Tag Archives: Sustainability

Abstractions from Aristotle’s Polis and Plato’s Republic for Education, Self-Actualization and Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The paper adumbrated on prevalent circumstances surrounding the delivery of the type of education that may not correspond to sustainability in Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of a plethora of negative imperatives in the motive, mode and usages for educational certificates instead of knowledge and merit. Abstracting from the philosophical postulations embedded in Aristotle’s Polis and Plato’s Republic as its theoretical foundation, the paper argued that education for self-actualization, if not skewed to align with the goal needs of the larger society cannot confer sustainability in the long run. Mainly descriptive in approach, the paper inferred that apart from the fact of poor funding and outmoded curriculum contents of Nigerian educational programme, which result in the churning out of graduates adjudged to be largely unemployable, a great number of education seekers still hold unto the misconception that an educational certificate, no matter how acquired and what nature it is, provides, not just jobs, but white collar jobs, whereas this had long been supplanted by pragmatism, smartness, innovation and creativity. The paper therefore recommended, among others, improved funding, the re-appraisal of educational curriculum, improvement in schools’ infrastructure, training of teachers etc.; community involvement in platforms for counselling, support and skill acquisition centres for alternative development; and the acquisition of skill sets in computer/ICT related programmes, arts and crafts, as complements to educational certificates that are expected to train the head and equip the hands at the same time.

Keywords: Education, Self-actualization, Society, Sustainability, Sustainable Development

Corporate Sustainability Efficiency and Firm Value. A Study of Nigeria’s Deposit Money Banks (Published)

Concerns about climate change, and environmental sustainability have brought to the public fore the need for corporate organizations to incorporate sustainability information in their reports.  This study was carried out to examine the relationship between corporate sustainability efficiency and market value of listed Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. The population of the study consist of all listed DMBs in Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from published financial reports for the period 2017 to 2020. Findings of the study showed that social, economic and environmental efficiency practices have a significant positive effect on market values of listed DMBs in Nigeria.   The study also finds a positive but not significant relationship of bank complexity with market value of DMBs and recommends amongst others that DMBs should intensify efforts to ensure adequate attention is given to sustainability efficiency practices to attract higher stock market values.

Citation: Akprorien, Olum Fidelis, Otuya, Sunday, & Archibong, Etim Archibong (2022) Corporate Sustainability Efficiency and Firm Value. A Study of Nigeria’s Deposit Money Banks, European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research, Vol.10, No. 6, pp.19-30

 

Keywords: Economic, Environmental, Firm Value, Social, Sustainability, corporate efficiency

Post Covid 19 Economy in Nigeria: The Role of Law for Sustainable Economic Development (Published)

Covid-19 otherwise known as Corona virus has impacted negatively on global economy and it may take time for nations of the world to come out of economic depression occasioned by the pandemic. This paper qualitatively identifies the roles of laws in post covid 19 economic recoveries.  Specifically, the article seeks to asses the degree with which law promotes economic sustainability in the areas of banking & Finance, dispute resolution, energy, infrastructure, insurance and transportation. It also examines the extent to which economic growth might be affected if laws are not clearly defined, made public and applied in a consisten manner. Provision and application of legal frameworks in these key areas of the economy will trigger quick recovery and stabilize it for future growth. It was recommended among others that more laws should be enacted to provide additional lending authority for certain Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) so as to boost the post COVID-19 economy in the country; loans and advances should be given to agricultural enterprises to speed up more supply of food to the economy.

 

Keywords: COVID-19, Economic Development, Sustainability, law and legal framework

The Sustainability Solution of Earth as Buildings material: Case of Gbongan Rural communities in Osun State south west Nigeria (Published)

The sustainability of earth as building material cannot be overemphasised with proven superior performance at the specified criteria. This research addresses the analysis of the sustainability criteria present in a sample of 120 cases of traditional earth building at Gbongan rural area in Osun state Nigeria, as locally produced and sourced material, reduced transport cost and environmental impact among others. The focus group of professional especially architect and builders were organized to coordinate the study process, ensuring adequate evaluations of issues that can facilitate sustainability of earth as a building material. Their recommendations are evaluated and classified according to physical attributes of earth as sustainable building material: twelve prevailing factors facilitating sustainability of earth as building material were identified. The sustainability solution of earth as building material were discussed which include local employment opportunity for socio economic development. The paper then concludes on some sustainability strategies known with the earth over the year as productive and effective building material.

