Tag Archives: Sustainability

Contribution of Green Orientation for the Organizational Performance: A Review of Stakeholder Relationships and Ecological Modernization Perspectives on Sustainability (Published)

Despite the fact that sustainability has become ever more important for business organizations today, sustainability initiatives in the social, environmental, and economic perspectives are still not properly integrated with each other or funneled down into the organizational level. Strategic green orientation (SGO) is derived from market orientation to adequately integrate the social, economic, and environmental perspectives as a new paradigm for the implementation of sustainable development principles at the business organizational level. This article attempts to explore the theoretical basis of SGO. This review builds on the stakeholder and ecological modernization theories to investigate the critical determinants of SGO and how it integrates the three different perspectives of sustainability to convert them for superior performance.   Based on theoretical foundations, this article explores a causal relationship between SGO and organizational performance that may stimulate further research and direct actions by decision makers and managers on sustainability perspectives in different industries such as tourism.   

Keywords: Business Organizations, Ecological Modernization Theory, Stakeholder Theory, Strategic Green Orientation, Sustainability

Organizational Education and Workforce: The Case of an Insurance Organization (Published)

The organizational education constitutes a modern tool for the big firms to evaluate and develop the professional skills of their employees and furthermore, to achieve an increase in their efficiency levels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the correlation between the continuous organizational education of the employees and their anticipation along with the level fulfilment of their working needs, and at the same time how this fact affects the development of their professional skills, in order for them to have a sustainability in the organization. For the needs of the current study, the appropriate data were collected from a sample of 110 employees of a customer service call centre, part of one of the biggest insurance organizations in Greece. The tool used to collect the data was a questionnaire of 20 questions according to the Likert style, along with 3 open questions that were provided to the employees with the option to express their further opinion. Lastly, for the analysis of the above data, the model of the 4 stages of Kirkpatrick was used, a model which evaluates the results of the organizational education. The statistical analysis of the given responses, showed a positive reaction of the employees about the procedures of the educational trainings (personal and as a team) and a relevant positive outcome regarding the results of the organizational educational planning and development. Furthermore, certain strategic deficiencies were discovered and suggestions were proposed in order to be eliminated.


Keywords: Efficiency, Organisational education, Sustainability, development of professional skills.

CONFINTEA, EFA, MDGs AND SDGs: Reviewing Goals, Targets and Nigerians Policy Framework for Adult and Lifelong Learning (Published)

This article examines the various international commitments to adult education and lifelong learning such as the CONFINTEA, EFA, MDGs and SDGs. The paper reviews the goals of these global declarations comparing the 4th goals of   SDGs with EFA goals and constrains to attaining the CONFINTEA, EFA and MDGs in Nigeria while reviewing the efforts of the Nigerian government in attaining these goal. The paper argued that adult education is a   Cinderella of all global policy framework for development, but it has received lest attention and less budgetary allocation in Nigeria and that the policy deficiency in lifelong learning and adult education over the years could undermine the attainment of goal 4 of SDG in Nigeria

Keywords: Adult Learning, Cinderella, Lifelong learning, Policy Framework, Sustainability

Public Debt Sustainability and Incidences of Poverty: Empirical Evidence from Nigeria (Published)

This paper examined the implications of public debt sustainability on poverty incidence in Nigeria. Specifically, the impacts of external debt stock and interest payment on external debt, proxy for external debt servicing on poverty headcount was estimated using Stock-Watson Dynamic Least Squares (DOLS). Data were extracted from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and World Bank World Development Indicators. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests results show that the series are difference stationary as they are integrated of order one. The result of the Johansen-Juselius cointegration test reveals that the series have long run relationship. Thus, the null hypothesis of no cointegration is rejected at 5 percent level. The estimated cointegrating regression model shows that external debt stock as a share of GNI has significant positive relationship with poverty headcount as 10 percent increase in external debt stock induces 7.59 percent increase in poverty headcount. This is a pointer that policy intervention should focus on the effective management of the borrowed funds from external sources in order to drive the process of economic development. On the other hand, it was found that interest payments on external debt as a proportion of GNI is negatively related to poverty headcount. This is suggestive that the extent of debt servicing in Nigeria seems not to undermine the sustainable path of debt management and the developmental goal of poverty reduction. Accordingly, it is recommended for improved fiscal consolidation across various levels of government in Nigeria with a view to keeping the economy on the path of sustainability in terms of external debt management.

