Tag Archives: Sustainable

Dwelling Affordability from Theory to Practice: The Use of Earth as Indigenous Building Material for Sustainable Development Amidst Post Covid-19 Situation in Nigeria (Published)

Driven by urbanization and demographic growth in Nigeria, the estimated cost for low cost dwelling unit is very expensive, because of high cost of conventional building material.  Indigenous building materials abound in our various locations and communities in our nation, in the olden days dwelling place were never an issue as man could make or create a dwelling place for himself and his family with available indigenous resources. He uses local materials such as earth, timber, bamboo, stone, thatch, bush rope, etc with one or two assistant and able to put together a dwelling to accommodate his activities. The paper examined earth as indigenous building materials and assessing local building cultures with earth for resilience and sustainable development for dwelling affordability in Nigeria. Also, it generates a practical guide for community-based assessment of earth material fortification without compromising the durability. The sustainability solution of earth as building material were discussed which include local employment opportunity for socio economic development among others. The paper then concludes on some sustainability strategies known with the earth over the year as productive and effective building material.#

Citation: Akinkunmi, Joel Olukunle (2022) Dwelling Affordability from Theory to Practice: The Use of Earth as Indigenous Building Material for Sustainable Development Amidst Post Covid-19 Situation in Nigeria, International Journal of Civil Engineering, Construction and Estate Management, Vol.10, No.1, pp.13-20


Keywords: Affordability, Earth, Indigenous, Sustainable, dwelling

Evaluation of Sustainable Bio-Liquid Fertilizer (Supergro) on the Production of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) (Published)

Experiment was conducted at the green house Niger Delta University Teaching and Research Farm, to investigate the efficacy of Super gro on the growth and yield of Fluted pumpkin Telfairia  occidentalis. Treatment levels of 0mL, 5mL, 10mL and 15mL were replicated three times in Completely Randomized  Design (CRD) to assess on the following parameters in Centimeters (CM); vine length, number of leaves. Leaf Area in CM2, and yield at 8 weeks after planting. Readings were taking at every 2 weeks intervals ( 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks). Results revealed that supergro had significant effect (P<0.05) in all the parameters evaluated, particularly at 15mL treatments  at week 8 when compared with the control. Vine length at 8WAP had (107.11cm;0mL 66.78 cm), Number of leaves ( 22.67 as against 9.98), Leaf Area cm2  32.17cm; 23.36 cm2 ) and Yield kg/ha-1 (1.69 kg/ha-1 ;0.43kg/ha-1). SuperGro significantly influenced all the growth and yield parameters of fluted pumpkin Telfairia  occidentalis  as expressed from Turkey method of mean separation at 5% probability of significance.

Keywords: Bio-Liquid Fertilizer, Completely Randomized Design (CRD), Super Gro, Sustainable, Telfairia occidentalis

Sustainable digital pedagogy in language teacher education: Perception of teachers in Ekiti state government colleges (Published)

This study investigated the perception of English language teachers concerning digital pedagogy in teaching oral English in Ekiti state government Colleges. The underpinning objective encompasses a survey of teachers’ perception concerning digital instructional style. This study is descriptive research of the survey type. The population of the study consisted of 78 English language teachers in Ekiti state Government Colleges. Using multistage sampling procedure, four government colleges were randomly selected comprising forty English language teachers from the four Ekiti state government colleges. Questionnaires were administered on the sample of the study. Descriptive statistics was used in analysing data. The findings of this study revealed that 65% of the teachers could distinguish between digital and conventional pedagogy while 65% experienced no significant challenges with digital pedagogy during oral English lessons. Furthermore, majority of the English language teachers admitted that students feel bored when taught oral English with charts. These findings explicate the need to sustain digital pedagogy for teaching oral English. It was recommended that English language teachers should be retrained and trained in digital skills for teaching oral English in government colleges in Ekiti state.


Keywords: Ekiti State, Perception, Sustainable, digital pedagogy, government colleges, language teacher

Women Educational Empowerment and Sustainable Political Development of Nigeria: Akwa Ibom State in Perspective (Published)

The study examined women educational empowerment and the sustainable political development of Nigeria. The population consisted of female lecturers from three higher educational institutions in Akwa Ibom State. These include the University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State University, Ikot Akpaden; and Akwa Ibom State College of Education, Afana Nsit.The cluster sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 235 respondents out of a population of 2,351 targeted respondents.Two null hypotheses were formulated, based on the specific objectives of the study and tested at the .05 alpha level using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis. Data collection was done with the use of a structured instrument, “Women Empowerment and Sustainable Political Development Questionnaire” (WESPDQ), which was duly validated by experts. The WESPDQ was tested for reliability using the Cronbach alpha approach, with a coefficient of .78 indicating that the instrument was internally consistent. Findings indicated a significant relationship between the two independent variables and the dependent variable respectively. It was, therefore, concluded that women educational empowerment has a significant relationship with the sustainable political development of Nigeria. It was recommended, among other things, that government at all levels (federal, state and local) should formulate policies that seek to empower women educationally to facilitate sustainable political development of the country.

