Tag Archives: Tanzania

Partnership between Technical Institutions and the Engineering Industry in Addressing Manpower Needs of the Labour Market in Tanzania (Published)

The issue of mismatch between technical education graduates’ skills and labour market demands has been an important discourse in Tanzania as in other developing countries, with employers expressing their concern about poor quality of graduates. Strong partnership between training institutions and employers is considered a vital factor to make training respond to the labour market demands. The study has revealed existence of weak partnership working between technical institutions offering engineering programmes and employers of engineering graduates in terms of collaboration in determining training needs, curriculum development, students’ and teachers’ internships and resource collaboration (finance, human resource, learning facilities). It is therefore recommended to establish strong partnership working to enable technical institutions produce qualified graduates for the labour market.

Keywords: Partnership, Tanzania, engineering industry, technical institutions

The contributions of Social Media as sources of information to the Newspapers in Tanzania (Published)

The attention of this study was to examine the contributions made by social media as “sources of information” to the newspapers in Tanzania. Specifically, the study examined the extent through which social media had contributed news stories for the selected newspapers in the country. The study also sought to determine the social media which had often contributed news stories to the selected newspapers. Lastly, the study, pursued to determine the contents and nature of the stories retrieved from the social media by the selected newspapers. This was a content analysis study which utilized documentary review of the three selected newspapers. Three newspapers of Mwananchi, Daily News, and the Citizen were purposefully selected for the study. A recording manual was designed and used during the documentary review and the unit of analysis included: hard news stories, soft news stories, column, editorial comment, features and sports stories. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data since the study carried qualitative data. The findings suggest that social media have played a significant contribution in providing news stories for the newspapers in Tanzania. It further suggest that, in all social media used, Twitter is the number one social media which provides more news stories to the newspapers in Tanzania. Lastly, the findings suggest that most of the news stories retrieved from social media were political stories, entertainment, and sports.

Keywords: Contribution, Newspapers, Social media, Tanzania, as sources of information

Succession Planning Challenges in the Public Sector in Tanzania (Published)

Succession planning is a human resource management strategy used to prepare a pool of employees with necessary competences and capabilities to become successors of senior officers leaving an organisation for various reasons such as retirement, resignation, transfer, termination, death or any other forms of separation from employment. This study which was conducted in one of the Public Sector Organisations in Tanzania revealed that succession planning is affected by shortage of staff, lack of qualified staff, lack of experienced staff and aging of the workforce. To resolve the challenges of succession planning, it is recommended to employ human resource management strategies such as recruitment, training and rewards to increase the number, quality and experience of staff at all levels and consider age factor in recruiting and preparing employees for succession.

Keywords: Succession planning, Tanzania, the Public Sector

Contribution of School-Based Income Generating Activities in Quality Education Provision in Secondary Schools Managed by the Catholic Diocese of Moshi, Tanzania (Published)

The purpose of this study was to find out the contribution of school-based income generating activities (IGAs) in quality education provision in secondary schools managed by the Catholic Diocese of Moshi (CDM). This study was conducted in October, 2017 in 12 secondary schools managed by the CDM comprising 8 co-education, 2 girls and 2 boys’ secondary schools. The study adopted a quantitative approach under a cross-sectional survey research design. A sample size of 252 respondents was selected to be part of this study; this included a total of 168 Students and 72 Teachers using stratified and simple random sampling. The study also automatically involved 12 Heads of schools. Data was collected through self-administering Questionnaires to the Heads of schools, Teachers and Students; and Document Analysis Schedule for examine Form Four National Examination results from secondary schools selected as a sample of the study. The data obtained was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 14, into percentages and frequencies; and presented by using tables. The results of this study indicated that; crops, vegetable and poultry farming were the main school-based IGAs in secondary schools managed by the CDM; provision of teaching and learning materials as the most contribution of school-based IGAs to the secondary schools managed by the CDM; lack of entrepreneurship skills among the school-based IGAs stakeholders was the main challenge affecting Heads of Schools in management of school-based IGAs in secondary schools managed by the CDM; and finally a suggestion of  creation of awareness and cooperation’s among the school-based IGAs stakeholders were the main possible solution to challenges facing Heads of Schools in management of school-based IGAs in the secondary schools managed by the CDM. This study concluded that school-based IGAs are very useful alternative ways of producing additional funds as they enable secondary schools managed by the CDM to solve financial problems. The study recommended that; Heads of Schools, Teachers and Students should be given special entrepreneurship training on transparence and accountability before the design and implementation of any school-based IGAs in secondary schools managed by the CDM.

