Tag Archives: Sustainability

Review on Organic Farming vs. Convectional Farming System (Published)

Organic farming is a type of agriculture or farming which avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substance. Organic farming is an important topic for society, so this paper shows some results arisen from a wider research on economic and environmental sustainability of organic farming. It focuses on organic and conventional farming comparison through different information and review. In this review, we examine the debate surrounding the role for organic agriculture in future food production systems. Typically represented as a binary organic and conventional question, this debate perpetuates an either/or mentality. We question this framing and examine the organic and conventional cropping systems comparisons. The review assesses current knowledge about how these cropping systems compare across a range of metrics related to for sustainability goals: productivity, environmental health, economic viability, and quality of life. We conclude by arguing for reframing the debate, recognizing that farming systems fall along gradients between three philosophical poles industrial, agrarian, and ecological and that different systems will be appropriate in different contexts. Regardless of evidence for lower yields in organic crop systems, we found considerable evidence for environmental and social benefits. Given these advantages, and the potential for improving organic systems, we come back calls for increased investment in organic and ecologically based farming systems research and extension.

 

Keywords: Sustainability, agro ecology, cropping system, debate, diversified farming food production, synthetic

Sustainability Marketing and Ethical Consumption Behaviour: the Moderating Effects of Price Sensitivity among Beverage Consumers in Nigeria (Published)

The study aim was to investigate the moderation effect of price sensitivity on the relationship between equity; health; economic structure; consumption and production pattern; atmosphere; biodiversity and ethical consumption behavior. Descriptive research design was adopted. Twelve hypotheses were tested using data collected from 425 residences in Nigeria. A quota sampling technique was adopted for full coverage. Content and face validity of the scale was provided by expert opinion and discriminant validity tested. Factor analysis measured the reliability and structure equations modeling (SEM) was applied to test the hypothesized relationships and interaction of the variables with the aid of Stata 15 SEM software.  Findings show that, equity, health, economic structure, consumption and production pattern, and biodiversity have significant relationship with ethical consumption behavior while atmosphere has no significant relationship with ethical consumption behavior. Price sensitivity do not have moderation effect on the relationship between equity, health, economic structure, atmosphere, and biodiversity and ethical consumption behavior but has moderation effect on the relationship between consumption and production pattern and ethical consumption behavior.  We recommend that; companies should produce and package beverages with sustainable and eco-friendly materials such as paper-based container.

 

Keywords: Marketing, Sustainability, ethical consumption, price sensitivity

Green Marketing and Sustainability of Breweries in Nigeria (Published)

This study appraised the effect of green marketing on sustainability of brewery firms in Nigeria using the South-East geo-political zone of Nigeria as the study area. Specifically, it sought to ascertain the extent green product; green price; green placement; and green promotion on the sustainability of breweries. The study was hinged on diffusion of innovation theory. Descriptive survey design using a sample size of 324 was adopted. Primary data used for the study were sourced with structured questionnaire, and analyzed in frequency tables and percentages, and multiple regression analysis for testing the hypotheses. The study found all the constructs of the study: green product, green price, green place (distribution), and green promotion to be significantly and positively related to sustainability of breweries in South-East of Nigeria. It concluded that green marketing significant positive effect on sustainability of breweries in South East of Nigeria. The study recommended that breweries in South-East Nigeria, and the broader Nigeria should sustain their environmental responsibilities and pay more attention to related issues so as to maintain their company sustainability.

Keywords: Green Marketing, Nigeria, South-East, Sustainability, brewery firms

Effectiveness of Personnel Development Program and Corporate Social Responsibility of Wilcon Depot in the Province of Rizal (Published)

The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of personnel development programs regarding the sustainability of employees of Wilcon Depot Inc. The organization may benefit from this to see if they have a training program that can support the organization itself.

