A Cross-Linguistic Study of the English Prepositions up and down and Their Russian Counterparts (Published)
During the recent decades an increasing interest has been observed in pragmatic studies, particularly in the field of comparative linguistics. The object of our study is space prepositions up and down in English and their counterparts in Russian. We have chosen these prepositions because they present a certain difficulty for foreign learners, especially Russian students of English. Firstly, the prepositions up and down do not have direct equivalents in Russian. Secondly, their usage on the syntagmatic level is overloaded with deixis, which makes their understanding and interpretation still more complicated. We have examined these linguistic units in the framework of theory of oppositions and pragmatics, particularly deixis. The analysis shows that on the syntagmatic level the prepositions up and down display various pragmatic meanings triggered by the reference of motion to the location of the speaker or other subject in space. Both these prepositions are rendered into Russian by means of the preposition po (along) which is deictically-neutral and therefore special means are required to express the meanings of the English prepositions both on the paradigmatic and syntagmatic level.
From Silence to Story: How Discursive Functions of Silence Affect Our Reading of a Story (In Persian Literature) (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper examines different types of ‘silence’ as meaningful absence that leaves a trace behind. This trace is meaningful due to the absence of some lines within a text. As a marker of silence, the trace is introduced in various forms. The study of meaningful silence in literature as discourse shows that this marked silence is present in any text with the aid of discursive indicators. Any text communicates meaning through combinations of words and lack thereof, i.e., silence. Silence, in fact, has an interactive role and it is also employed as a discursive technique in literature to produce a narrative and plot.
This study explores the functions of written silence in fictional world. The main questions are: what are the different types of written silence, and what discursive functions do they serve in literary narratives? We regard written silence as a marker of the intentionally disregarded signifiers. The systematic use of silence is always directed towards leaving specific effects, while also impacting the author’s style of writing. The paper delineates and analyzes this kind of silence in five Iranian short stories in terms of three types. Consequently, these types will be discussed on three axes to study the structure of narrative and the creation of the elements of a story such as complication, denouement, suspense, atmosphere and setting by means of silence. Each types of silence have its specific function in fiction.