Keywords: Education Sector, Income Generating, Quality Education, Secondary Schools, Tanzania

Economic Growth beyond Structural Transformation in Tanzania: Small and Vulnerable Economy (Published)

War against three development archenemies (ignorance, poverty and disease) started in 1961. Enormous efforts have been underway in different phases with different objectives. Tanzania Development Vision (TDV-2025) came up with the goal of transforming the nation in to semi-industrial or middle income nation. This paper investigates economic growth beyond structure changes to analyse nexus between structure transformation and productive sector during growth process. The study found that despite of up-haphazard structure changes there is direct connection between structure changes and economic growth. Statistics shows that 1% change in the primary, secondary, high school, vocational/college and university create a change of 33.5%, 1.9%, 27.1%, 0.1% and 23.9% to the employment respectively. Similarly, 1% change in employment in agriculture, industry and service sector create change of 9.8%, 0.06% and 2.5% to the GDP respectively. Means, education is the determinant of changes in the employment while employment determines changes in the GDP

Keywords: GDP, Inclusive Growth, Structure Transformation, Tanzania

Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Tanzania: A Time Series Analysis (Published)

This study empirically examines the long-run and short-run relationship between government expenditure and Economic growth in Tanzania over the period of 1996-2014 making the use of annual secondary time series data. The Error Correcting Model (ECM) is employed to examine the long-run and short-run estimates of parameters. In addition to that the granger causality test is employed to determine whether government expenditures granger causes economic growth. In the long-run government expenditure is found to be statistically significant and has positive relationship with economic growth. The short -run estimates show there is no significant relationship between government expenditures and economic growth.  The results of granger causality test show uni-directional causality running from economic growth to government expenditures. The government of Tanzania should improve in the allocation of resources in its development expenditure and social services expenditure and channel such expenditure to allow for private sector participation and infrastructure development in order to accelerate economic growth.

Keywords: Government Expenditure, Tanzania, Time Series Analysis, economic growth

The Effects of Peri-Urbanization on Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (Published)

Although peri-urbanisation seems to be a driving force for city expansion in most cities of the developing world, the unguided nature and rapid rate of growth is increasingly raising a concern over the future sustainability of these cities. Peri-urbanization has been taking place at the expensive of rich agricultural hinterlands and depletion of natural resources. This type of urbanization culminates into conflict between natural resources conservation initiatives and human activities. This paper attempts to analyse the link between peri-urbanization processes and its effects on nearby forest reserves of Pugu and Kazimzumbwi in Dar es Salaam City. Empirical evidence for this paper was captured through analysis of aerial photographs covering a period between 1975 and 2012.  Household interviews covering a total of 150 households were administered in three settlements of Buyuni, Chanika and Masaki. Literature review, focus group discussions, resource mapping were also used to capture population dynamics, quantify types and trends of forest ecosystem services over the period of 37 years. Empirical evidence shows that; while built up area increased from 2.4 to 19.1 percent, overall closed forest decreased by 57 percent within the same period. The decrease in forest cover has been accompanied by the decline in forest ecosystem services namely, the decline in number and type of plant and animal species and drying of water sources. In view of these effects, it has been recommended that the government in collaboration with key stakeholders should engage in developing guidelines for managing peri-urbanization processes and creating community awareness for sustainable development and co-existence of urbanization processes and forest reserves.

Keywords: Dar es Salaam, Forest reserves, Peri-urbanization, Tanzania, ecosystem services

The Effects of Peri-Urbanization on Pugu and Kazimzumbwi Forest Reserves, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania (Published)

Although peri-urbanisation seems to be a driving force for city expansion in most cities of the developing world, the unguided nature and rapid rate of growth is increasingly raising a concern over the future sustainability of these cities. Peri-urbanization has been taking place at the expensive of rich agricultural hinterlands and depletion of natural resources. This type of urbanization culminates into conflict between natural resources conservation initiatives and human activities. This paper attempts to analyse the link between peri-urbanization processes and its effects on nearby forest reserves of Pugu and Kazimzumbwi in Dar es Salaam City. Empirical evidence for this paper was captured through analysis of aerial photographs covering a period between 1975 and 2012. Household interviews covering a total of 150 households were administered in three settlements of Buyuni, Chanika and Masaki. Literature review, focus group discussions, resource mapping were also used to capture population dynamics, quantify types and trends of forest ecosystem services over the period of 37 years. Empirical evidence shows that; while built up area increased from 2.4 to 19.1 percent, overall closed forest decreased by 57 percent within the same period. The decrease in forest cover has been accompanied by the decline in forest ecosystem services namely, the decline in number and type of plant and animal species and drying of water sources. In view of these effects, it has been recommended that the government in collaboration with key stakeholders should engage in developing guidelines for managing peri-urbanization processes and creating community awareness for sustainable development and co-existence of urbanization processes and forest reserves.