Keywords: Debt Servicing, Poverty Incidence, Public Debt, Sustainability

Effect of Sustainable Supply Chain Management on Consumers’ Purchase Intension (Published)

This study examined the effect of sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) on consumers’ purchase intension. Specifically, the study determine the extent to which SSCM practice that are socially and environmental sustainable create self brand connection compare to SSCM practices which are not socially or environmental sustainable. It also investigates the extent to which supply chain management practices that are socially and environmental sustainable reduces dissonance compare to supply chain management practices that are not socially or environmentally sustainable. The study adopted quantitative research approach while the population consists of staff and major dealers of Dangote cement PLC who have made official purchase for an upward of five years. Data used for the study was collected using structured questionnaire while data analysis was done using linear regression. The study reveals that sustainable supply chain management practices is capable of connecting customer with the product of firms. The coefficient of determination (R2) obtain reveal that 91.70% of customer loyalty was as a result of sustainable supply chain management. It was recommended that firms that are eco-friendly should educate members of the public by indicating it on their labels in order to adequately distinguish it from those firms that are not environmentally friendly. This will clear any negative feeling from customer which may increase dissonance in them.

Keywords: Cognitive Dissonance., Purchases Intension, Supply Chain, Sustainability

Agricultural Extension Services Using a Participatory Approach in Vegetable Growing Areas in Suriname (Published)

Extension Officers from the Agricultural Extension Service in Suriname, charged with communication, face difficulties in transferring information to farmers. Therefore, a mixed method study was carried out to explore possibilities to improve communication strategies and to facilitate the introduction of novelties and good practices. From August 1, 2016-February 15, 2017 388 small-scale vegetable farmers participated in a survey gauging their knowledge and practices. In addition, a participatory farmers’ experiment was conducted with 15 farmers to convey information about the application of Biochar, an innovative soil-improving compound. Results revealed that extension officers lack relevant specific agricultural knowledge. Important information on sustainable agriculture did not reach most farmers, although the participatory approach provided the means for information exchange and allowed conveying the needed information. The experiment showed that practical sessions on a regular basis with bi-directional information interchange with farmers as conducted in this research can be an effective method to introduce novelties and good practices.

Keywords: Agricultural Innovation, Biochar, Small-scale Farmers, Sustainability, communication, extension

Meta-Analysis on Sustainable Supply Chain Management: An Analytical Approach (Published)

Sustainability in Supply Chain is a key area in business that great attention is being looked into by academicians and practioners in recent times. The literature of sustainable supply chain management is still scant and several literature review has been conducted to investigate the state of the art knowledge of sustainable supply chain management. The field of text mining is rapidly evolving but little has been done on the techniques used in the study of sustainable supply chain management. The major objective of the study was to conduct a meta–analysis of the literature review studies in the area of sustainable supply chain management. Specifically the objective of the study was to find out the state of the art knowledge in sustainable supply chain and to use text mining techniques to derive the most frequent used words in keywords, abstracts and conclusion of the literature review papers on sustainable supply chain management. Major trends and current research topics in sustainable supply chain management were identified. A total of 57 papers were identified, the process was iterative involving many hours of reading, additional collection of literature, synthesis and refinement. The leading peer reviewed journals, universities, and authors were identified as well. The study adopted meta-analysis and content based qualitative approach of published literature for assessing the appropriateness of the framework presented in the research articles. More specifically the alignment between keywords, abstract and conclusion was studied. Finally, suggestion and recommendation was provided for the research agenda in the field of sustainable supply chain management

Keywords: Supply Chain, Sustainability, Sustainable Supply Chain, Text Mining

Settlement By Energy – Can Renewable Energies Sustain Our Civilisation? (Published)

This article contributes to explaining the recently observable acceleration in the growth of output in renewable energies, through studying the fundamental role of renewable energies in sustaining human settlement. A model of general equilibrium is introduced, based on the logic of the original production function by Cobb and Douglas, where the size of the human population in a given place at a given time is in equilibrium with the available food and energy. Empirical check provided for the model strongly suggests that renewable energies can sustain the majority of local human populations on Earth, and most countries, with the intriguing exception of China and India, can sustain significantly bigger populations than their present ones, by reorienting their economies totally to renewable energies.

