Social Variables as a Determining Factor for Improved Academic Performance of Students in Social Studies in Nigerian Schools (Published)
This research paper examined the social variables as a determining factor for improved academic performance of students in social studies in Nigerian’s schools. This was informed by ineffective utilization of some variables such as instructional materials, quality assurance control, staff and student’s welfare, the school curriculum and other related school policies. It has been discovered that most of these factors are either inadequate or not effectively utilized towards an improved academic achievement of students in social studies.the paper concludes that the discouraging students’ performance in social studies is dependent upon these social variables. It’s is recommended that for students’ academic performance in social studies to improve, modern teaching gadgets should be provided, provision for staff and students’ welfare should be enhanced and qualified social studies teachers should be employed.
Why do early childhood education enrolment rates appear to remain stagnant in Saudi Arabia? (Published)
This report aims to analyze the importance of Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and why the enrolment rates of children at this age have not been growing and remain significantly low as opposed to other countries around the world. This report discusses why Saudi Arabia continues to struggle with and has not been able to recognize and encompass ECE as a vital stage to begin learning. I looked into Saudi Arabia’s ECE past and present enrolment rates and the current vision for ECE based on the Saudi Vision 2030. In addition, I compared Saudi Arabia’s governance and access to ECE and pre-service education and recruitment policies for ECE educators with the UK. Furthermore, I highlighted the implications of not taking advantage of ECE services on global assessments at later stages of learning based on secondary source data from these internationally recognized assessments – Trends in International Maths and Science Study (TIMMS), The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The evidence gathered in this report portrays that Saudi Arabia should modify their ECE policies and framework to achieve its Saudi Vision 2030 goals. It also reviews the UK’s ECE policies, which Saudi Arabia can consider using as a model to reform its policies and increase their enrolment rate at this stage.
The Effect of Stress on Academic Staff Job Performance in Private Universities In Southwestern Nigeria: Bowen University as a focal point. (Published)
This study investigated sources and types of stress and their impact on academic performance of lecturers in a private university in Southwestern Nigeria with a view to devising a more pragmatic approach to the management of stress in such institutions for optimal performance. The study was carried out through survey method by administering structured questionnaire on respondents randomly selected from the academic staff of Bowen University Iwo in September, 2019. One hundred and twenty (120) copies of the questionnaire were prepared and randomly distributed by hand to respondents drawn from various colleges and programs. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in the analysis of the data collected. It was found out that both sources and types of stress have significant impacts on academic performance of lecturers when performance is considered from the points of view of teaching, publication and community service.
The purpose of this paper was to look at social constructivism as a learning theory and its implications on teaching methods, students’ learning motivation and the entire teaching/learning process. Social constructivism is a collaborative form of learning based on interaction, discussion and knowledge sharing among students. The teacher’s role is to employ teaching methods that that are learner centred and collaborative in nature. The underlying factor is that learners work together in groups sharing ideas, finding answers to problems or just creating something new to add to existing knowledge. This learning theory deemphasizes teacher-monotony in the classroom, but encourages active interaction among learners, the teacher and other components of the teaching learning process. It also concretizes learning and knowledge by making students retain the facts that they discover and construct by themselves than those they are told by the teacher among other benefits.
Development and Evaluation of Instructional Video for Teaching and Learning Woodwork Technology Psychomotor Skills in Nigerian Universities: Implication for the Production of Competent Graduates (Published)
Woodwork is one of the areas of Technical Education programme at the University level in Nigeria. The objectives of this programme have not been achieved due to the inadequate nature of materials and human resources for implementing its curriculum. In order to address the issue of Technical Education graduates not possessing employable skills, an intervening measure is to develop and evaluate instructional video for teaching and learning Woodwork Technology. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate Woodwork Technology instructional video. Five (5) research questions guided the study. The population of this study comprised of twenty two (22) heads of units of Building/Woodwork Construction Technology in all the twenty two (22) Universities in Nigeria whose Technical Education programme were accredited as at 2012. The purposive sampling technique was used to select 10 Heads of Units of Building/Woodwork Construction Technology. Primary data were collected using camera and its accessories, and the modified Province of Prince Edwards Island Department of Education DVD/ Video Evaluation form. The data collected was analyzed using frequency count and mean. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the developed instructional video for teaching and learning practical skills in Woodwork Technology at the University level is suitable in terms of its content, instructional design, technical design, and social consideration.
