A way to analyse the tenets of English Language in terms of learning and teaching and process of developing skills in English Language to the non- native speakers (Published)
Language is just like an effluent river. It is a medium of communication which needs to have some approaches in both learning and teaching procedure , which are the combination of so many components and factors. Actually, a language comes through evolution which is adapted through different sorts of changes and changeling over the years. After coming into certain structure, language may be a bit stable and then , the way of learning and teaching becomes volatile due the cultural variation , its wide use and different usage as a tool of connecting language and increasing popularity across the world . Likewise , English language has come across a long way through its wide use and acceptance around the world . But the acquisition of Language to the non -native English speaking is variable due to level of accomplishment in the aforesaid language. In this article a focus is given on the utility and efficacy of approaches , methods and techniques in accordance with decisive factors under the aegis of ambience to improve the skills in English language. The article also describes some internal linguistic ways and means to learn a language with the function of the intrinsic and extrinsic faculties which is to be experimented and justified to have a greater accomplishment in the projected language
Examining reading and writing approaches used in the teaching of reading and writing abilities in South Africa (Published)
The education-specific policy on language in South Africa lays emphasis on teaching, use and promotion of all official languages, through what is described as additive multilingualism. Mother tongue is universally acknowledged as the most effective way to function both cognitively and socially. The focus of the paper is on the methods used to teach reading and writing in Grade One. The study was conducted at four different Primary Schools where Sepedi is the Language of Teaching and Learning (LOLT). Observations, interviews and document analysis were used for data collection. The findings was that teachers resort to two to three methods i.e. whole class reading, paired reading and reading aloud of which does not yield good results. There are also challenges which contribute to the abovementioned issue: lack of resources, lack of parental involvement and overcrowded classes to name a few. The aim of this study was to establish how reading and writing in Sepedi as the home language was taught in Grade One in Mpumalanga Province primary schools in rural areas. A qualitative approach utilising an interpretive design was used. The findings indicated that teachers resorted to few and same strategies for teaching reading. In addition, findings support the notion that there are challenges in teaching reading in Grade One.
Enhancing Language Learning Through Technology (Published)
This paper examines current research and developments in the field of language learning and teaching, focusing on role of educational technology and digital communications in acquisition of new or second languages. The purpose of the study is to consider the impact of evolving technologies, including devices such as computers, smartphones, and tablets, as well as more traditional media such as film, photography and written or printed materials. A review of current literature and studies in language learning is presented, describing works on the ethics, values and culture of the internet. The general research question is, How can new technology be used to enhance language learning by second language and foreign language learners? The study employs an interpretivist, qualitative research method, and concludes that digital technologies constitute a new literacy and essential component of language learning and communication. Further research into the various tools and techniques of digital instruction is recommended.
The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)
This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This is known from the results of observations made by the researchers themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher conducted a research development aimed at (1) to analyze the development process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of 75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28, while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.
Effects of Socratic Questioning Teaching Strategy on the Achievement of Public Secondary Schools Biology Students in Langtan North, Plateau State, Nigeria (Published)
The effect of Socratic questioning teaching strategy on the achievements of students on the concept of habitat was investigated. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental, specifically the pre-test post-test control group design. There are 14 public secondary schools in Langtang north with a population of 2740 students. Two schools were randomly sampled. One was randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group. They were used as intact groups. The sample was made up of 96 students, (50 males and 46 females). Four research questions were answered while six hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument used for data collection was a 30-item test. The instrument was validated and its reliability established at 0.84. The data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and the t-test. Findings indicated that the Socratic teaching had significant effect on the students’ performance. The use of the Socratic teaching strategy was recommended.
Teaching Business English at Non-Specialized Faculties in Azerbaijan (Results of Experimental Analysis at Azerbaijan State Economic University) (Published)
The article deals with the problem of Teaching Business English at non-specialized faculties of Azerbaijan. Business English is one of the branches of ESP, and it is the mostly used area in the world nowadays. Some authors, such as, Hutchinson T and Waters A, David Carver, Robinson, Toni Dudley-Evans, Jeremy Harmer, R.Mackay & A.J.Mountford and some other investigated ESP and its classification. In the 2nd part of the 19th century, Business English began to develop as an independent area of ESP and for learning it, learners should have General English knowledge. The main purpose of the article is to hold an experiment at non-specialized faculties in Azerbaijan. So, Azerbaijan State Economic University was chosen as a target place for the experiment. A two-part experiment, each of which continued for 5 weeks, was held at ASEU in 2 experimental and 2 control groups. The results of the experiment are described in the tables given below.