Keywords: Empowerment, Gender, Politics, Sustainable, Women, Women Empowerment

Sustainable Environmental Pest Management (New Invention) at Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)

Sustainable Environmental Pest Management was conducted at the Department of Crop and Soil Science Laboratory, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria for the control of Mosquitoes at Student Hostels, June 2019. The project was sponsored by Tetfund in collaboration with Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island Bayelsa State Nigeria, 2018 on the use of plant extracts and plant essential oils (EOs). Plant extracts and EOs were used to formulate a bio-pesticide named Alamicide for effective mosquito control at the students’ Hostels. Excel 2016 was used for the analysis of the data generated from 311 questionnaires received from the respondents, on the efficacy of Alamicide Bio-pesticide application (Fumigation) at the different student hostels were evaluated. Preliminary research findings shown that most of the students (respondents) both Boys and Girls (179) at their respective Hostel Rooms, had a percentage of 60.47% responded that there was significant effect of Alamicide Bio-pesticide application on the control of Mosquitoes when compared with no respondent of 117 students, this value had a percentage of 39.52% from the questionnaires received indicated that Alamicide had no significant application effect on the incident of mosquitoes control. However, from the overall analysis on percentage, Alamicide was significantly effective bio-pesticide that control mosquitoes in the students’ Hostels. Duration of its application indicated that onetime application, its efficacy can last for a period of one-three days (1-3 days) or more as indicated in the graph. One hundred and seventeen (117) Students that had negative responses were the ones that did not obey the instructions from the researcher and his team members. When instructions were followed strictly after fumigation, i.e. windows and doors were closed for about 5-15mins, duration of efficacy can equally last up to 4-5days. This product is first of its kind in the world and its efficacy lasted up 1-5 days after onetime application when the researchers’ instructions were strictly adhered to. Also when compared to other synthetic insecticides like Mobil, Sniper, Total, Mortem and Raid, their efficacy only lasted for few hours. This product is environmental friendly, had no negative side effect on human health when compared to the synthetic insecticides. One can comfortably stay and eat food immediately after application at the spot, because it is harmless, but you can’t perform such activities when synthetic chemicals (are applied. From the respondents (Students) 84% wanted Tetfund Research Grants on Sustainable Environmental pest (Mosquitoes) management to continue at Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State to completely eradicate Mosquitoes in student Hostels to solve the problem of malaria. The first phase of the research is almost completed except one of the boys Hostel. Second Phase is for Lecturers’ offices and the University Administrative block. We are therefore convinced that on completion of the programme, the result will be outstanding when instructions are followed effectively.  

Keywords: Alamicide Bio-pesticide, Instructions, Management, Niger Delta University, Pest, Sustainable, Synthetic insecticides

Achieving sustainable Development Goal 4 in Nigeria: Problems and prospects (Published)

Education has been widely recognized not only as a fundamental human right but also as a catalyst for sustainable development and a vehicle for confronting the challenges facing societies in terms of socio-economic, environmental and ecological realities, considerable attention is shifting towards it. As a corollary, Sustainable Development Goal 4 have equally been identified as constituting a force contributing to social and economic development. As a member of the United Nations, Nigeria is committed to achieving not only the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 but also the Global Goals, especially SDG 4 on equitable quality education. This paper examines the UNESCO Sustainable Development Goals 4 and it’s conceptual dimensions. The paper also outlines current trends in the context of the Nigerian education system and suggests policy, strategy and institutional considerations for the purpose of achieving SDG 4 in Nigeria. A number of suggestions were made towards the achievement of sustainable development goal 4, such as integrating education and training at all levels.