Keywords: : training program, Employees, Loyalty, Sustainability

Integrated Management System Implementation in SMEs: A Proposed model for Organisational Performance and Sustainability (Published)

Management systems are important for any organization especially to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that face limitations in areas that larger firms have stability. One of the approaches to overcome these challenges and maintain business growth is implementing and following an integrated management system (IMS), as a model for improving the organizational performance and to maintain sustainable growth in a business. SMEs are global leaders in providing employment opportunities – around 60-70 % in developed economies and 99% of all business in OECD countries, hence sustaining them and enhancing their performance in the business market over larger firms is critical to retain employment opportunities in the future. IMS provides internal and external benefits, especially being more feasible and appropriate for SMEs by increasing competitiveness, stability in business, effective resources management and resilience during market challenges. However, it’s important to focus on the specific characteristics and factors that determine SMEs effective implementation of IMS. To overcome the various barriers limiting their business growth and organizational performance, the proposed conceptional model developed through this research study in conjunction with the associated factors would enable SMEs to effectively implement IMS to achieve organizational performance and sustainability. SMEs in order to maintain a competitive nature in the emerging business markets must adopt different strategies and mechanisms to address the challenges in technology and innovation, which are the prime impacting factors that define a clear road map for sustainable growth.  

Keywords: Integrated, Organisation, Performance, SMEs, Sustainability, management system

A Nexus between Poverty and Resource Dependency (Published)

Natural resources are essential for economic growth of a region by providing ecosystem services to the rich and poor equally. Natural resources are limited in nature which raise a question on their sustainability. The paper explicit that rich and poor both are dependent on resources but their purpose is different, rich people who are already financially strong even then they consume more resources in order to get more profits while due to the large size of family, poor directly depend on ecosystem services just for the sake of survival of livelihood. Finally, Paper concluded that the deteriorating relation of poverty and resource dependency reached out at imbalanced stage and became an inexplicable question of natural resource management. Some recommendation offered regrading nexus between poverty and resource dependency and asserts that a greater involvement of formal institutions can play an important role in bridging the gap between poverty and resources.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Natural resources, Poverty, Sustainability, formal institutions, resource dependency

Integrated Reporting and Implications for Accounting Curriculum in Nigeria (Published)

Integrated reporting (<IR>) has been promoted by influential international organisations as the communication vehicle that provides concise, future-oriented and strategically relevant information and integrates financial, social and environmental elements to providers of the capitals and other interested parties. Increasing adoption of <IR> globally envisages significant implications for accounting education and the accounting curriculum, for both professional and academic training necessary for the “new” corporate reporting protocol. This paper reviews integrated reporting literature to access the principles and frameworks and outputs articulated by these influential organisations. In view of the suggested reporting outcomes, fundamental guiding principles and the main components of an integrated report, it is envisaged that the “new” accounting curricula would focus more on the longer-term than the shorter-term, more on corporate strategic outlook than operational or transactional processes; more prospective rather than retrospective analysis and reporting on wider business performance metrics than on narrower external financial reporting data or audit compliance. While leading global professional accountancy bodies (e.g., ACCA & CIMA) have already fully incorporated integrated reporting principles within their curriculum at the professional level, only few universities outside Nigeria have incorporated integrated reporting principles or learning outcomes within their existing curriculum. The paper calls on Accounting Departments of universities to incorporate <IR> principles into their course offerings.

Keywords: Accounting Curriculum, Nigeria, Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Engagement, Sustainability, integrated reporting

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological-Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring Of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes

Keywords: Adult Education, Challenges, Monitoring, Nigeria, Programmes, Projects, Prospects, Sustainability

Strategies for Sustainable Rural Livelihood in Etche Local Government Area (Published)

The study examined strategies for empowering rural women for sustainable livelihood in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers State. the objectives include to determine factors constraining women empowerment  and to identify strategies for women empowerment in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 300 women (respondents). Data were collected using structured questionnaire designed in sections, with each section eliciting responses in respect of the research questions. A test-retest method was used to ascertain the reliability of instrument with r-value of 0.85. data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A minimum mean of 2.50 was accepted as the standard. The findings showed that majority (43%) of respondents were between the age range of 40-49 years, majority (40%) had basic education while crop family processing was the primary occupation of majority of the respondents. The study also showed that women empowerment were constrained by gender discrimination; poverty; traditional belief, among others as equal opportunities for access to resources and elimination of discrimination to work and wages were some of the identified strategies for women empowerment. The study recommended that government at all levels should formulate policies that would encourage equal distribution of power right across gender.