Gender Metamorphoses in the Use of ICT Tools: A Case Study at Offinso College of Education (Published)
The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education cannot be overemphasized, hence teachers as agents of education are expected to acquire the essential skills to help train the 21st century child to survive in the current competitive and technologically driven world. The study aimed at the impact of ICT on Male and Female student-teachers in Colleges of Education in Ghana. The Mixed research design which takes into consideration the various factors that influence ICT access and usage in Colleges of Education was used. It outlines the various factors that militate against successful integration of ICT tools in teaching and learning. The extent to which student-teachers are embracing technology in their learning have been analysed. The study used questionnaire and participatory observation of classroom activities to collect data from hundred and forty (140) Student-teachers at Offinso College of Education. The findings show no significant difference in access and usage of ICT tools among male and female student-teachers. The study revealed lack of technical support and maintenance as a significant impediment to the development of ICT in the College of education. However, there was no significant difference in access and use of ICT tool since student-teachers share similar backgrounds.
The Effects of Code Switching On English Language Teaching and Learning at Two Schools in Sibbinda Circuit (Published)
Code-switching is mostly used by different language users, this diversion from the language of instruction to the language that accommodates is said to have certain effects on learning and teaching. Though code-switching has been discouraged, little is known whether it has negative or positive effects on English language learning and teaching. This study mainly focused on the effects that code-switching has on English teaching and learning. This study was guided by the following research questions: What impacts does code-switching have on the learning and teaching of English? What perception do learners and teachers have towards code-switching at the selected school? And how does the society influence code-switching at the selected school? A qualitative research design was used for this study. The population consisted of two schools (one primary school, and a secondary school, but it focused on upper primary grades only). The sample consisted of grade 5-7 learners and teachers. Nine learners and four teachers were selected to participate in this article. Data was collected using interviews and observations. Code-switching has positive effects on English language learning and teaching. It helps learners to understand difficult aspects of the lesson taught and therefore are able to follow the instructions given. When the teacher explains what was said in mother tongue, it helps learners to participate especially those with English learning difficulties. It also helps them to express themselves if they do not know how to say certain things in English. Furthermore, code-switching helps teachers manage their classrooms.
The thresholds are the distinctive delimitation of concepts. It is applicable wherever and whenever a concept is defined. Phenomena, event, experiences, existence, and stimuli are subject to threshold laws. In this work the Threshold is classified into discrete, continuous, anecdotal, circumstantial, circumstantial, cooperate, transitional, or absolute forms. It has different categories and one of such is the Cognitive threshold which is the span or range within which any cognitive function can take place. The cognitive threshold can be affected by physical, biological, psychological, sociological, environmental factors. It is dynamic, is made up of factors and exists within range. It can be applied in Testing Diagnosis and in Learning.
Teaching and Learning Creativity in Fashion. A Case Study of the Fashion Department of Takoradi Technical University (Published)
Ghanaian fashion products are generally described as “unattractive’ or “unimaginative” due mainly to poor creative designs. As a result, many Ghanaian fashion designers who are largely tertiary education graduates have been unable to compete favourably in both the local and international fashion markets. With increasing complaints about the lack of creativity in Ghanaian clothing designs, it became imperative to research into the reasons for the poor creative skills of the fashion design graduates of the Technical Universities. Several factors could account for the poor creative skills of the fashion graduates; one critical factor being the method of teaching and learning creative design skills. The main thrust of this research is to examine the professionalism of the lecturers, the attitude of students to learning and the effectiveness of the teaching and learning methods and models used in the Technical University to promote student learning and development. The study briefly outlined existing theoretical frameworks on teaching and learning in colleges and their application to achieve effective student learning and acquisition of creative skills. The study employed the descriptive survey method; using Questionnaires, structured Interview and Observation instruments to gather primary data from professional fashion designers, lecturers and students on how to enhance the teaching and learning of creative fashion design. This research confirmed the use of the traditional methods (lectures and textbooks) of teaching and learning at the Takoradi Technical University which according to existing research findings did not support the effective development and training of students to become life-long learners or critical thinkers. The study therefore recommended the use of more of the evidenced- based models like critical thinking and problem solving skills in the teaching and learning of creativity than the much fancied traditional methods of lecture, Hand-outs and textbook. The research concluded by encouraging lecturers to use alternative instructional models in teaching creativity and urging students to acquire innovative and critical thinking skills to become successful fashion designers.