Preparing To Teach Music in the Primary School (Published)
Teaching is the primary duty of teachers. For effective teaching and learning of music in the primary school to take place, teachers are supposed to consider pre-teaching preparation. Some activities that should be considered and included in the preparation stage include the study of content of the syllabus, preparation of the lesson plan, and gathering and preparation of teaching and learning aids/materials. This paper considers pre-teaching preparation for effective teaching of music in the primary school.
Challenges and Solutions of Acquiring Environmental Teaching and Learning Experiences of OTM Programme in Rivers State Polytechnics (Published)
The study adopted survey research design on challenges and solutions of acquiring environmental teaching and learning experiences of OTM programme in Rivers State Polytechnics.. The population of the study was drawn from CEAPOLY and KENPOLY of NDII, HNDI and HNDII numbered 596 students of OTM programme with a sample of 234 using Krejie and Morgan sampling technique. The research instrument used was “challenges and solutions of acquiring environmental teaching and learning experiences”, (CASAETALE) with a five point scale. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts. To ascertain the reliability and consistency of measurement, a pilot study was carried on 12 students which yielded 0.97 co-efficient. A total of 234 copies of the questionnaire were administered and 132 successfully retrieved. Mean statistics was used to answer the research questions, Standard Deviation used to find out the extent in which scores clustered around the means and t-test used to analyse the hypotheses. The finding showed that there was very high level of challenges of acquiring environmental teaching and learning experiences and very high level of solutions to those challenges of acquiring environmental teaching and learning experiences of OTM programme. Among other things, it was recommended that government and concerned organizations should make appropriate and adequate teaching and learning environment, facilities and equipment for appropriate environmental teaching and learning experiences to take place in the Polytechnics in Rivers State.
The teacher training program must be of paramount importance in order to establish a strong educational system that serves the objectives of the country’s educational policy. Bachelor of Education program (B.ED) in Bahrain Teachers College (BTC) at Bahrain University is specially designed to prepare an efficient teacher capable of implementing and achieving the educational objectives prepared by the Ministry of Education. This research aims to investigate the BTC graduates, senior teachers and school principals’ views of the B.ED program of BTC, and to what extent it prepared and trained BTC students to put theories into practice. Data was collected through a questionnaire. 183 participants took part in the study. The findings revealed that the program was effective in helping candidate teachers to acquire the necessary skills of instructional strategies, use of technology and effective communication. On the other hand, some of the participants responses demonstrated that some graduates are weak in content knowledge. Therefore, they suggest more training in the content knowledge for the specialization they have to teach.
A way to analyse the tenets of English Language in terms of learning and teaching and process of developing skills in English Language to the non- native speakers (Published)
Language is just like an effluent river. It is a medium of communication which needs to have some approaches in both learning and teaching procedure , which are the combination of so many components and factors. Actually, a language comes through evolution which is adapted through different sorts of changes and changeling over the years. After coming into certain structure, language may be a bit stable and then , the way of learning and teaching becomes volatile due the cultural variation , its wide use and different usage as a tool of connecting language and increasing popularity across the world . Likewise , English language has come across a long way through its wide use and acceptance around the world . But the acquisition of Language to the non -native English speaking is variable due to level of accomplishment in the aforesaid language. In this article a focus is given on the utility and efficacy of approaches , methods and techniques in accordance with decisive factors under the aegis of ambience to improve the skills in English language. The article also describes some internal linguistic ways and means to learn a language with the function of the intrinsic and extrinsic faculties which is to be experimented and justified to have a greater accomplishment in the projected language
Examining reading and writing approaches used in the teaching of reading and writing abilities in South Africa (Published)
The education-specific policy on language in South Africa lays emphasis on teaching, use and promotion of all official languages, through what is described as additive multilingualism. Mother tongue is universally acknowledged as the most effective way to function both cognitively and socially. The focus of the paper is on the methods used to teach reading and writing in Grade One. The study was conducted at four different Primary Schools where Sepedi is the Language of Teaching and Learning (LOLT). Observations, interviews and document analysis were used for data collection. The findings was that teachers resort to two to three methods i.e. whole class reading, paired reading and reading aloud of which does not yield good results. There are also challenges which contribute to the abovementioned issue: lack of resources, lack of parental involvement and overcrowded classes to name a few. The aim of this study was to establish how reading and writing in Sepedi as the home language was taught in Grade One in Mpumalanga Province primary schools in rural areas. A qualitative approach utilising an interpretive design was used. The findings indicated that teachers resorted to few and same strategies for teaching reading. In addition, findings support the notion that there are challenges in teaching reading in Grade One.