Keywords: Empowerment, Livelihood, Rural Women, Sustainability

Assessment of Fuelwood Exploitation and Marketing within Rural-Urban Fringes of Makurdi Town in Central Nigeria (Published)

This study set out to examine the sustainability of fuelwood exploitation and marketing in the rural-urban fringes of Makurdi town in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 230 fuelwood dealers was used to obtain data for the study. Findings from the study showed high informality which robbed the activity of definite and regular organisation of activities, and management of the supply base. It was also found that, fuelwood harvesting has led to the decline of species diversity in the area, involving especially Crossopteryx febrifuga and Sysygium guineense. Similarly, income realised from the fuelwood trade was not remunerative to encourage its sustainability. In addition, the study indicated that more villagers were entering fuelwood harvesting and trading activity; 66.0% of respondents joined it only between 2014 and 2016. The study noted that as more people join the trade, greater loss of species will be experienced to ruin the industry. The study recommends restoration of subsidy on kerosene and operation of woodlots by harvesters to sustain the activity.

Keywords: Fuelwood, Harvesting, Livelihood, Marketing, Sustainability

Developing Sustainability by Using Hydrological/Water Quality Model (Published)

A framework is built, wherein hydrological/water quality model is used to measure watershed sustainability. For this framework, watershed sustainability has been defined and quantified by defining social, environmental and biodiversity indicators. By providing weightage to these indicators, a “River Basin Sustainability Index” is built. The watershed sustainability is then calculated based on the concepts of reliability, resilience and vulnerability. The framework is then applied to a case study, where, based on watershed management principles, four land use scenarios are created in GIS. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used as a hydrology/water quality model. Based on the results the land uses are ranked for sustainability and policy implications have been discussed. This results show that land use (both type and location) impact watershed sustainability. The existing land use is weak in environmental sustainability. Also, riparian zones play a critical role in watershed sustainability, although beyond certain width their contribution is not significant.

Keywords: Development, Framework, Reliability, Resilience, Sustainability, Vulnerability, Watershed

Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Monitoring, Nigeria, Sustainability, adult education projects

An Assessment of the Implementation of Staff Development Programmes for Manpower Sustainability in Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed the implementation of staff development programmes for manpower sustainability in Cross River State public secondary schools, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Three research questions were raised to guide the study to a logical conclusion. The population of the study was made up of 246 secondary school administrators selected through census approach and used for the study. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled: Implementation of Staff Development Programme Survey (ISDPS) was used to elicit information from the respondents. The instrument was validated by three experts in Measurement and Evaluation, and two specialists in Educational Administration and Planning. Split-half reliability test was employed to determine the reliability of the instrument. The reliability co-efficient obtained for the instrument ranged from 0.84 to 0.91 which showed that the instrument was adequate enough for the study. Data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics, frequency and percentages. Findings revealed that there is low implementation of induction/orientation programmes for newly recruited teachers in Cross River State public secondary schools. There is a low implementation of in-service training programmes for teachers in Cross River State public secondary schools. There is a low implementation of Information and Communication Technology training programmes for teachers in Cross River State public secondary schools. It was therefore recommended among others that the school administrators in Cross River State should encourage the teachers to engage in training and re-training programmes in order to enhance their competency in the school system.

Keywords: Implementation, Staff Development, Sustainability, manpower

Environmental Literacy for Achieving Sustainability of Environmental Quality in Nigeria (Published)

Actions of people lead to environmental degradations which in turn affect human growth and development. Human actions arise out of human’s perception of the environment as a resource for satisfying human needs. This reveals that environmental problems are behavior problems. The paper therefore recommends environmental education as a tool for making Nigerian citizens environmental literate which would engender action and activities that will lead to environmental sustainability in Nigeria. It concludes that environmental education organized in formal, non-formal and informal contexts should be taken seriously in order to make the citizens environmentally literate. 

Keywords: Sustainability, environmental literacy, environmental quality

Assessment of Fuelwood Exploitation and Marketing within Rural-Urban Fringes of Makurdi Town in Central Nigeria (Published)

This study set out to examine the sustainability of fuelwood exploitation and marketing in the rural-urban fringes of Makurdi town in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 230 fuelwood dealers was used to obtain data for the study. Findings from the study showed high informality which robbed the activity of definite and regular organisation of activities, and management of the supply base. It was also found that, fuelwood harvesting has led to the decline of species diversity in the area, involving especially Crossopteryx febrifuga and Sysygium guineense. Similarly, income realised from the fuelwood trade was not remunerative to encourage its sustainability. In addition, the study indicated that more villagers were entering fuelwood harvesting and trading activity; 66.0% of respondents joined it only between 2014 and 2016. The study noted that as more people join the trade, greater loss of species will be experienced to ruin the industry. The study recommends restoration of subsidy on kerosene and operation of woodlots by harvesters to sustain the activity.