Keywords: Development, Sustainable, goals four

The Role of Language in Achieving the World’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) (Published)

Globalization in recent times has impacted positively on various aspects of   life and advanced new opportunities for international co-operation, yet it has led to multifaceted social, economic, political and environmental challenges across the globe. Several developmental trajectories have been advanced towards addressing the dynamism of the developmental needs of countries by  world leaders -from the 21st century Millennium Developmental Goals (MDGs)to the Education for all Goals (EFA)and more recently, the Sustainable development goals(SDGs) in their declaration  of the anticipated future for global transformation ,come 2030.The United Nations identified seventeen (17)sustainable developmental goals that will help world transformation ,if achieved; but little attention was given to the societal organs/medium  that will assist the realization of these goal such as language. This work therefore tries to fill this gap, using a qualitative research based on Sapir-Whorfian theory of language, with Leech’s five characteristics of language- informative, expressive, directive, aesthetic and phatic. The study seeks to assess the role of language in the attainment of the Sustainable development goals ,bearing in mind that the world is peopled with nations of diversified languages  whose aims are to achieve collaborative partnership for  world’s transformation ,by the year 2030.It was  discovered that language  plays a significant role in the achievement of virtually all the Sustainable development goals (SDGs)- from quality education to healthy living, promotion of peace and  inclusive societies, industrialization  and innovations ,implementation and revitalization of global partnership and others for the purpose of world transformation.

Keywords: Development, Goals, Language, Sustainable

An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)

Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern  Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.

Keywords: Conflict, Death, Ethnic, Harmony, Hatred, Idps, Peace, Religion., Sustainable, Women, children, injury, refugees

The Role of Adult Education in Achieving Sustainable Community Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated the role of adult education in achieving sustainable community development in Akamkpa local government area of Cross River State. Two research questions were formulated for the study. The design for this study was descriptive survey. The population of the study was four hundred and two (402) participants of adult education programme for sustainable community development in the study area, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to draw the sample size of 201 respondents. Researchers developed questionnaire titled: Role of Adult Education Sustainable Community Development Questionnaire (RAESCDQ). The instrument for data collection was a 10 items questionnaire which was validated by research experts and tested with a reliability estimate of 0.87 using Cronbach alpha statistics. The data collected were analysed using frequency and percentages. The findings which emerged from the study revealed that lack of curriculum, content of adult education, research facilities, facilitators and insufficient budgeting allocation in Akamkpa local government area. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that adult education study centres should be built and well equipped with learning facilities to attract learners and also non-governmental organizations should support government in funding, providing, learning and infrastructural needs that will make adult education programmes more effective for sustainable community development. 

Keywords: Adult Education, Community development, Sustainable

Community Participation as a Tool for the Promotion of Sustainable Community Development (Published)

The paper examined community participation as a tool for the promotion of sustainable community development. The paper explored the concept of community participation and sustainable community development.  The paper identified areas of community participation in sustainable community development to include community needs assessment, community development planning, community mobilization among others. The highlights of the benefits that accrue from community participation in sustainable community development are community empowerment, promotion of meaningful change, community participation as a mechanism to address community problems and provision of learning opportunities. The highlights of the recommendations based on the issues discussed are: There is an obvious need to strengthen the level of awareness creation in people for community participation in sustainable community development, relevant stakeholders in community development projects should embark on sustainable mobilization for effective community participation in community development among others.

Keywords: Community, Community and Development, Participation, Promotion, Sustainable, Tool

Entrepreneurship Education for Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)

The paper focuses on entrepreneurship education as a mechanism for achieving sustainable development in Nigeria. The following terms were clearly discussed namely the entrepreneur, characteristics, the theories of entrepreneurship were also stated including the challenges of entrepreneurship  education which includes students orientation, what to teach, how to teach and who to teach as well as the possible solutions  to be adopted. This research identifies that although some strategies emphasis on entrepreneurship skills there is dire requirement for a comprehensive orientation of institutions with the sole aim of improving the entrepreneurship mentality of the youths. The aftermath of this is the generation of employment, increased output through innovations, efficient utilization of available resources and the facilitation in the transfer of technological advancement to mention a few have been identified as the contributions of Entrepreneurship to the development of a country. Based on these propositions as well other discourses a number of recommendations were suggested which includes; a call for stakeholders to recommit themselves towards development of entrepreneurship through the provision of adequate resources for teaching as well as well-equipped empowerment development centers. The paper emphasis that based on the shared responsibilities for entrepreneurship development it can be employed as a viable tool for sustainable development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Development, Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneur, Sustainable

Indigenous Adult Education for Sustainable Community Development in Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines indigenous adult education as a vital tool for imparting skills and techniques and instructing members of any society in the accepted values, norms and practices for achieving sustainable community development.  Aims of indigenous adult education were highlighted and discussed.  Indigenous adult education programmes were identified and their imperatives in achieving sustainable community development examined.  The writers concluded that indigenous adult education has been a major source of peaceful co-existence among Nigerians but has been grossly neglected in favour of formal education system. The writers suggest that indigenous adult education should be promoted to complement the formal education system to reduce moral decadence in Nigerian society and attain sustainability in community development.