Keywords: Dar es Salaam, Forest reserves, Peri-urbanization, Tanzania, ecosystem services

ECONOMIC GROWTH BEYOND STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN TANZANIA- SMALL AND VULNERABLE ECONOMY (Published)

War against three development archenemies (ignorance, poverty and disease) started in 1961. Since then enormous efforts have been underway in different phases with different objectives. Recently, Tanzania Development Vision (TDV-2025) set the goal of transforming the nation in to semi-industrial or middle income nation. This paper investigates economic growth beyond structure changes to analyse nexus between structure transformation and productive sector during growth process. The study found that despite of up-haphazard structure changes there is direct connection between structure changes and economic growth. Statistics shows that 1% change in the primary, secondary, high school, vocational/college and university create a change of 33.5%, 1.9%, 27.1%, 0.1% and 23.9% to the employment respectively. Similarly, 1% change in employment in agriculture, industry and service sector create change of 9.8%, 0.06% and 2.5% to the GDP respectively. Therefore, education is the determinant of changes in the employment while employment determines changes in the GDP.

Keywords: GDP, Inclusive Growth, Structure Transformation, Tanzania

FACTORS INFLUENCING HOLDING OF DROUGHT INSURANCE CONTRACTS BY SMALLHOLDERS IN BUNDA (Published)

The objective of this study was to understand factors influencing farmers’ holding of drought insurance contracts. Using questionnaires, a cross sectional survey with 410 randomly selected household heads was conducted to cotton growers from three wards of Bunda district in Tanzania, involving farmers who were in the program and non-participating farmers. Results from logistic regression analysis indicated that, perception of respondents about the drought incidence occurrences, household that previously suffered loss due to drought and the productive age with more experience in farming had negative influence on holding of drought insurance contract in the study area. Farmers’ needs should be considered and adequately incorporated into technical arrangements of program implementation to improve participation of farmers in the drought insurance program

Keywords: Contract holding, Cotton growers, Drought insurance, Tanzania

EFFECT OF INTERNAL CUSTOMER CARE ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION IN TANZANIA’S SMALL AND MEDIUM HOTEL INDUSTRY ENTERPRISES (Published)

This article presents the findings of the study carried out in Tanzania on the influence of internal customer care on the satisfaction of employees. The hotels, which largely depend on customer care for their success in the hospitality industry, were used as a case study. The paper utilises data generated in two phases. The initial data was originally collected by the author during postgraduate diploma studies at the University of Dar es salaam in 2007. Supplementary data was collected between June and December 2012 using semi-structured and descriptive study. A sample of 79 respondents was selected purposive. Based on the literature, the author developed a conceptual framework for analysing the relationship between internal customer care and employee satisfaction. Although customer care has become a celebrated concept in the existing literature, the application appears limited largely to taking care of the buyer at the expense of the internal customer, the employee. Indicative qualitative responses of the employees in the current study show that those hotels, which honoured internal customer care boosted their employees’ morale and commitment, thus leading to job satisfaction, which is a crucial factor in promoting quality service in the hotel industry. On the other hand, hotels that downplayed and overlooked the significance of internal customer care mainly had employees who expressed a low degree of job satisfaction and just served external customers as strategy of protecting their employment and keeping their contractual obligations.. On the basis of these findings, the study recommends that hotels in this East African country need to invest strategically in internal customer care as a way of augmenting and promoting external customer care.

Keywords: Employee Satisfaction, Internal customer care, Tanzania, hotel industry

The Influence of Internal Customer Care on SMEs Employees’ Satisfaction: The Case of Hotel Industry in Tanzania (Review Completed - Accepted)

This article presents the findings of the study on the influence of internal customer care on satisfaction of employees. The hotels, as a business sector that largely utilizes customer care as a success factor was used as a case study. The paper utilizes data, which was collected by the author during postgraduate Diploma studies at the University of Dar es salaam in 2007. Supplementary data was collected between June and December 2012. Based on the literature, the author developed a conceptual framework for analyzing the relationship between internal customer care and satisfaction of employees. The data show that customer care has become a celebrated concept in the existing literature, but the concept and its enticement is limited to taking care of the buyer at the expense of the internal customer, the employee. Indicative qualitative responses of the employees who were involved in the study show that those hotels, which honored internal customer care succeeded to improve employees’ morale and commitment, and thus leading to satisfaction. On the other hand, hotels that underplayed internal customer care proved that their employees were just saving external customers as away of protecting their employment and keeping their contractual obligations; on the other hand, they expressed a low degree of job satisfaction. The study recommended that hotels need to strategically invest in internal customer care as a way of augmenting external customer care.

Keywords: Internal customer care, Tanzania, employees’ satisfaction, hotel industry