Tag Archives: Sustainable Development

Abstractions from Aristotle’s Polis and Plato’s Republic for Education, Self-Actualization and Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The paper adumbrated on prevalent circumstances surrounding the delivery of the type of education that may not correspond to sustainability in Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of a plethora of negative imperatives in the motive, mode and usages for educational certificates instead of knowledge and merit. Abstracting from the philosophical postulations embedded in Aristotle’s Polis and Plato’s Republic as its theoretical foundation, the paper argued that education for self-actualization, if not skewed to align with the goal needs of the larger society cannot confer sustainability in the long run. Mainly descriptive in approach, the paper inferred that apart from the fact of poor funding and outmoded curriculum contents of Nigerian educational programme, which result in the churning out of graduates adjudged to be largely unemployable, a great number of education seekers still hold unto the misconception that an educational certificate, no matter how acquired and what nature it is, provides, not just jobs, but white collar jobs, whereas this had long been supplanted by pragmatism, smartness, innovation and creativity. The paper therefore recommended, among others, improved funding, the re-appraisal of educational curriculum, improvement in schools’ infrastructure, training of teachers etc.; community involvement in platforms for counselling, support and skill acquisition centres for alternative development; and the acquisition of skill sets in computer/ICT related programmes, arts and crafts, as complements to educational certificates that are expected to train the head and equip the hands at the same time.

Keywords: Education, Self-actualization, Society, Sustainability, Sustainable Development

Resilient Housing Provision for Coastal Settlements in Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)

The advent of sustainability in housing and shelter is being identified as an important discuss for the coastal settlement. This is no further from the fact that this region is being confronted with series of issues bordering around flooding, prevailing wind action, loss of homes, properties and in extreme cases, ‘life(s)’. Moreover, this area has to deal with difficulty in proper disposal of waste among many other problems. The Ilaje community, standing as a perfect study area for this research, evidently reveals the importance of a sustainable, ecofriendly and resilient shelter as a necessity for coastline settlements. The outcome of this study proffers applicable solutions to tackling coastal settlement issues including flooding, loss of life and properties, proper faecal waste management while ensuring that uninterrupted electrical power supply is available for household electronic gadgets like radios, televisions, charging of phones and torchlights. Achieving these solutions and ensuring the longevity of the approach will necessitate the training of residents within the coastal settlement, skilled in technical works within the building industry on the construction method for future maintenance and if need be, in erecting newer shelters. Furthermore, there is need for collaboration between the private and public sector in providing the financial assistance needed to foster the acceptance and implementation of the solutions propounded in this research.

Citation: Oluwaseun Samuel Apenuwa, Eseroghene Onaopemipo Dafiewhare, Opeyemi Owosho, Oluwadunsin Temidayo Adeyemo, Abisoye Oluwatobiloba Ayeni, Caleb Agoni (2022) Resilient Housing Provision for Coastal Settlements in Ondo State, Nigeria, British Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol.10, No.4, pp.,28-46

Keywords: Community Participation, Sustainable Development, coastal settlement, coastal vulnerabilities, housing provision, resilient housing

Aboriginal Ancient Grand Bonny Kingdom of Niger Delta in the Framework of its Primordial House System of Governance and Natural Law towards Sustainable Development in the Kingdom (Published)