Keywords: Earth, Socio-Economic, Sustainability, low-cost, reduced energy

Financial Gap and Sustainable Government Financial Interventions to Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: Developing a Sustainable Framework (Published)

Citation: J. F. Adegoke , N.N. Nwankpa, L. A. Bakare, S. A. Tijani, and O. J. Zubair (2022) Financial Gap and Sustainable Government Financial Interventions to Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Nigeria: Developing a Sustainable Framework, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.1, pp.25-43

Abstract: The Nigerian government, having considered the oil price volatility and the need to address its high reliance of its budget on oil, by diversifying the economy, has embarked on a series of programmes and reforms to boost non-oil sector of the economy, most importantly, the SME subsector. Financing interventions of government would have ordinarily been a succor to change the narrative of ugly financial accessibility of SMEs, but, the level of accessibility and its relationship to SMEs have largely been understudied. Hence, this study seeks to examine the deficiencies in the government interventions to SMEs and present a workable financial intervention framework. Both primary and secondary data were used for this study. Primary data were gathered through the administration of questionnaires. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select 100 registered SMEs in each of the six states of the Southwest Nigeria, while 100 unregistered SMEs were equally selected for inclusiveness totaling 700. The data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential analytical methods with the aid of SPSS. The study has documented the deficiencies of the previous interventions to include poor design of the programme, favoritism in the disbursement of financing facilities, low level of awareness of the facilities, difficulty in the procedures for accessing government financing support. The study thus proposed a framework where the guarantee scheme is designed into result-based financing where the designated scheme will just give guarantee to the banks to provide loan without collateral and with reduced interest, and a first-time loan which will be jointly financed by the banks and the scheme.

Keywords: Finance, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises, Sustainability, debt structure, interventions

Review on Organic Farming vs. Convectional Farming System (Published)

Organic farming is a type of agriculture or farming which avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substance. Organic farming is an important topic for society, so this paper shows some results arisen from a wider research on economic and environmental sustainability of organic farming. It focuses on organic and conventional farming comparison through different information and review. In this review, we examine the debate surrounding the role for organic agriculture in future food production systems. Typically represented as a binary organic and conventional question, this debate perpetuates an either/or mentality. We question this framing and examine the organic and conventional cropping systems comparisons. The review assesses current knowledge about how these cropping systems compare across a range of metrics related to for sustainability goals: productivity, environmental health, economic viability, and quality of life. We conclude by arguing for reframing the debate, recognizing that farming systems fall along gradients between three philosophical poles industrial, agrarian, and ecological and that different systems will be appropriate in different contexts. Regardless of evidence for lower yields in organic crop systems, we found considerable evidence for environmental and social benefits. Given these advantages, and the potential for improving organic systems, we come back calls for increased investment in organic and ecologically based farming systems research and extension.

 

Keywords: Sustainability, agro ecology, cropping system, debate, diversified farming food production, synthetic

Sustainability Marketing and Ethical Consumption Behaviour: the Moderating Effects of Price Sensitivity among Beverage Consumers in Nigeria (Published)

The study aim was to investigate the moderation effect of price sensitivity on the relationship between equity; health; economic structure; consumption and production pattern; atmosphere; biodiversity and ethical consumption behavior. Descriptive research design was adopted. Twelve hypotheses were tested using data collected from 425 residences in Nigeria. A quota sampling technique was adopted for full coverage. Content and face validity of the scale was provided by expert opinion and discriminant validity tested. Factor analysis measured the reliability and structure equations modeling (SEM) was applied to test the hypothesized relationships and interaction of the variables with the aid of Stata 15 SEM software.  Findings show that, equity, health, economic structure, consumption and production pattern, and biodiversity have significant relationship with ethical consumption behavior while atmosphere has no significant relationship with ethical consumption behavior. Price sensitivity do not have moderation effect on the relationship between equity, health, economic structure, atmosphere, and biodiversity and ethical consumption behavior but has moderation effect on the relationship between consumption and production pattern and ethical consumption behavior.  We recommend that; companies should produce and package beverages with sustainable and eco-friendly materials such as paper-based container.