Enhancing Language Learning Through Technology (Published)
This paper examines current research and developments in the field of language learning and teaching, focusing on role of educational technology and digital communications in acquisition of new or second languages. The purpose of the study is to consider the impact of evolving technologies, including devices such as computers, smartphones, and tablets, as well as more traditional media such as film, photography and written or printed materials. A review of current literature and studies in language learning is presented, describing works on the ethics, values and culture of the internet. The general research question is, How can new technology be used to enhance language learning by second language and foreign language learners? The study employs an interpretivist, qualitative research method, and concludes that digital technologies constitute a new literacy and essential component of language learning and communication. Further research into the various tools and techniques of digital instruction is recommended.
The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)
This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This is known from the results of observations made by the researchers themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher conducted a research development aimed at (1) to analyze the development process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of 75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28, while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.
Effects of Socratic Questioning Teaching Strategy on the Achievement of Public Secondary Schools Biology Students in Langtan North, Plateau State, Nigeria (Published)
The effect of Socratic questioning teaching strategy on the achievements of students on the concept of habitat was investigated. The design of the study was a quasi-experimental, specifically the pre-test post-test control group design. There are 14 public secondary schools in Langtang north with a population of 2740 students. Two schools were randomly sampled. One was randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other to the control group. They were used as intact groups. The sample was made up of 96 students, (50 males and 46 females). Four research questions were answered while six hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument used for data collection was a 30-item test. The instrument was validated and its reliability established at 0.84. The data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and the t-test. Findings indicated that the Socratic teaching had significant effect on the students’ performance. The use of the Socratic teaching strategy was recommended.
Teaching Business English at Non-Specialized Faculties in Azerbaijan (Results of Experimental Analysis at Azerbaijan State Economic University) (Published)
The article deals with the problem of Teaching Business English at non-specialized faculties of Azerbaijan. Business English is one of the branches of ESP, and it is the mostly used area in the world nowadays. Some authors, such as, Hutchinson T and Waters A, David Carver, Robinson, Toni Dudley-Evans, Jeremy Harmer, R.Mackay & A.J.Mountford and some other investigated ESP and its classification. In the 2nd part of the 19th century, Business English began to develop as an independent area of ESP and for learning it, learners should have General English knowledge. The main purpose of the article is to hold an experiment at non-specialized faculties in Azerbaijan. So, Azerbaijan State Economic University was chosen as a target place for the experiment. A two-part experiment, each of which continued for 5 weeks, was held at ASEU in 2 experimental and 2 control groups. The results of the experiment are described in the tables given below.
Gender Metamorphoses in the Use of ICT Tools: A Case Study at Offinso College of Education (Published)
The role of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education cannot be overemphasized, hence teachers as agents of education are expected to acquire the essential skills to help train the 21st century child to survive in the current competitive and technologically driven world. The study aimed at the impact of ICT on Male and Female student-teachers in Colleges of Education in Ghana. The Mixed research design which takes into consideration the various factors that influence ICT access and usage in Colleges of Education was used. It outlines the various factors that militate against successful integration of ICT tools in teaching and learning. The extent to which student-teachers are embracing technology in their learning have been analysed. The study used questionnaire and participatory observation of classroom activities to collect data from hundred and forty (140) Student-teachers at Offinso College of Education. The findings show no significant difference in access and usage of ICT tools among male and female student-teachers. The study revealed lack of technical support and maintenance as a significant impediment to the development of ICT in the College of education. However, there was no significant difference in access and use of ICT tool since student-teachers share similar backgrounds.
The Effects of Code Switching On English Language Teaching and Learning at Two Schools in Sibbinda Circuit (Published)
Code-switching is mostly used by different language users, this diversion from the language of instruction to the language that accommodates is said to have certain effects on learning and teaching. Though code-switching has been discouraged, little is known whether it has negative or positive effects on English language learning and teaching. This study mainly focused on the effects that code-switching has on English teaching and learning. This study was guided by the following research questions: What impacts does code-switching have on the learning and teaching of English? What perception do learners and teachers have towards code-switching at the selected school? And how does the society influence code-switching at the selected school? A qualitative research design was used for this study. The population consisted of two schools (one primary school, and a secondary school, but it focused on upper primary grades only). The sample consisted of grade 5-7 learners and teachers. Nine learners and four teachers were selected to participate in this article. Data was collected using interviews and observations. Code-switching has positive effects on English language learning and teaching. It helps learners to understand difficult aspects of the lesson taught and therefore are able to follow the instructions given. When the teacher explains what was said in mother tongue, it helps learners to participate especially those with English learning difficulties. It also helps them to express themselves if they do not know how to say certain things in English. Furthermore, code-switching helps teachers manage their classrooms.
