Tag Archives: Technical

Effect of Public-Private Partnerships on Revamping Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya: A Case of Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) and Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Partnership (Published)

Lack of financial and managerial capacity impedes many governments’ ability to meet obligations in regard to the national educational systems. In order to make meaningful improvements in education, governments may have to consider alternative methods such as public – private partnerships so as to meet their commitments to education. Establishing PPP with the private sector especially corporations who possess valuable financial and material resources and expertise can assist governments to expand and improve the quality of education services leading to achievement of education for all (EFA) goals. This paper aims at establishing the effect of Public-Private Partnerships on revamping Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya focusing on a case of KAM and GIZ Partnership. The study sought to establish how employment opportunities through KAM and GIZ Partnerships have revamped Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya and to assess the financial assistance from KAM and GIZ Partnerships on revamping TVET in Kenya. The paper was centered on Classical Liberal Theory. The study targeted a population of 882 students and staff of TVETs in Nairobi County. The paper used stratified random sampling to select a sample of 268 respondents who received the questionnaires. Self-administered questionnaires and interview guides were used for collection of primary data. The questionnaires were administered using the drop and pick later method in order to allow the respondents have enough time for responding adequately to the questions. SPSS Version 25.0 was used for data analysis. The paper used descriptive statistics since it enabled the researcher describe meaningfully the score or measurement distribution by using a few indices. Conceptual content analysis was used in the analysis of the qualitative data from the open-ended questions. The study concluded that Public-Private Partnerships positively and significantly revamps TVET in Kenya. The Kenya government should develop a public-private partnership policy framework especially in education to guide corporate/business organizations involvement.


Keywords: Education, Skills, Technical, Training, Vocational, private partnerships, public

Factors Influencing Student’s Enrolment in Vocational Technical Education Post-Graduate Programs in Rivers and Bayelsa State Tertiary Institutions (Published)

The study looked at Factors Influencing Students Enrolment in Vocational Technical Education Post-Graduate Programme in Rivers and Bayelsa State Tertiary Institutions. Two research questions and one hypothesis was used in the study. The researchers used simple survey research design. The population consists of a total of 149 students in post-graduate program in technical education in Rivers and Bayelsa State tertiary institutions. The researchers developed an instrument titled students response on financial constraints and perception of vocational technical education (SRFPT). SRFPT item was subjected to face validation by two experts in the department of vocational technical education in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. The instrument reliability was calculated to be 0.87 using Cronbach Alpha. Data obtained from research questions were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for research questions and Z-test for hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. Response from table 1 showed that item 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were all accepted to the various questions. This shows that finance is a major factor influencing the enrolment of students in vocational technical education program. Result from table 2 reveals that item 1, 3 and 4 were rejected to the various questions. While item 2 and 5 were accepted. This shows that technical education teachers do not have low prospect, jobs are not limited to classroom only and they earn better. Also, it was observed that vocational technical education lecturers are leaving below standard as compared to their job input. In addition, the findings from the hypothesis showed that z-calculated value of 10.10 was higher than z-critical value of 1.960 at 0.05 level of significance with 149 degree of freedom. This implies that there is significant difference on how finance affects students’ enrolment in post-graduate programme in Rivers and Bayelsa State tertiary institutions and how students value vocational technical training program in labour market. Among all, it was recommended that Government should create a financial scheme to subsidize tuition fee and research programs among post-graduate students in vocational technical education program.

Keywords: Education, Post-graduate, Technical, Vocational, programs

Technical Human Capital Obsolescence and Age Relationship in the Building Construction Industry: A case of Nigeria (Published)

The Building Construction Industry (BCI) is among the businesses that depend on the agility and viability of the workforce. Consequently, it invests heavenly in the development of employees’ knowledge and skills, otherwise known as human capital. However, individual’s human capital is bound to deteriorate owning to atrophy (nonuse of skills) and inevitable changes, which could be as a result of ageing process, wear, injuries, and/or illnesses, in the individual. This deterioration is known technical human capital obsolescence. Thus, using descriptive study, this paper investigates technical human capital obsolescence in the BCI and its relationship with workers’ aging. Three research questions guided the study and questionnaire was administered to 387 randomly selected BCI workers. 278 questionnaires representing 71.83 percent were successfully completed and returned. The data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis H test statistics and SPSS software. The findings indicate, among other things, that, individual’s technical obsolescence due to wear is not a function of age. It is recommended that the industry and her workers intermittently evaluate their skills with the view of finding the specific obsolescence and providing measure(s) to alleviate its effects in the industry.

