 °C and 30 °C. From the previous results the temperature of 30 °C was the most desirable temperature for the activity of the parasitoid.

Keywords: Anisopteromalus Calandrae, Biological Parameter, Insect Hosts, Parasitoid, Population, Temperature

Design of a Renewable Energy Output Prediction System for 1000mw Solar-Wind Hybrid Power Plant (Published)

Problems associated with non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels make it necessary to move to cleaner renewable energy sources such as wind and solar. But the wind and sun are both intermittent sources of energy therefore accurate forecasts of wind and solar power are necessary to ensure the safety, stability and economy of utilizing these resources in large scale power generation. In this study, five meteorological parameters namely Temperature, Rainfall, Dew Point, Relative Humidity and Cloud Cover were collected for the year 2012 and used to predict wind and solar power output in Jos, Nigeria. The study used prediction algorithms such as Regression techniques and Artificial Neural Networks to predict the output of a 1000mW Solar-Wind Hybrid Power Plant over a period of one year. Individual prediction techniques were compared and Isotonic Regression was found to have the highest accuracy with errors of 40.5% in predicting solar power generation and 35.4% in predicting wind power generation. The relatively high levels of error are attributed to several limitations of the research work.

Keywords: Cloud Cover, Dew Point, Output Prediction, Power, Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Renewable Energy, Solar, Temperature, Weather, Wind

Climate Change and Perceived Climate Hazards: A Trend Analysis in Southeast Nigeria (Published)

Current global climatic trends show a deviation from historic trends and this has necessitated this study. The paper analysed climate change trend and the perceived climatic hazards in Southeast Nigeria. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 260 food crop farmers for the study and 232 questionnaires were returned. Secondary time series data on mean annual climate variables for a period of thirty years (1984-2014) were collected from National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike and crop output data from National Bureau of statistics. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools like polygon/histograms and line graphs. Also, the extent of damage by climate hazards as perceived by respondents was obtained using likert scale. The rainfall volume variation showed a very unstable pattern with high volatility over years with slightly increasing trend in the study area. Result shows that temperature is significant at 1% level of significance while rainfall volume, rainfall days, relative humidity and sunshine duration were insignificant. Rain day was characterized by unsteady rise and fall trend pattern. The trend also indicated an unsteady change in the movements of the relative humidity and sunshine levels. The result for the occurrence of climate hazards as perceived by farmers show 86.2 %, 64.68%, 63.79%, 77.82% of the respondents perceived to a great extent the impact of flooding, sea level rise, longer period of dry spell and wind storm respectively. Based on the finding, it is concluded that the damaging and devastating effects of climate change is in the increase. It is recommended therefore that adequate adaptive measures and mitigations be put in place to cushion the effect of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Hazards, Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Sunshine Duration, Temperature

Thermal Effect of Gas Flaring Activities in Ogba-Egbema-Ndomi Community, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper presents some negative environmental impact resulting from one of the gas flaring station in Ogba-Egbema-Ndomi Community, Rivers State, Nigeria. The variation of Surface temperature with distance from the gas flaring station in the study area was investigated. The result shows that Atmospheric Temperature Ta (oC) and Soil Temperature TS (oC) from the flare station to a distance of about at 1800m from the station were above the acceptable temperature convenient for plants and animals to grow well. The temperature tends to normalized at about 290C at about 2000m away from the flare point. Hence the inhabitance of Ogba-Egbema-Ndomi and environs are advised to start their farming activities from about 2000m away from the flare station located in their locality. This increase in temperature also has other negative effects on the inhabitants of the area

Keywords: Distance, Environmental impact, Gas flare, Inhabitants, Temperature


Urbanization is a defining phenomenon of this century. Nigeria cities like the rest of the entire continent of Africa are rated high on this urbanization process. But one side effect of this process is urban heat island (UHI). The aim of this study is to present the results of all published papers considering UHI investigation of Enugu urban and propose activities that will develop UHI research in the future. Literatures were identified for review through a comprehensive search by using electronic and non-electronic databases. Related published literature and documents were searched in a systematic way using a range of key words relating to urban heat island. The literature review indicates that urban heat island effect exists in Enugu urban. The review also indicates that urban heat island research in Enugu city has been on the lowest ebb. The study concluded by advocating that the long-term and effective monitoring of UHI changes is possible with the application of an installed (wireless) monitoring network.

Keywords: Paired measurement programme, Satellite, Temperature, Transect, Urban heat island, Urbanization


A study was taken to measure the effect of rainfall, temperature and humidity on salinity area as well as to project the future trend of increasing saline area in the southern area of Bangladesh. Patuakhali district was selected as study area for the study. Secondary data such as temperature, saline area, relative humidity, rainfall, etc. were used in the experiment. The results showed that minimum temperature and relative humidity has the positive effect whereas rainfall and maximum temperature has the negative effect on decreasing the soil salinity. The study projects that the saline area would be increasing trend in future. Therefore mitigation measures could be taken to prevent the salinity in the coastal area.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Humidity, Rainfall, Saline, Temperature


Various parameters such as concentration of slurry, pH, moisture, total solids, temperature, and C/N ratio are among the main parameters affecting biogas production. The carbon and nitrogen contents of various biogas feedstocks were determined using standard methods and the volume of biogas produced by the substrates were measured using the graduated gas cylinder. The results show that carbon to nitrogen ratio affects the volume of the generated biogas. The production of biogas depends to a large extent, on the choice of feedstock and its carbon to nitrogen ratio.

Keywords: Biogas, C/N ratio, Concentration, Feedstocks, Temperature, pH

Effect of Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio on Biogas Production (Published)

Various parameters such as concentration of slurry, pH, moisture, total solids, temperature, C/N ratio are among the main parameters affecting biogas production. The carbon and nitrogen contents of various biogas feedstocks were determined using standard methods and the volume of biogas produced by the substrates were measured using the graduated gas cylinder. The results show that carbon to nitrogen ratio affects the volume of the generated biogas. The production of biogas depends to a large extent, on the choice of feedstock and its carbon to nitrogen ratio.

Keywords: Biogas, C/N ratio, Concentration, Feedstocks, Temperature, pH