Tag Archives: System

Pre-Service Teacher Education System (Published)

Education is what begins when you leave school (Oscar Wilde, cited in Lawton, 1986). According to Adams (1971) education is a composite of skills, techniques, cognitive and non-cognitive learning many of which have long-range rather than immediate consequences. P-Brown, Oke and Nacino-Brown. (1992) also describe education as initiating into activities and modes of thought that are worthwhile and stress that education implies that a person has achieved or will eventually achieve a state of mind characterised by a mastery of and a care for worthwhile things viewed in some kind of cognitive perspective. The main purpose of education, whether formal or informal, has been to produce a person who will be a useful member of society (McWilliam & Kwamena-Poh, 1978).

Keywords: Education, Pre-Service, System, Teacher

Critical appraisal of a research paper: Wyatt, M. (2010). An English teacher’s developing self- efficacy beliefs in using groupwork, System, (4), 603-613. (Published)

This paper aims to critique and evaluate, focusing on the issues of validity and reliability, a paper conducted by Mark Wyatt who is a professor at the University of Portsmouth. This paper was part of a larger study of an unpublished doctoral dissertation (Wyatt, 2008), which investigated how five teachers developed over the duration of their three-year course, with an emphasis on their growth in practical knowledge and self-efficacy with regards to various dimensions. In this paper particularly, the focus is on one participant who is an in-service part-time BA TESOL student in the Middle East working with young learners. This was a case study focusing on the developments of an English teacher’s self-efficacy (TSE) beliefs in using groupwork.

Keywords: Critical appraisal, English Teachers, System, Wyatt, developing self- efficacy, groupwork, research paper


The study aims to introduce the conceptual framework of the value chain as an analytical method for business organizations, and the analysis of the role of accounting information systems and the effect of their use in improving the value chain of the business organizations. The two researchers developed a study tool (questionnaire) based on the theoretical framework and previous studies. 64 questionnaires have been distributed to a sample of the study population, which consists of employees in the finance department of public shareholding industrial companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain. 50 questionnaires have been adopted and 14 were excluded due to their incompatibility with the analysis. Using the appropriate statistical analysis tools for the study data (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and testing of T-test One Sample) the researchers found a deficiency in the level of the availability of the basic components of accounting systems and the level of the quality of accounting information required to improve the value chain of business organizations in public shareholding industrial companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain in general. According to the results of the analysis the researchers recommended the need to work on improving the level of the basic components of accounting systems to improve the quality of accounting information, in order to improve the value chain of public shareholding industrial companies in the Kingdom of Bahrain; specifically in regards to the existence of clear and specific work procedures in the accounting system, the level of the effectiveness of internal control measures, clear definition of responsibilities and authority, and management’s attention in training and continuing education programs for employees.

Keywords: Accounting, Decision Making, Information, System, Value Chain


The paper aims at defining the concept of electronic leadership, its role in supporting higher leadership and the transformation of traditional leaders into effective electronic leaders who are able to exploit effort, time and space for the purpose of organizational development. This paper emphasizes, in particular, the trend of transformation of organizations, which use old systems, into ones that use E-Leadership, which will become an effective strategic factor within these organizations.

Keywords: E-Leadership, System, Vision