 

Keywords: Marketing, Sustainability, ethical consumption, price sensitivity

Green Marketing and Sustainability of Breweries in Nigeria (Published)

This study appraised the effect of green marketing on sustainability of brewery firms in Nigeria using the South-East geo-political zone of Nigeria as the study area. Specifically, it sought to ascertain the extent green product; green price; green placement; and green promotion on the sustainability of breweries. The study was hinged on diffusion of innovation theory. Descriptive survey design using a sample size of 324 was adopted. Primary data used for the study were sourced with structured questionnaire, and analyzed in frequency tables and percentages, and multiple regression analysis for testing the hypotheses. The study found all the constructs of the study: green product, green price, green place (distribution), and green promotion to be significantly and positively related to sustainability of breweries in South-East of Nigeria. It concluded that green marketing significant positive effect on sustainability of breweries in South East of Nigeria. The study recommended that breweries in South-East Nigeria, and the broader Nigeria should sustain their environmental responsibilities and pay more attention to related issues so as to maintain their company sustainability.

Keywords: Green Marketing, Nigeria, South-East, Sustainability, brewery firms

Effectiveness of Personnel Development Program and Corporate Social Responsibility of Wilcon Depot in the Province of Rizal (Published)

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of personnel development programs regarding the sustainability of employees of Wilcon Depot Inc. The organization may benefit from this to see if they have a training program that can support the organization itself.

Keywords: : training program, Employees, Loyalty, Sustainability

Integrated Management System Implementation in SMEs: A Proposed model for Organisational Performance and Sustainability (Published)

Management systems are important for any organization especially to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that face limitations in areas that larger firms have stability. One of the approaches to overcome these challenges and maintain business growth is implementing and following an integrated management system (IMS), as a model for improving the organizational performance and to maintain sustainable growth in a business. SMEs are global leaders in providing employment opportunities – around 60-70 % in developed economies and 99% of all business in OECD countries, hence sustaining them and enhancing their performance in the business market over larger firms is critical to retain employment opportunities in the future. IMS provides internal and external benefits, especially being more feasible and appropriate for SMEs by increasing competitiveness, stability in business, effective resources management and resilience during market challenges. However, it’s important to focus on the specific characteristics and factors that determine SMEs effective implementation of IMS. To overcome the various barriers limiting their business growth and organizational performance, the proposed conceptional model developed through this research study in conjunction with the associated factors would enable SMEs to effectively implement IMS to achieve organizational performance and sustainability. SMEs in order to maintain a competitive nature in the emerging business markets must adopt different strategies and mechanisms to address the challenges in technology and innovation, which are the prime impacting factors that define a clear road map for sustainable growth.  

Keywords: Integrated, Organisation, Performance, SMEs, Sustainability, management system

A Nexus between Poverty and Resource Dependency (Published)

Natural resources are essential for economic growth of a region by providing ecosystem services to the rich and poor equally. Natural resources are limited in nature which raise a question on their sustainability. The paper explicit that rich and poor both are dependent on resources but their purpose is different, rich people who are already financially strong even then they consume more resources in order to get more profits while due to the large size of family, poor directly depend on ecosystem services just for the sake of survival of livelihood. Finally, Paper concluded that the deteriorating relation of poverty and resource dependency reached out at imbalanced stage and became an inexplicable question of natural resource management. Some recommendation offered regrading nexus between poverty and resource dependency and asserts that a greater involvement of formal institutions can play an important role in bridging the gap between poverty and resources.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Natural resources, Poverty, Sustainability, formal institutions, resource dependency

Integrated Reporting and Implications for Accounting Curriculum in Nigeria (Published)

Integrated reporting (<IR>) has been promoted by influential international organisations as the communication vehicle that provides concise, future-oriented and strategically relevant information and integrates financial, social and environmental elements to providers of the capitals and other interested parties. Increasing adoption of <IR> globally envisages significant implications for accounting education and the accounting curriculum, for both professional and academic training necessary for the “new” corporate reporting protocol. This paper reviews integrated reporting literature to access the principles and frameworks and outputs articulated by these influential organisations. In view of the suggested reporting outcomes, fundamental guiding principles and the main components of an integrated report, it is envisaged that the “new” accounting curricula would focus more on the longer-term than the shorter-term, more on corporate strategic outlook than operational or transactional processes; more prospective rather than retrospective analysis and reporting on wider business performance metrics than on narrower external financial reporting data or audit compliance. While leading global professional accountancy bodies (e.g., ACCA & CIMA) have already fully incorporated integrated reporting principles within their curriculum at the professional level, only few universities outside Nigeria have incorporated integrated reporting principles or learning outcomes within their existing curriculum. The paper calls on Accounting Departments of universities to incorporate <IR> principles into their course offerings.