The Primordial House System of Governance of Primaeval Niger Delta’s Bonny Kingdom, enhanced by natural law, features as the bedrock of the civilization and good governance (GG) in the Kingdom. The Primordial House System of Governance of Ancient Grand Bonny Kingdom (Ibanise), which is comprised of present-day Bonny Kingdom and Opobo Kingdom, was originated and institutionalized by the Founding Ancestors of the Ancient Kingdom, led by three hierarchical categories of paramount natural rulers of the three tiers of government of the Kingdom, during the Kingdom’s aboriginal era. The hierarchical categories are Ikpangi-Sibidapu (Institutionalized Lineage Heads), Amadapu (Community/District Heads and thus helpmates to Kings/Monarchs [Amanyanapu]), and Amanyanabo (owner of the land/King). The posts, positions or offices of these hierarchical categories, which have been in existence from time immemorial in Bonny Kingdom, are those of honour, traditional public service, trust, social responsibility and statesmanship, which were originated, systematized and institutionalized by the Founding Ancestors of the Kingdom towards the wellbeing of the people, Houses and entire Kingdom. This study employs socio-legal methodology to examine the Primordial House System of Bonny Kingdom and the role of natural law, namely proto-natural law, during the aboriginal era of the Kingdom, before Opobo Kingdom was established from it parent Bonny Kingdom, during the Kingdom’s Civil War of 1869/70. It discusses the premier natural rulers of aboriginal Bonny Kingdom, as well as four generations of Okoloama Ingie KiriFajie, namely Bonny Kingdom (Ibanise), comprised of Fourteen Lineages/Families/Houses. On this note, from a historiographical background, the study makes a case for GG, fair play, social justice and harmonious ways of life in Bonny Kingdom, based on the good, transparent, responsible and accountable stewardship of traditional rulers, towards the wellbeing of the people and sustainable development of the Kingdom, particularly in the realm of apex, peak or paramount traditional rulership of the three tiers of government of the Kingdom, namely  the Lineage, Country-House and overall Kingdom-wide tiers of traditional governance in the Kingdom. Besides, this study demonstrates how the aboriginal era of Bonny Kingdom underscores the Kingdom as a classic African primordial sovereign state and civilization, as well as a pride of Ancestral Ijaw nation, which contributed to the development and advancement of Primaeval Niger Delta region and beyond.   

Citation: Edward T. Bristol-Alagbariya (2022) Aboriginal Ancient Grand Bonny Kingdom of Niger Delta in the Framework of its Primordial House System of Governance and Natural Law towards Sustainable Development in the Kingdom, Global Journal of Politics and Law Research,  Vol.10, No.3, pp.1-32


Keywords: Aboriginal Ancient Grand Bonny Kingdom, Bonny Kingdom, Duawaris, Good Governance, Natural Law, Niger Delta Region, Opuwaris, Primordial House System of Governance, Sustainable Development, Wellbeing

Tax Revenue and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Disaggregated Analysis. (Published)

Lately, Nigerians are in confusion on the rationale of paying tax due to the inability of the government to let taxpayers feel the impact of paying tax. These unethical practices have made some Nigerians want to evade tax wholly or partially. All and sundry still limbo in doubt as to whether the tax could ever be flexible or efficient; and if yes, can they deliver the sustainable growth that has eluded Nigeria for decades. This study investigates the impact of tax components in achieving sustainable growth in Nigeria using time series data from 1987-2019 using the ARDL bound testing approach to cointegration to ascertain the long run and the speed of adjustment (Short run) in analyzing the relationship. The result revealed that Petroleum Profit Tax, Company Tax, Value Added Tax and Personal Income Tax have a positive short-run relationship with economic growth (GDP) while Custom and Excise Duties and Personal Income Tax exhibits a negative relationship in the short and long run. This study hereby recommends strong institutional reforms in the department of customs to plug the manifest leakages in other to enable the revenue generated from the unit to reach the desired point to facilitate sustainable development in Nigeria by the year 2030.

Citation:  Adewale Mathew Adekanmbi, Amos Dauda, Shallie and Oladimeji Abeeb Olaniyi (2022) Tax Revenue and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Disaggregated Analysis, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.10, No.3, pp.43-54


Keywords: Nigeria, Sustainable Development, Tax components

Debt Burden and Sustainable Development: An Evaluation of the Nigeria Railway Modernization Project (Published)

Citation: Deebii Nwiado & Silva Opuala-Charles (2022) Debt Burden and Sustainable Development: An Evaluation of the Nigeria Railway Modernization Project, International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, Vol.10, No.2, pp.1-26

Abstract: This work investigated the sustainability or otherwise of the Nigeria public debt as it relates to the Nigeria railway modernization project. We set up two hypotheses: Ho1: That the current investment effort by the Nigeria government in the Nigeria railway modernization project has led Nigeria into huge external unsustainable public debt. Ho2: That Nigeria public debt stock is unsustainable. Two measures as found in the literature: debt servicing-to-export ratio and debt servicing to-GDP ratio were tested against data obtained from the CBN Statistical Bulletin to validate or invalidate our hypothesis. The   analysis give an inconclusive result– Debt servicing-to-export ratio gave an overwhelmingly negative result, while the debt servicing-to-GDP was positive. We are therefore unable to confirm the sustainability or otherwise of Nigeria public debt as it relates to the railway modernization project. However by conjecture, these authors believe that the Nigeria public debt relative to the Nigeria modernization project is not likely to be sustainable. We recommend that government at all levels increase surveillance over borrowed fund for infrastructural development from being diverted to private use.