Keywords: Adult Education, Community development, Indigenous, Sustainable

Integrating Rural Communities for the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (1- 3) In Nigeria (Published)

The term Sustainable Development is fast becoming a household term in the globe. The seventeen [17] Sustainable Development Goals were formed out of  vision 2030 development agenda, presented by the United Nation as a development framework for members nations. This paper therefore examines the achievement of the first three Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria via Rural integration approach. The concepts of Rural integration, and its importance to development and the achievement of the nation’s Sustainable  Development Goals were highlighted. The analysis of the concept of integrated Rural development was handled in a manner to enhance the understanding of the concept and its potency in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the nation. The features and conditions of our Rural communities were also highlighted. Some suggestion as a forward were proffered. The paper concludes that with the integration of our Rural communities, the first three Sustainable Development Goals, which directly reflects on the rural people will be achieved.

Keywords: Development Goal, Integration, Rural Community, Sustainable

Integrating Rural Communities for the Achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (1- 3) In Nigeria (Published)

The term Sustainable Development is fast becoming a household term in the globe. The seventeen [17] Sustainable Development Goals were formed out of  vision 2030 development agenda, presented by the United Nation as a development framework for members nations. This paper therefore examines the achievement of the first three Sustainable Development Goals in Nigeria via Rural integration approach. The concepts of Rural integration, and its importance to development and the achievement of the nation’s Sustainable Development Goals were highlighted. The analysis of the concept of integrated Rural development was handled in a manner to enhance the understanding of the concept and its potency in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the nation. The features and conditions of our Rural communities were also highlighted. Some suggestion as a forward were proffered. The paper concludes that with the integration of our Rural communities, the first three Sustainable Development Goals, which directly reflects on the rural people will be achieved.

Keywords: Development Goal, Integration, Rural Community, Sustainable

Values of Sustainable Community Development (Published)

The paper focused on the values of sustainable community development. Every human endeavour in development process is value-oriented. Sustainable community development offers people an opportunity to value the benefits of sustainable community development to people of present generation and future generations. The concept of sustainable community development is a process whereby the efforts of members of participating communities are united with those of governmental authorities, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), corporate organizations (COs) among others in order to improve the living conditions of people of present generation without joepardising the abilities of future generations to take care of their own needs. People must be careful to understand the values which they desire to have in engaging in sustainable community development. The paper identified the values of sustainable community development to include generational values, economic sustainability, social sustainability, empowerment of people, group action among others. The concern of sustainable community development is to add value to the lives of people of present generation without disrupting the opportunities of future generations to benefit from the same expectations. The paper contains some of the following recommendations: (1) The values of sustainable community development should possess sustainable features that will help to promote sustainable community development initiatives (2.) The values of sustainable community development should possess suitable qualities that will stimulate qualitative sustainable community development concerns. (3) There is need to inculcate the right type of values and attitudes in people for sustainability of the values of community development projects among others.

Keywords: Community and Development, Sustainable, Values

Analysis of factors influencing sustainable adoption of improved maize technologies among smallholder farmers in Ugenya Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Most smallholder farmers who account for more than 70% of the maize produced in Kenya are perpetually food insecure and stuck below poverty level. Sustained maize yield increase largely depends on long term adoption of modern farming technology. However, despite the high yields associated with modern maize technology promotion during and shortly after implementation phase of many projects, sustainability of the technologies still remains a challenge for smallholder maize producers in Kenya. The objective of this study was to analyse factors that influence sustainable adoption of maize technologies beyond the promotion phase among smallholder farmers in Ugenya Sub-County. An ex post facto research was carried out where one hundred and eighty eight smallholder farmers were selected through simple random sampling from purposively selected study population in Ugenya Sub-County. The data was subjected to Independent 2-Sample T-Test and multiple regression analysis. Maize yields obtained by inputs subsidy beneficiaries and non beneficiaries during post-subsidy support phase were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Except for on-farm labour availability and farmer’s farming experience (p<0.05) all other socio-economic, technical, management and institutional factors known to influence farming technology adoption had no significant influence on average maize yield (p>0.05) in the study area. The study recommended that smallholder farmers should operate under a functional structure such as farmers’ association that will support timely access to key factors of production, optimize on benefits of the economies of scale, enforce sustainable practices and serve as a linkage to key enterprise value chain actors.