Keywords: Accounting Curriculum, Nigeria, Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Engagement, Sustainability, integrated reporting

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological-Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring Of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes

Keywords: Adult Education, Challenges, Monitoring, Nigeria, Programmes, Projects, Prospects, Sustainability

Strategies for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in Etche Local Government Area (Published)

The study examined strategies for empowering rural women for sustainable livelihood in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers State. the objectives include to determine factors constraining women empowerment  and to identify strategies for women empowerment in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 300 women (respondents). Data were collected using structured questionnaire designed in sections, with each section eliciting responses in respect of the research questions. A test-retest method was used to ascertain the reliability of instrument with r-value of 0.85. data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A minimum mean of 2.50 was accepted as the standard. The findings showed that majority (43%) of respondents were between the age range of 40-49 years, majority (40%) had basic education while crop family processing was the primary occupation of majority of the respondents. The study also showed that women empowerment were constrained by gender discrimination; poverty; traditional belief, among others as equal opportunities for access to resources and elimination of discrimination to work and wages were some of the identified strategies for women empowerment. The study recommended that government at all levels should formulate policies that would encourage equal distribution of power right across gender.

Keywords: Empowerment, Livelihood, Rural Women, Sustainability

Assessment of Fuelwood Exploitation and Marketing within Rural-Urban Fringes of Makurdi Town in Central Nigeria (Published)

This study set out to examine the sustainability of fuelwood exploitation and marketing in the rural-urban fringes of Makurdi town in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 230 fuelwood dealers was used to obtain data for the study. Findings from the study showed high informality which robbed the activity of definite and regular organisation of activities, and management of the supply base. It was also found that, fuelwood harvesting has led to the decline of species diversity in the area, involving especially Crossopteryx febrifuga and Sysygium guineense. Similarly, income realised from the fuelwood trade was not remunerative to encourage its sustainability. In addition, the study indicated that more villagers were entering fuelwood harvesting and trading activity; 66.0% of respondents joined it only between 2014 and 2016. The study noted that as more people join the trade, greater loss of species will be experienced to ruin the industry. The study recommends restoration of subsidy on kerosene and operation of woodlots by harvesters to sustain the activity.

Keywords: Fuelwood, Harvesting, Livelihood, Marketing, Sustainability

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Monitoring, Nigeria, Sustainability, adult education projects

An Assessment of the Implementation of Staff Development Programmes for Manpower Sustainability in Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed the implementation of staff development programmes for manpower sustainability in Cross River State public secondary schools, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Three research questions were raised to guide the study to a logical conclusion. The population of the study was made up of 246 secondary school administrators selected through census approach and used for the study. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled: Implementation of Staff Development Programme Survey (ISDPS) was used to elicit information from the respondents. The instrument was validated by three experts in Measurement and Evaluation, and two specialists in Educational Administration and Planning. Split-half reliability test was employed to determine the reliability of the instrument. The reliability co-efficient obtained for the instrument ranged from 0.84 to 0.91 which showed that the instrument was adequate enough for the study. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency and percentages. Findings revealed that there is low implementation of induction/orientation programmes for newly recruited teachers in Cross River State public secondary schools. There is a low implementation of in-service training programmes for teachers in Cross River State public secondary schools. There is a low implementation of Information and Communication Technology training programmes for teachers in Cross River State public secondary schools. It was therefore recommended among others that the school administrators in Cross River State should encourage the teachers to engage in training and re-training programmes in order to enhance their competency in the school system.

Keywords: Implementation, Staff Development, Sustainability, manpower

Environmental Literacy for Achieving Sustainability of Environmental Quality in Nigeria (Published)

Actions of people lead to environmental degradations which in turn affect human growth and development. Human actions arise out of human’s perception of the environment as a resource for satisfying human needs. This reveals that environmental problems are behavior problems. The paper therefore recommends environmental education as a tool for making Nigerian citizens environmental literate which would engender action and activities that will lead to environmental sustainability in Nigeria. It concludes that environmental education organized in formal, non-formal and informal contexts should be taken seriously in order to make the citizens environmentally literate. 

Keywords: Sustainability, environmental literacy, environmental quality