Keywords: Public Debt, Sustainable Development, debt burden, debt service, railway modernizations project.

Single Parenting: a Constraint to the Sustainable Development of Technical Education in Enugu State (Published)

The study investigated the impact of single parenting on the acquisition and development of technical education in Enugu State. The purpose of the study was to determine the consequences and, the constraints the concept of single parenting has imposed on the sustainable development of technical education in Enugu State. A total of 120 respondents made up of males and female students of selected technical colleges in each geopolitical zones of Enugu state were used for the study. Three research questions guided the study. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data was collected using structured questionnaires. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient used to test the reliability of the instrument yielded 0.82.  The study revealed that children from single parents suffer from financial troubles, family instability, emotional trauma, harsh socio-economic pressures and stigmatization. As a result of these constraints, children from single parents are characterized with low pace of comprehension, finds it difficult to purchase instructional materials, unable to attend enhancement programs, highly vulnerable to drugs and alcohol. The study also revealed that, these children get frustrated and drop out of school. It was recommended that there should be the creation of special scholarship board for children of single parents interested in technical education by the state and federal government as this will help to address the issue of right deprivement and handle the cases of poor skill acquisitions. Equally recommended is the development of appropriate counselling techniques and programs in all the technical colleges.


Citation: Kalu U Okey, Ogba Kalu. T., Ogbonnaya Kingsley A. (2021) Single Parenting: a Constraint to the Sustainable Development of Technical Education in Enugu State, British Journal of Education, Vol. 9, Issue 9, pp.89-100

Keywords: Constraints, Single parenting, Sustainable Development, Technical Education

Utility value of radio for national security and sustainable development in Nigeria: appraisal of radio Nigeria “watch 360” programme (Published)

This paper examined the utility value of radio in addressing the twin issues of national security and sustainable development in Nigeria. The study focused on “Watch 360”, a Radio Nigeria neighbor-hood watch programme created by the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN) to promote national security and sustainable development. The objectives of the study were to identify the salient parts of the WATCH 360 radio programme that promote national security and sustainable development; as well as proffer solutions that will enhance the utility value of radio for national security and sustainable development. The researcher utilized the qualitative method of inquiry to appraise the potentials of the programme in fostering national security and sustainable development in the country. The Agenda setting theory provided the theoretical foundation for the study. The study found that the conceptualization, articulation, design and delivery of the programme imbues it with the knack for achieving the desired results. Therefore, it was strongly recommended that in order to achieve optimal benefits of the programme, the management of FRCN should, among others, ensure that its stations all over the country air the programme in their respective stations as well as introduce live streaming and vernacular editions in Nigeria’s three major languages (Housa, Ibo and Yoruba) for better reach and greater impact.

Citation: Odishika, Emmanuel Chukuka  (2021) Utility Value of Radio for National Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Appraisal of Radio Nigeria “Watch 360” Programme, International Journal of International Relations, Media and Mass Communication Studies, Vol.7, No.2, pp.46-54

Keywords: Nigeria, Sustainable Development, Value, radio Nigeria, radio national security, utility, watch 360” programme

Appraising the Sendai Framework: Place of Women in Disaster Risk Mitigation (Published)

Natural disasters pose significant threats globally, and to manage it, a disaster reduction policy was enacted in 2015 establishing the Sendai Framework of Disaster Risk Reduction (SFDRR). Since statistics from several accounts indicate that women are disproportionately affected by disaster events, their contributions should ideally be integrated in disaster management processes for the generation of sustainable outcomes. To enthrone this philosophy in practice, the study examined SFDRR’s recognition of women in such projects. Content analysis of all 50 Articles and 4 Priorities for Action within the Framework was conducted. Findings showed that women are recognized as core partners and worthy leaders in disaster risk mitigation. It was concluded that the SFDRR established grounds for building disaster resilience through acknowledgement of women as vital stakeholders in disaster risk governance, and provided research agenda for further studies on the extent to which nations in the global south adopt and implement the policy.