Keywords: : Human Capital, Industry, Nigeria, Technical, age relationship, building construction, obsolescence

The Importance of Vocational and Technical Education in Nigeria’s Development (Published)

There can be no sustainable national development without vocational and technical education, and there can be no vocational and technical education without skills acquisition. The issue of sustainable national development is not a one-day event, but constant or continuous process that affects the citizens positively. The paper x-rayed the peculiar characteristics of vocational and technical education in providing necessary skills to the populace for sustainable national development. The conceptual clarification of vocational education, technical education, vocational and technical education, and sustainable national development were considered. The paper further discussed a brief history of vocational and technical education in Nigeria, during the pre-colonial, colonial and the post-colonial era. The paper examines the importance of vocational and technical education in Nigeria development. It further highlighted the role of vocational and technical education in sustainable national development. The paper concluded that non-acquisition of saleable skills has been a major factor in the countries under development and high rates of poverty and other social vices. Therefore, VTE as the type of education with these values should be recognized and taken serious for sustainable national development to strive.


Keywords: Development, Education, Nigeria, Technical, Vocational

Digital Art for the Promotion of the Creative Aspect in the Plastic Art (Published)

The present study sheds lights on the digital art in terms of its concept, history, types and technical styles. It presents the works of some artists who have turned their work into digital creative achievements and become leaders of digital art, depending on the emergence of computer softwares that helped enrich the output of this type of art, on their reflection on the aesthetic side in the plastic art, and on the distinctive presence of digital achievements in the global plastic scene. The present study is an attempt to identify the role of the digital art and its techniques in the promotion of the creative aspect in the plastic art. It adopts the descriptive analytical approach. It also presents the methodological framework which includes the study’s problem, significance, limitations, methodology, terms, and review of literature.   The theoretical framework includes two sections: the first of which is the digital art, its concept, history of its development, its types, and methods. The second one is the digital art in the works of the leading digital artists and its role in the promotion of the plastic art. The study concluded that the digital art has enriched and upgraded the aesthetic value in the plastic art. It recommended further studies on the digital art, and suggested “The technical features of the creative digital achievement generated by the employment of digital art’s types and styles”.

Keywords: Creativity, Digital, Digital Technology, Technical, styles

Vocational and Technical Education Orientation and Instruction for Job Creation among Youths and the Unemployed in Nigeria (Published)

The paper looked at vocational and technical education orientation and instruction for job creation among youths and the unemployed in Nigeria. Vocational and technical education is the foundation upon which the skills of workforce are built, without a great further progress in vocational and technical education orientation and instruction, we cannot hope for future employment and reliant graduates with the required skills and flexibility for a fast growing industry in the global age. Vocational and technical education as an instrument for job creation for youths and unemployed in Nigeria. It is on this recognition that the researcher focused attention on the following sub-headings to address the topic: Rationale for vocational and technical education orientation and instruction; vocational systems packages for instruction; utilization of equipment and facilities for instruction for job creation; vocational and technical education orientation and instructional methods for job creation among youth and unemployed; and problems of vocational and technical education orientation and instruction. It was based on these reviewed literature that recommendations were made for job creation for youths and unemployed, It was recommended that adequate fund should be made available to fund the orientation and instruction of vocational and technical education programme for job creation for youths and unemployed among others.

Keywords: Creation, Education, Instruction Orientation, Technical, Unemployed Job., Vocational, Youths

Prospects, Issues and Challenges of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) In Revamping Nigeria Depressed Economy (Published)

Nigeria aspires to become a major player in the world economy in line with her Vision 20-2020. To achieve this ambitious goal, the most crucial vehicle apart from power and infrastructure, is a skilled and competent workforce. This is necessary for the effective implementation of national development projects and for attracting necessary international investment by hi-tech industries. (NBTE, 2011).  Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is used as a comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving, in addition to general education, the study of technologies and related sciences, the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life (UNESCO and ILO 2001) In addition to technical knowledge and aptitude, TVET is also concerned with softer skills like communication, negotiation and teamwork. It is dispensed in public and private educational establishments or other forms of formal or informal instructor aimed at granting all segments of the society access to lifelong resources.

Keywords: Development, Economic Depression, Technical, Vocational education


We examine the technical, pure technical, scale and mix efficiencies for a sample of 25 general insurance companies of Pakistan over a period of 2002-2007, using CCR and BCC models of nonparametric frontier approach, data envelopment analysis (DEA). The objective is to provide new insights in value-based technical efficiency of Pakistani general insurance companies. The results show that most of the insurance companies are technical, scale and mix inefficient and the major cause of this inefficiency is excess in labor and shortfall in claims-settled amount.