Keywords: Adoption, Smallholder, Sustainable, Technologies

Utilisation of Sustainable Agricultural Practices among Crop Farmers in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State (Published)

The study examined utilisation of sustainable agricultural practices among crop farmers in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. A total of 120 respondents were selected for the study using multi-stage sampling technique. Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 44.77 years. Also, 60.00% were married, while 65.00% were females. Mixed cropping and organic manure application ranked 1st and 2nd most used sustainable agricultural practices. Utilisation of sustainable agricultural practices was low. Significant relationships existed between household size (r2 = 0.342, p < 0.05), educational status (c2 = 4.325, p < 0.05), knowledge level (r2 = 0.154, p < 0.05) and use of sustainable agricultural practices. It is recommended that policies and programmes of the government be directed at increasing utilisation of sustainable agricultural practices. Moreover, extension and farmers’ organisations should work towards increasing farmers’ knowledge on the importance and use of sustainable agricultural practices.

Keywords: Agricultural practice, Knowledge Level., Mixed cropping, Sustainable, Utilisation.

The Challenge of Infrastructure Development on Preservation of Perishable Horticultural Produce for Sustained Urban Food Nutrition in Metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria (Published)

Perishable horticultural crops as fruits and vegetables – rich vitamins, protein, minerals and fiber contents – contribute a lot to human diet. Though Nigeria produces enormous quantity of these produce, shortages in consumption and nutrition exists due to losses in the production value chain system. This is mainly attributed to lack of the development of an efficient management technique in the handling, transporting and storage systems; with attendant consequences on urban food and nutrition security in a rapidly urbanizing Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to identify the problems of handling technologies that would result in enhanced shelf-life of these commodities and healthier urban nutrition in metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria; in 2010. Structured questionnaires and schedule interviews were used to randomly collect primary and secondary data. This was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistical analytical tools. Results indicated that the major factors affecting the storage quality of fruits and vegetables are bad roads (40%); improper production, handling and transportation (33. 33%) system; harsh weather (20%); while insect pest infestation (6.67%) was least. Baskets and sacks are still used as the predominant means of storage of produce (35% and 32% respectively). Indeed, a lot of losses are recorded due to bad roads at harvest. Incidentally, the refrigerating system, the most efficient means of preservation is not predominantly used because of its exorbitant cost; and high tariffs on electricity. Where cost is affordable, power supply is epileptic due to an underdeveloped power sector. It is concluded that the intractable challenge of lack of infrastructure poses a major developmental setback in Nigeria. Indeed, this is a key challenge against the evolvement of a sustainable post-harvest management system; as well as a drawback on the fight against hunger, malnutrition and poverty – foremost objective of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Consequently, there is an imperative need for massive investment in infrastructural and human capital development. Without doubt, in Nigeria today, post-harvest and infrastructural management of the food production chain remains a major challenge.

Keywords: Development, Horticulture, Infrastructure, Nutrition, Perishables, Post-Harvest, Security, Sustainable

Teacher Preparation for Inclusive Education of Persons with Special Needs In Nigeria: The Challenges and Solutions (Published)

Inclusion of students with special needs education especially those who need specialized skills and technical support give more rise challenges to the training of teachers to produce quality one to handle such children in question. Special needs children, as stipulated in article 223 of the UN’s child right convention endorsed in 1989, have the right to enjoy in full, decent life in conditions which ensure dignity, promotes self-reliance and facilitate the Child active participation in inclusive educational system. This paper focuses on teacher preparation in inclusive education, the concept of inclusive, the benefits, include in-service training programmes, special teacher and inclusive education, teacher preparation and the challenges where discussed. The paper, concluded with some recommendations such as: government at all levels should make inclusive education compulsory for schools and colleges to avoid discrimination against persons with special needs, government should set up committee that will put up machineries for effective implementation of inclusive education among others.

Keywords: Challenges, Inclusive Education, Nigeria, Person With Special Needs, Sustainable, Teacher Preparation

Role of Strategic Sourcing On Public Procurement Performance in Kenya (Published)

The aim of strategic sourcing is to achieve large and sustainable cost reductions, long-term supply stability and minimization of supply risk. The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze the role of strategic sourcing on procurement performance in public institutions in Kenya. It has been noted that there is ineffective and non-reliable procurement procedures in public sector in Kenya, this can be attributed by the fact the there is no strategic considerations. This paper will focus on the following concepts supply management, role of IT, outsourcing and multiple sourcing strategies on procurement functions. It involved conducting a systematic review of literature papers in the field of strategic sourcing and procurement by means of content analysis to draw conclusion and recommendations. In conclusion, strategic sourcing increases an organization’s buying power to maximize the leverage it has with suppliers for the purposes of reducing cost, enhancing quality and improving supplier diversity.

Keywords: Cost Reduction, Performance, Public Procurement, Strategic Sourcing, Sustainable