Keywords: Framework, Sustainable Development, disaster risk reduction, disaster vulnerable groups, gender stereotypes, sendai

Bio-resources Conservation and Anthropogenic Drivers of Biodiversity Depletion in Isiala Ngwa, Southeastern, Nigeria. (Published)

The study examined the conservation of biological resources in Isiala Ngwa, Southeastern, Nigeria with a view to assessing its implications for the achievement of the sustainable development goals. Also the anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity depletion in the study area were studied. The study utilized primary data obtained from field observation, focus group discussion and key informants’ interviews.  Secondary data were also used in the study. Diversity indices of species were obtained from Quadrat Analysis using the Shannon Wiener’s Diversity Index. Data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Descriptive Statistics. The study found that anthropogenic activities that drive biodiversity depletion in the study area were mainly agricultural land use practices such as deforestation, bush burning, crop farming, mixed farming, bush fallowing, and plantation agriculture, intercropping and hunting.   Agricultural land use practices had negative impacts on biodiversity which resulted in the low diversity indices (0.02- 0.44).The results of the PCA on the impact of agricultural practices on biodiversity isolated three components explaining 64.29% of the variance. Legislation against indiscriminate bush burning, unauthorized hunting, bush fallowing with a longer fallow period were measures adopted in the paper to manage ecosystem biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: Anthropogenic drivers, Biodiversity, Diversity Indices, Sustainable Development, bio-resources conservation

Promoting the beauty of Yoruba traditional fabric of Aso- Oke for international consumption and sustainable development (Published)

Yoruba people are predominantly found in southwestern and north central Nigeria, some part of Benin republic and Togo. The Aso-Oke weaving was introduced into Yoruba land in the 15th century, and since then it has been part of the culture till date with different modification over time. This paper examines how this fabric can be promoted to gain acceptance for international consumptions which will helps develops the local crafts industry as this leads to employment opportunities, increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a veritable source of foreign exchange for Nigeria. The paper provides an insight into the local production technique of the fabric, the types of fabrics and other wares that can be made from the fabrics, sewing methods and types of garment that can be produced for export and possible export channels for international market.

Keywords: Aso oke, Employment, Sustainable Development, fabrics, local craft, sewing and market.

Capital Market Predictive Power on the Development of the Nigerian Economy: An Impulse Response and Variance Decomposition Approach (Published)

The study is an empirical investigation of the contributions of the Nigeria’s capital market to the development of Nigerian economy. Most researchers focused on capital market and growth nexus, where as we deviated by focusing on the role played by capital market in ensuring reduction of unemployment and poverty in Nigeria. Specifically, we investigated the contributions of market capitalization (MCAP), value of share traded (VST) and all share index (ASI) to unemployment rate (UNPR) and poverty (NPI) reductions in Nigeria within the period 1981 to 2017. The data series used were sourced from the annual statistical bulletin of the central bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Nigeria stock exchange (NSE). Preliminary analyses of stationarity and cointegration tests revealed that the series were non stationary at levels; and cointegrated respectively. The result of the impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decompositions from the two models considered revealed that the contributions of the capital market to poverty reduction in Nigeria is highly insignificant, while it contributes fairly to unemployment reductions in Nigeria within the study period. Conclusively, the research reveals that the Nigeria capital market is not contributing optimally to the development of Nigeria’s economy as this is evident on its abysmal contributions to poverty and unemployment reductions. In line with the findings of this work, we recommend that the Nigeria capital market should be repositioned in a way that it can optimally contribute to the reduction of unemployment and poverty in Nigeria. 


Keywords: Capital market, Sustainable Development, Variance Decomposition, impulse response function

Balancing Economic and Environmental Benefits: The Goal of Sustainable Development (Published)

As society grows, its increasing social demand is also when large resources are being lost, as well as the price for growing. The balance between the two economic and environmental benefits recently has been constantly mentioned as a difficult problem for any country. This research points to the growing conflict between economic development and environmental protection, how to balance economic benefits with environmental protection, and propose solutions to both economic development and environmental protection.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Vietnam, economic growth, environmental protection and improvement

Agricultural Budgeting in Anambra State: its’ implication for Sustainable Economic Development (Published)

This work was embarked upon with a view to determining agricultural budgeting over the years and its implication for sustainable economic development. Designed essentially as a descriptive survey, it is an ex-post-facto study.  Secondary data used for the study were sourced from the official records and documents of Anambra State Government Nigeria. Data were analyzed using the time series components of trend and moving averages using E-view.  Results indicated the following: there was no correspondence between estimated agricultural revenue and actual expenditure in the budget of Anambra State Government – hence large deficits were recorded. There was a mismatch between planned expenditure with remarkably high values that was observed in the Anambra State budget. The trend in the growth of actual agricultural expenditure over the period was upward sloping, rising slowly and steadily. The trend in the growth of actual revenue of the Anambra State Government budget over the period was upward sloping, rising sharply at first, and following an irregular pattern as it progresses. It was concluded that need outgrow availability of resources in Anambra State. However the fact remains that the problem was more of managerial than it was that of availability of resources. It is therefore recommended that, among other things, agricultural activities must be monitored so as to ensure proper implementation.