The thresholds are the distinctive delimitation of concepts. It is applicable wherever and whenever a concept is defined. Phenomena, event, experiences, existence, and stimuli are subject to threshold laws. In this work the Threshold is classified into discrete, continuous, anecdotal, circumstantial, circumstantial, cooperate, transitional, or absolute forms. It has different categories and one of such is the Cognitive threshold which is the span or range within which any cognitive function can take place. The cognitive threshold can be affected by physical, biological, psychological, sociological, environmental factors. It is dynamic, is made up of factors and exists within range. It can be applied in Testing Diagnosis and in Learning.
Teaching and Learning Creativity in Fashion. A Case Study of the Fashion Department of Takoradi Technical University (Published)
Ghanaian fashion products are generally described as “unattractive’ or “unimaginative” due mainly to poor creative designs. As a result, many Ghanaian fashion designers who are largely tertiary education graduates have been unable to compete favourably in both the local and international fashion markets. With increasing complaints about the lack of creativity in Ghanaian clothing designs, it became imperative to research into the reasons for the poor creative skills of the fashion design graduates of the Technical Universities. Several factors could account for the poor creative skills of the fashion graduates; one critical factor being the method of teaching and learning creative design skills. The main thrust of this research is to examine the professionalism of the lecturers, the attitude of students to learning and the effectiveness of the teaching and learning methods and models used in the Technical University to promote student learning and development. The study briefly outlined existing theoretical frameworks on teaching and learning in colleges and their application to achieve effective student learning and acquisition of creative skills. The study employed the descriptive survey method; using Questionnaires, structured Interview and Observation instruments to gather primary data from professional fashion designers, lecturers and students on how to enhance the teaching and learning of creative fashion design. This research confirmed the use of the traditional methods (lectures and textbooks) of teaching and learning at the Takoradi Technical University which according to existing research findings did not support the effective development and training of students to become life-long learners or critical thinkers. The study therefore recommended the use of more of the evidenced- based models like critical thinking and problem solving skills in the teaching and learning of creativity than the much fancied traditional methods of lecture, Hand-outs and textbook. The research concluded by encouraging lecturers to use alternative instructional models in teaching creativity and urging students to acquire innovative and critical thinking skills to become successful fashion designers.
Inclusivity has often been associated with disability and our commitment to inclusivity and its pedagogy means we recognize and value the diversity of our students. As individuals, and as part of a learning community, students are expected to benefit from learning in an environment where they feel included in ways that recognize and support their needs. However, this study, in its attempt to redefine inclusivity beyond its established concept and practice, as stated earlier, concludes that inclusivity in an ELT classroom, is not merely a concept associated with disability; but this phenomenon should be exploited for creating and sustaining a safe, supported, and encouraged ‘learning partnership’ climate to attain students’ intellectual growth and skill development. A review has also been done to assess the ‘convention’ that students and faculty ‘engage’, in terms of a ‘learning and teaching experience’, to enjoy their privileges: from a student perspective, to ‘participate’, and from a faculty perspective, to ‘impart’. At the end, suggestions and recommendations are offered how we as teachers, through inclusive teaching-learning strategies, can create and sustain a ‘learning partnership’ environment in which students are ‘partnered’ meaningfully to facilitate deeper learning and the best educational and professional outcomes.
Teachers Attitude towards Improvisation, Its Effects on the Study of Science at the Junior High Schools in Aowin Municipality-Ghana (Published)
Teaching science requires science teachers to provide enough materials to enable students to learn by using all their senses. Therefore, where the schools are isolated or inaccessible, materials can be improvised to enhance science teaching and learning. This paper seeks to investigate the attitudes of teachers towards improvisation and its effects on the study of science and to suggest recommendations for school administrators. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire. Data for the study were obtained by administering 120 questionnaires to 120 teachers. Ten public Junior High Schools were selected. 12 teachers were sampled randomly from each Junior School making a total of 120. 120 questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. .