Keywords: Insurance, Pure technical, Scale efficiency, Technical


University graduate employability rests on university personnel to enhance their employability skills and attitude in Technical and Vocational Education (TVE). University management in Nigeria seems to undermine the right university academic staff in skills and qualities that could contribute to graduate employability in global marketplace. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating staff-personnel management towards technical and vocational education and its implications for graduate employability in Cross River State, Nigeria. It was designed to provide a baseline information for policy-management on education in university knowledge production towards increased productive output. This descriptive survey design study has two hypotheses formulated to guide the study while the related literatures were reviewed. Sample size of 400 university academic staff was drawn from a population of 2,239 members of academic staff from the two universities studied using stratified random sampling technique. A researcher designed questionnaire was used to collect information from the respondents. Data was statistically analyzed using population t-test and independent t-test statistics. Results revealed that staff-personnel management towards TVE was not significantly low and also, not significantly dependent on ownership of the university. It was recommended among others that university management should establish a better work relations between TVE institutions and the labour market for positive inputs and better students’ orientation to the world of work.

Keywords: Employability, Technical, University, Vocational, staff-personnel


This paper was set to examine entrepreneurial, technical and vocational skills required for self-reliant and job creation. The relevance and appropriateness of the entrepreneurial, technical and vocational education curricula for preparing individual for the world of work is not reviewed on a regular basis. Over the years as a result of industrial revolution, new machine, tools were manufactured for production in the company are now outdated. The industries are concerned about inadequate qualification of trained personnel and unemployable graduates that are roaming the street of the nation. Equally, educational institutions are reluctant to revise their curricula. They tend to stick to traditional and theoretical teaching, using outdated materials. Curricula of entrepreneurial, technical and vocational education review commissions are to look at the possibilities of identifying viable skills and initiatives for the acquisition of skills for self-reliant and job creation. The paper pointed out inadequate infrastructure, issues of technology, teaching students theoretically and government interference as challenges that are hindrances to the promotion of skill required for self-reliance and job creation. It also addressed strategies for self-reliance required for skills acquisition with some recommendations suggested that a combined curricula committee should be setup to x-ray the issues of skills among others.

Keywords: Entrepreneur, Self-Reliance and Job Creation, Technical, Vocational, entrepreneurial


The study was carried out to determine strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) to enhance self-employment in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population was made up of 61 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) administrators and 96 entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in the geo-political zones covered by the study. The instrument was face-validated by five TVET experts in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected. The study found strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in TVET as well as the basic entrepreneurship skills for self-employment and the challenges of revitalizing entrepreneurship education implementation in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should create an enabling environment for smooth running of the laudable entrepreneurship education programme Teachers in TVET should adapt to changes by making themselves available for training and re- training on the nitty-gritty of entrepreneurship education

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Implementation, Revitalizing, Self-employment, Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET).


Wastewater reuse in agriculture has been identified as a way to alleviate water scarcity, improve crop productivity and improve environmental sustainability. Since the sixties, Morocco has largely contributed to the mobilization of its hydraulic capacities in order to face the demographic increase and sustain its social and economic development. Nonetheless, and in addition to the continuation of the efforts directed to mobilization, and the control of the demand, the limited hydraulic potential requires the resort to unconventional resources. The use of treated wastewater in irrigation is necessity for a better water resources economy. The present article deals with the experiences carried out in Morocco in this domain. In spite of the progress that has been achieved in the last decade on technical, institutional, financial and legislative levels as regards the development of the process “sewage network-treatment-reuse”, obstacles still hinder the deployment of the re-use of treated wastewater. In the current state of affairs, no project integrating the three components has been realized. This paradoxical situation is due to several constraints

Keywords: Agriculture, Effluent Quality, Morocco, Technical, Wastewater Reuse, Wastewater Treatment

Strategies for Empowering Individuals for Self-employment through Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nigeria. (Published)

The study was carried out to determine the strategies that can be employed to empower individuals for self-employment through Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population was made up of 54 technical teachers and 73 technical instructors in the technical colleges and skill acquisition centres in the zones covered by the study. The instrument was face-validated by five TVET experts in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability and a reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected. The strategies determined are agreed upon as empowerment strategies as well as the training facilities and challenges of TVET in empowering individuals for self-employment. It was recommended that public/private partnership should be encouraged in the funding and management of TVET to empower individuals for self-employment. 

Keywords: Empowerment, Self-employment, Strategies., Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET).