This paper seeks to give a clear understanding of Zakat application, taxes, and highlights their explanation according to Sharia law. Moreover, this paper gives a comprehensive example of undeveloped lands in Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia.
Investigating the possibility of applying Zakat or Fees to reduce undeveloped lands in Riyadh – Saudi Arabia (Published)
This study aims to identify and analyze the causes of the wide spread of undeveloped lands in Riyadh, evaluate current obstacles to reduce their size, analyze current government policies, critically evaluate current proposals, and suggesting recommendations to adjust regulations concerning undeveloped lands in Riyadh. The study opted to a mixed method approach through a questionnaire as a tool to collecting data. The sample was composed of 60 participants containing investors, brokers, real estate developers, religious scholars, law experts, government officials, and consumers. After analyzing the data, the results appeared as follows: Monopoly is on the top the obstructive factors, then comes the unwillingness of real estate investors to accelerate the development of their undeveloped lands, as well as the lack of basic rules concerning the donation of lands to citizens and the lack of procedures in monitoring the investment of undeveloped lands. The current government policies concerning undeveloped lands are not clearly defined or set in professional way. The researcher recommends an integrated plan consisting of chronologic stages of solving the whole case of undeveloped lands, starting with warning periods, giving priority to the most important and strategic pieces of land, and starting with the largest areas, as well as recommendation to fulfill further field studies about complicated cases of undeveloped lands in big cities of the Kingdom Saudi Arabia
AN EMPIRICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE MACROECONOMIC EFFECT OF A SHIFT FROM INDIRECT TO DIRECT TAXES IN COTE D’IVOIRE (Published)
This paper examines the long-run effect of a shift from indirect to direct taxes for Cote d’Ivoire using data for the period 1960 to 2006. The residual-based test of Gregory and Hansen (1996) is employed to test for cointegration and the Engle-Yoo (1987) three-step procedure is used to estimate the long-run effect of tax variables on real output. The results reveal that tax burden and tax mix are negatively associated with output, with tax burden having a much greater adverse effect on GDP than tax mix. The effect of the tax mix on GDP is contingent on the level of the tax burden and diminishes as tax burden increases. Our estimates also suggest that up to a threshold level of tax burden of 17.57%, increased direct taxation relative to indirect taxation is associated with decreased output. But beyond this threshold a move from indirect to direct taxes is likely to lead to higher levels of output.
General Budget in Iraq relied on oil revenues to finance aspects of spending accounting for a large proportion of between (9497%) of the total public revenues estimated, posing a risk to the overall Iraqi economy to link oil prices, foreign currency and its impact by making the economy of Iraq depends resource and one to get its revenue, while the amount of the contribution of other revenue ranged between percentage (6.3%) of the estimated total public revenues, and decreased tax rate in the state budget over the past years, ranging between (25%) of the total estimated revenue. Since starting the process of economic reform requires activating the role of the sovereign and in particular tax revenues, it has been highlighted on the size of tax revenue and its role in the financing of the budget for the period 2011 until 2013 statement continued reliance on oil revenues, up to the present day.Through this study also measured the tax performance indicators for the period 2004- 2012, which are available data, to measure the effectiveness of the tax system through tax power indicator, the tax burden, tax effort, the income elasticity of taxes, has been shown that there is an untapped tax energy in the Iraqi tax system helps on the possibility of introducing new vessels within the tax structure and the imposition of new taxes