 

Keywords: Fuelwood, Harvesting, Livelihood, Marketing, Sustainability

Determination of Level of Accuracy of Energy Modelling Tools for Office Buildings in Jos, Nigeria (Published)

The research undertook a comparative analysis of results obtained from both Real-time energy consumption measurements and computerized energy use simulations. The purpose was to find the level of accuracy/reliability of data obtainable (Test-Out-Theory) thus leading to a greater efficiency of energy planning decision support tools in the context of their utilization in the sub Saharan regions.  eQUEST 3-65 software was used for the purpose of simulation of energy consumption. A 72% cumulative accuracy level was obtained for randomly selected buildings under study. The research therefore recommends that energy performance simulation tools are veritable and viable devices for estimation of potential energy consumption of building at pre and post design stages.

Keywords: Computerized Energy Simulation, Energy Performance, Energy Planning, Sustainability, eQUEST 3-65 software.

Advances in Building Environmental Sustainability Assessment Tools/Methods and the Nigeria Context: A Review (Published)

Improving the environmental performance of buildings is increasingly gaining global attention of researchers, policy makers/government agencies and the construction industry. This is because the construction industry as emerging sector is highly active in both developed and developing countries and responsible for the high level of carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption especially in countries described as emerging economy. However, measuring the environmental performance or sustainability of buildings in developing countries like Nigeria, is relatively new and the practice of measuring sustainability is largely based on declarations that come from self-assessed developers and building material producers. The assessment methods, either environmental or performance-based are under constant evolution in order to surmount their various limitations. However, two main assessment approaches can be identified or distinguished: qualitative assessment methods and quantitative assessment methods. The field of environmental assessment methods/tools for buildings is vast, the aim of this paper is to clarify that field by analysing the terminologies and categorising existing tools in the context of the Nigerian building industry.

 

Keywords: Building environmental assessment tool, Qualitative and Quantitative assessment methods, Sustainability

Contribution of Green Orientation for the Organizational Performance: A Review of Stakeholder Relationships and Ecological Modernization Perspectives on Sustainability (Published)

Despite the fact that sustainability has become ever more important for business organizations today, sustainability initiatives in the social, environmental, and economic perspectives are still not properly integrated with each other or funneled down into the organizational level. Strategic green orientation (SGO) is derived from market orientation to adequately integrate the social, economic, and environmental perspectives as a new paradigm for the implementation of sustainable development principles at the business organizational level. This article attempts to explore the theoretical basis of SGO. This review builds on the stakeholder and ecological modernization theories to investigate the critical determinants of SGO and how it integrates the three different perspectives of sustainability to convert them for superior performance.   Based on theoretical foundations, this article explores a causal relationship between SGO and organizational performance that may stimulate further research and direct actions by decision makers and managers on sustainability perspectives in different industries such as tourism.   

Keywords: Business Organizations, Ecological Modernization Theory, Stakeholder Theory, Strategic Green Orientation, Sustainability

Organizational Education and Workforce: The Case of an Insurance Organization (Published)

The organizational education constitutes a modern tool for the big firms to evaluate and develop the professional skills of their employees and furthermore, to achieve an increase in their efficiency levels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between the continuous organizational education of the employees and their anticipation along with the level fulfilment of their working needs, and at the same time how this fact affects the development of their professional skills, in order for them to have a sustainability in the organization. For the needs of the current study, the appropriate data were collected from a sample of 110 employees of a customer service call centre, part of one of the biggest insurance organizations in Greece. The tool used to collect the data was a questionnaire of 20 questions according to the Likert style, along with 3 open questions that were provided to the employees with the option to express their further opinion. Lastly, for the analysis of the above data, the model of the 4 stages of Kirkpatrick was used, a model which evaluates the results of the organizational education. The statistical analysis of the given responses, showed a positive reaction of the employees about the procedures of the educational trainings (personal and as a team) and a relevant positive outcome regarding the results of the organizational educational planning and development. Furthermore, certain strategic deficiencies were discovered and suggestions were proposed in order to be eliminated.

 

Keywords: Efficiency, Organisational education, Sustainability, development of professional skills.