Inclusivity has often been associated with disability and our commitment to inclusivity and its pedagogy means we recognize and value the diversity of our students. As individuals, and as part of a learning community, students are expected to benefit from learning in an environment where they feel included in ways that recognize and support their needs. However, this study, in its attempt to redefine inclusivity beyond its established concept and practice, as stated earlier, concludes that inclusivity in an ELT classroom, is not merely a concept associated with disability; but this phenomenon should be exploited for creating and sustaining a safe, supported, and encouraged ‘learning partnership’ climate to attain students’ intellectual growth and skill development. A review has also been done to assess the ‘convention’ that students and faculty ‘engage’, in terms of a ‘learning and teaching experience’, to enjoy their privileges: from a student perspective, to ‘participate’, and from a faculty perspective, to ‘impart’. At the end, suggestions and recommendations are offered how we as teachers, through inclusive teaching-learning strategies, can create and sustain a ‘learning partnership’ environment in which students are ‘partnered’ meaningfully to facilitate deeper learning and the best educational and professional outcomes.
Teachers Attitude towards Improvisation, Its Effects on the Study of Science at the Junior High Schools in Aowin Municipality-Ghana (Published)
Teaching science requires science teachers to provide enough materials to enable students to learn by using all their senses. Therefore, where the schools are isolated or inaccessible, materials can be improvised to enhance science teaching and learning. This paper seeks to investigate the attitudes of teachers towards improvisation and its effects on the study of science and to suggest recommendations for school administrators. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire. Data for the study were obtained by administering 120 questionnaires to 120 teachers. Ten public Junior High Schools were selected. 12 teachers were sampled randomly from each Junior School making a total of 120. 120 questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. .
Introducing Teaching Literacy Course: Learning From B.Ed (Hons) Student Teachers Reflections (Published)
The study emphasis on to get reflection of students teachers on a such course which one is introduced first time in teacher training institutes where it makes able to student teachers to teach literacy, develop different skills through theories and practices of teaching to understated the need of subject, It gives many opportunities and makes powerful to leaner with the knowledge. The sample consisted of three institutions where the size of sample is 30 samples, in which 10 sample from each institutes. The results signify that student’s teachers felt in difficulty because of no resources, lengthy courses so it taught by theoretical then practices, faced problems in practicing schools and medium of language. On the base of findings recommendations and conclusion were made that need to concise the course contents and give facilities, resources to teach subjects and use the other language where students feel difficulties, and aware to practicing school teachers for worth of subject. This study also recommended that its defined on specific of area of Sindh have hope other will do a research broader level of Pakistan.
Effect of Instructional Strategies on the Teaching and Acquisition of Listening Skills in Kiswahili Language (Published)
The research investigated the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language. Informed by the study, this paper explores how the instructional strategies used influence the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language in Kenyan secondary schools. The study used a sample of 13 secondary schools purposively selected from a total of 41 secondary schools in Wareng’ District, Kenya. Thirteen (13) teachers of Kiswahili and 130 Form Two learners of Kiswahili formed the respondents. The research was a descriptive survey since it set out to discover, describe and interpret existing conditions focusing on secondary school teachers of Kiswahili and Form Two learners. To collect data an interview schedule and an observation schedule were used. The 13 teachers were interviewed, the 130 learners participated in a Focus Group Discussion while 13 Kiswahili lessons were observed and tape-recorded. Analysed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, graphs and charts. The study found that poor teaching strategies used in the teaching of listening in Kiswahili language is one of the main causes of the poor levels of language acquisition. In view of the findings, this study recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should build into their classrooms listening activities that have as much of the characteristics of real life listening as possible. One of the research implication of this study is that a study should be conducted in teacher training institutions to determine the effectiveness of teacher education programs in preparing teachers of Kiswahili in the teaching of listening skills.