Keywords: Anambra State, Economic Development, Sustainable Development, agricultural budgeting

The Impact of Human Rights on Good Governance and Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)

Human rights and good governance are the salient elements of a well-functioning state and society. They are also mutually reinforced; for human rights principles provide a set of values to guide the work of government and other political and social actors. Good governance on the other hand is a key to sustainable development and without good governance human rights cannot be respected in a sustainable manner. The three concepts thus work hand in hand. However in countries like Nigeria where democracy and rule of law have not been fully nurtured the move towards implementing human rights and good governance principles into the daily functioning of state institutions can be a huge challenge. The probability that a nation will achieve the aims of sustainable development and participative democracy are all the greater if human rights are respected. The aim of this article is to ascertain the level of observance of respect of the human rights in Nigeria by the government authorities and other social actors and the impact such observance or otherwise has on governance and development in Nigeria. It is observed that though the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended) makes an elaborate provision on human right, and that Nigeria has acceded to numerous international instruments on human rights, the problem of bad governance with the resultant inadequate development has a link with failure of the authorities that be, to adequately appreciate the requirements of human rights and apply them in governance. Furthermore a lot of the basic human rights as contained in Chapter II of the Nigerian Constitution are not enforceable, thus failure of the authorities to observe them cannot be questioned. It is advocated.

Keywords: Democracy, Good Governance, Government, Human Rights, Sustainable Development

Education for Sustainable Development (SDG 4.7): It’s Implementation in Nigeria (Published)

Sustainable Development Goals (SDGS) refer to the global initiatives that developed and developing nations have signed up to for the purpose of guaranteeing the best quality of life in 17 broad areas of human needs. SDG 4 is about quality education. SDG 4.7 focuses on education for sustainability, sustainable living/lifestyle, human right education, peace education gender inequality, global citizenship and how they should impact on quality education. These global educational contents are expected to be mainstreamed into the school curriculum at various educational levels. This paper clarifies each component of the SDG 4.7 and explains how best the new subject matters can be integrated into the Nigerian school curriculum as well as implemented in our daily living. Two ways whereby the new curriculum contents can be mainstreamed are either to create new school subjects or, to infuse the new contents into existing subjects in the curricula. This latter option is preferred and so recommended because the curricula of our schools are already too over-loaded to accommodate more subjects. The guidelines for the recommended infusion are made. The place of the teacher in implementing the new curriculum areas is emphasized. Recommendations are made for reorienting teachers towards more effective implementation of the new curricula through pre-service and in-service training. The pedagogical practices that will facilitate the attainment of Goal 4.7 are described, including appropriate teachers preparation, improved methods, resources, and facilitates. Also stressed is the need to accommodate all categories of children- the normal and disabled, boys and girls in the provision of furniture, play facilities and toilet facilities among others.


Keywords: Gender Inequality, Global Citizenship., Human Rights, Peace Education, Sustainable Development

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Practices in Coffee Producer Farmers’ Cooperative Unions: The Case of Bench-Maji, Kaffa, and Sheka Zones, South Western Ethiopia. (Published)

Cooperative enterprise is one of the business enterprises with its peculiar characteristics of solving its members’ economic, social, and cultural problems where individuals couldn’t solve alone. The seventh ICA principle of “concern for community” clearly urges the cooperatives to carry out sustainable community development activities. Even though the cooperatives are serving the community directly or indirectly, their sight to the concept Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is not clearly considered by their members, academicians, and the government. The objective of this study was to assess the practices performed by Coffee Producer Farmers’ Cooperative Unions regarding Corporate Social Responsibility for community development at the study area. For this study both primary and secondary data source were used. The size of respondents was 395 members of Cooperative Society and 50 Government officials. The data was analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS version 20. The finding shows that there are job creation, supply of agricultural input, and expansion of coffee processing industry for serving both members and non-members, whereas  drawback on the awareness creation to the community, absence of participation of community during planning, implementing, and evaluating community concerned project, limited and inconsistent allocation of community concerned fund, non-representing Corporate Social Responsibility financial statements at unions’ offices for CSR budget.  It is recommended as such management body of the unions should participate the community during planning, implementing, and evaluating socially responsible projects, cooperative social responsibility practices should be thoroughly supervised and supported by the government, cooperatives from their annual surplus should allocate community development fund, both GOs and NGOs working on sustainable development activity at that area must work with cooperatives, and Cooperatives have to maintain separate book of account to record financial activities of cooperative social responsibility practices.

