This study aimed at assessing the role of games and drama in improving English language teaching in primary schools in Khartoum state. The population of the study is composed of primary school teachers in Khartoum state. Only one tool was employed for collecting data from the teachers’ questionnaire. The results of the study revealed that although basic level teachers of English language are highly convinced of the necessity of using games and drama in teaching English at basic level, they do not agree that they are actually used. Also, there are many difficulties that face teachers in using games and drama activities in teaching English. Teachers believe that there are a number of reasons why games and drama activities are effective techniques in teaching English. This study ends up with a set of recommendations 1) games and drama activities have to have their due weight in classroom practice. They have to be used more frequently 2) Textbooks should incorporate as many activities of games and drama as possible and they have to be given their time in the language course. They should not be just as toppings for lessons; rather they have to be integrated in the teaching process as essential components 3) Teachers should be trained on how to avoid the pitfalls of games and drama activities and they should be trained on how to maximize their benefits 4) School administrations should be made aware of the importance of games and drama activities and they should provide more opportunities for the teachers to use them 5) Pupils have to be trained on how to carry out these activities and they should be coached on how to use the time allotted for them in the proper manner 6) Special care has to be given to pupils who are by their nature withdrawn 7) Class tests and continuous assessment has to include games and drama activities 8) Parents should be educated on the value of games and drama activities as effective techniques for learning English. Games and drama should be a constant feature in the Parents Day. It is suggested that 1) the ability of games and drama activities to develop listening and speaking skills 2) the potentiality of games and drama to develop cultural awareness 3) the intrinsic value of games and drama to develop the 4 Cs of the 21st century skills (Communication, Creativity, Critical thinking, Collaboration 4) the potentiality of games and drama activities to match the characteristics of the new generations (Alpha Gen in particular).
Chinua Achebe’s literary texts have no doubt, provided interacting confluences of opinions and comments from both African and non-African critics. Not only from the tributary of literary criticism, scholars from other fields and persuasions, language, sociology, anthropology, philosophy and so on have also enjoyed the fertility of the texts of this writer who was adjudged the greatest prose writer of African extraction. Perhaps, however, no other aspect of Achebe’s writing skill has received greater attention more than his narrative skill, his telling techniques, especially his masterful blend of Igbo and English rhetoric strategies. This paper further examines the language techniques of Achebe in one of his novels, Arrow of God. It examines Achebe’s exploitation of reference in the creation of suspense in the novel. Suspense is a popular literary technique, usually realised as an inter-episodic linking device. But this paper examines it from a different pattern of linking strategy and in this manner uses it to characterise Achebe’s literary idiolect. The theoretical framework adopted in the study is Discourse Analysis, a linguistic theory that examines how the various parts of a text are cohesively united as a whole. In applying this theory in the study, it examines how Achebe’s unique reference patterns help in reading the novel as a text