Freedom in Life and Its Necessity of Education (Published)
Freedom to carry out the decisions of an individual or community to do his will. If a man can take all the decisions, actions and organizational does not his limit he has absolute freedom. But because the people living in the community cannot have absolute freedom. Absolute freedom of the individual to society, leads to the violation of other people’s freedom. Every community has a special rule. As a result rules define the liberties of people in the world. And the Freedom to teach peoples that people according to this rate, to organize your life.
Problem-Based Teaching and Learning Devices: A Research and Development on Natural Science Materials for Primary School (Published)
This study aims to develop a model of teaching and learning devices of Natural Science subject for primary schools. The devices include curriculum, syllabus, lesson plan, instructional media, and evaluation devices. To achieve the objective, this research applied research and development adopted from Thiagarajan’s 4-D model (1974) with modification. The development consists of four steps: define, design, develop, and disseminate. In developing the teaching and learning devices, this study applied problem-based learning approach by introducing the students to the real problems with five stages; the stages are (a) orient the students to the problem, (b) organize the students to learn, (c) guide the individual research or groups, (d) develop and present the results, and (e) analyze and evaluate the problem-solving process. State Primary school 12 Baruga Kendari, Indonesia was chosen as a place of research. The data were collected through documentation, observation, interviews, and testing. The data were analyzed descriptive qualitatively and quantitatively. The result of the research shows that the process of developing of the teaching and learning model (on Natural Science subject) with problem-based approach consists of several steps; they are identification, needs analysis, design, development, and evaluation (final revision). The teaching and learning devices developed are valid and appropriate to use. The learning devices are effective to be used because of three main reasons: (1) achieving criteria existed above the minimum mastery criteria; (2) the experiment class test results were significantly higher than the control class test results; (3) the developed devices model has met the criteria of practicality
Plan Implementation in Teaching-Learning Observations: Management Implications for Diagnostic Supervision of Secondary Schools in Calabar, Nigeria (Published)
Instructional leadership may affect much innovation only if plan implementation can be properly monitored for improved educational outcomes and expectations. Therefore, this study explored plan implementation in Teaching-Learning Observations (TLOs) and its implications for diagnostic supervision of secondary schools in Calabar, Nigeria. The justification of this study was to determine the power of prediction of instructional plan design and plan monitoring on qualitative teacher education programme for professionalism. A descriptive survey design study was adopted with two research hypotheses to guide the investigation. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 200 teachers out of 590 teachers. Data was collected using researcher designed questionnaire. Percentages, population t-test and multiple regression analysis were applied to statistically analyze data collected. Results obtained revealed that instructional plan implementation could determine the magnitude of teaching-learning observations in the secondary schools studied. It was concluded that proper plan design and plan monitoring were critical conditions which could guarantee better educational outcomes and professionalism. It was recommended that participatory effort should be encouraged among teachers to maintain critical path of quality instructional service delivery for the achievement of diagnostic supervision.
Contribution Of Information Communication Technology To Effective Teaching And Learning Of Agricultural Science In Some Selected Public And Private Secondary Schools In Ibadan North East Local Government In Oyo State (Published)
This study investigates contribution of information communication technology to effective teaching and learning of agricultural science in some selected public and private secondary schools in Ibadan North East Local Government in Oyo State. A descriptive survey research design was adopted and a total population of one hundred (100) students and twenty (20) teachers; fifty (50) students from Ten (10) of the public and private secondary schools respectively and Ten (10) teachers from Ten of the public and private schools were randomly selected for the study. A self-structured questionnaire was used to collect information and a simple percentage and frequency count was used to analyses the collected data also the 4 point likert scale analysis was used to identify various contribution of ict to effective teaching and learning of agricultural science among both the teachers and students in the study area. The results of the findings showed that the use of computer technology in teaching and learning of agricultural science makes the subject more simple, understandable and improves the understanding of the students. It also revealed that students do not have adequate access to Information and Communication Technology ( ICT) facilities in their schools except on their phones. Furthermore, the finding showed that majority of the private secondary schools are using computer technology effectively. In-service training on the use of computer technology and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) should be organized for the teachers and students in public secondary schools by the government.
This paper aims to describe English language teaching as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia. It highlights the nature of the curriculum, teaching procedures and materials. The paper critically reviews the teaching methods, qualifications in addition to concepts related to culture and society.
English nowadays is becoming a second language in many countries over the world. This paper tries to provide a description of the concept English language teaching and learning. The paper reviews different methodologies of teaching English in the education system.