Keywords: Cooperative Principle, Corporate Social Responsibility, Sustainable Development, concern for community, cooperative management.

Youth Volunteerism in Socio-Economic Activities for Sustainable Community Development in Nigeria (Published)

The desire to help others or contribute to the society has been an essential aspect of human nature. Volunteerism is the act of donating time, energy knowledge, skills etc. for the benefit of other people in the community as a social responsibility rather for any financial benefit or remuneration. The success of any nation depends on the involvement of the young adults in the socio-economic development, especially at this time of recession that youth unemployment is very high. For the youth, volunteering offer opportunities for self-development and provide a valuable grounding in the practice of citizenship. With the right education for all the citizens, the large expanded youth population could provide the continuing growth and thus sustainable development. With the view of these, volunteer groups should be formed at the primary, secondary, and tertiary institutions as means of promoting sustainable development. Mass media houses should advertise success stories of volunteer effort and promote volunteerism for sustainable development.

Keywords: Socio-economic development., Sustainable Development, Volunteerism, Youth

Indigenous Skills and Entrepreneurship Education: A Critical Blend for Sustainable Development in Nigeria (Published)

Generally, education is regarded as the most potent for achieving national development. This plausible statement clearly places education beyond any other sector in the onerous drive for national development. Sustainable development goals were articulated by the United Nations to fathom how far away countries are from achieving national development through the creation of National sustainable development strategies. While it is recognized that there are thousands (of unaccountable number) of strategies that could make education sustainable through the various tiers of education, indigenous skill elements are crucial in the delivery of entrepreneurship education for sustainability. Blending the potentials of both systems (entrepreneurship education and indigenous skills) is tantamount to forging sustainable development for the future.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Indigenous skills, Sustainable Development, blend

Analyzing Factors Affecting Tourism Sustainable Development towards Vietnam In The New Era (Published)

This empirical study was conducted by qualitative approach to study the influential factors such as environment, society, economics affecting to the tourism sustainable development for Vietnam in the new era. The author collected the experts’ opinions to discuss and presented scale to measure the above factors. Basing on this study, the future researchers can apply this to study by quantitative method to verify the reliability of the scale and test whether the three above factors and observed variables are grouped into each factor or there is other latent factor as well as tesing the reliability of the research model. In addition, the author suggested the policy makers, leaders of ministry and departments of culture, sports, and tourism to apply this study to plan and implement policies to develop Vietnamese tourism in the context of international integration as well as satisfy the tourists coming to Vietnam.

Keywords: International integration, Policy, Sustainable Development, Tourists, Vietnam

Chinese Investments in Africa and the Politics of Unsustainability: A Case Study of the Kenya’s Standard Gauge Railway (Published)

Chinese FDIs into Africa have been on an upward trend for the better part of 21st Century and are ubiquitously spread all over the continent. Certainly, the investments have not been devoid of both the positive and negative impacts but most importantly, debate on the sustainability [or otherwise] of these investments rages. In fact, there is an emerging but inimitable view that the claim that the investments are unsustainable is skewed in favor of the westerners, who are also keen on locking in investment opportunities in Africa. This, therefore, does not rule out the fact that global or at least local politics do on occasion, play a role in shaping debates meant to depict Sino- Afro FDIs as habitually unsustainable. Notably, bad politics, especially in Africa, hold the potentiality of suppressing development. To prop up this hypothesis, the paper delves into the Chinese built Kenya’s SGR- a mega project that was on the brink of collapse after a politically instigated civil case seeking to stop it was filed. Ultimately, the court’s ruling on the matter, Parliamentary Committee Report on the project and a host of existing literature has ably debunked a politically initiated myth that Chinese investments in Africa customarily thrive on inaptness.

Keywords: Bilateral Investment Treaty, Sino- Afro FDIs, Standard Gauge Railway, Sustainable Development