Keywords: General Equilibrium, Production Function, Renewable Energies, Sustainability, Technological Change

Ventilation for Comfort in Passive Residential Living Spaces in a Warm-Humid Urban Environment (Published)

The natural ventilation provision for comfort in selected residential estate buildings in Ibadan, Nigeria was assessed in this paper. This was with a view to assessing the indoor air movement for comfort and sustainability of passively operated urban living spaces within a warm-humid climatic environment. Systematic sampling was used to select 91 buildings from the 273 in the estate. The ventilation analysis indicated that the living-room spaces in the buildings had adequate comfort ventilation with the average indoor wind speed obtained ranging from 0.21m/s to 0.24m/s. In the comfort survey it was found that 82% of the total votes of the respondents were within the comfort zone and 72% of the respondents preferred their naturally ventilated spaces to air-conditioned spaces. The buildings were adjudged to be comfortable and sustainable since they operate passively and are maintained at no extra cost to the users.


Keywords: Adaptive comfort, Sustainability, Ventilation, Warm humid, naturally ventilated spaces

Sustainable Tourism Practice; a Panacea for Reviving Bilikisu-Sugbon Tourist Attraction and Reducing Poverty in Oke-Eri, Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigates the current status of the Bilikisu Sugbon tourist attraction in Oke-Eri, Via Ijebu-Ode-Ibadan Express way, Ogun State, Nigeria. It also assess the standard of living of the residents of the Oke-Eri community. The attraction, haven received lots of attention from scholars in archaeology and other disciplines, and also government of Ogun State in the past with the goal of making it a befitting tourist destination has remained in a poor state.A survey was conducted to gather information on the current status of the tourist site. Random sampling technique was used to select 100 local residents of the community and 50 tourists during the 2015 Christmas celebration and another 50 during the 2016 Eid’L Fitri Festival celebration, and questionnaires were administered to them accordingly. Also, purposive sampling method was used to select specific people and groups in the community for personal interview and focus group discussion respectively. Key informant interview method was also used to gather information from three community chiefs and two management staff of the Ogun State Tourism Board. Data gathered were subjected to analysis and presented using frequency counts, simple percentile, charts, chi square.Findings of the study revealed that, the economic activity in Oke-Eri is very low (P<0.05) and there is a high level of poverty in the community despite the tourism potentials present there. It was found that, reviving the Bilikisu-Sungbo tourist site would help in reducing poverty and enhance the socio-economic status the community (P<0.05). The study also revealed that what led to the dilapidation of the attraction after it was earlier developed by the Ogun State Government in the early 1980s was political instability and lack of sustainable development practice. The study concludes that, there is urgent need for the Ogun State government to be committed to the reconstruction of the Bilikisu-Sugbon tourist site in Oke-Eri either through direct investment or encouraging public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative, in order, to redeem the image of the attraction, foster socio-economic growth of the community and reduce poverty in the community. The study therefore recommends that there must be a sustainable master plan in place, public-private-partnership (PPP) initiative should be considered and the local community should be actively involved in the reconstruction process and management of the attraction when re-opened to the general public as a tourist site as part of requirements for ensuring sustainability.

Keywords: Panacea, Poverty, Revival, Sustainability, Tourism

Establishing Strategies Influencing UPE Policy Sustainability in Rwenzori Region Western Uganda (Published)

Universal Primary Education (UPE) policy in the form of fee abolition has become popular in Uganda and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa.  The current UPE policy is devoid of analytical studies on its impact and challenges beyond school enrollment. This paper is an attempt to make an establishment on the strategies that are thought to influence UPE policy sustainability in the Rwenzori region of Western Uganda. , to identify common and unique strategies of UPE sustainability and to examine them responding to the capacity and needs of the Rwenzori Region. The results show that effective policy implementation would require considerable consultation with key stakeholders and a baseline survey that will enable systematic implementation and consideration of equity. Mutual accountability and a responsibility mechanism between the government and parents/communities is also a key to the sustainability of the UPE policy.

Keywords: Strategies., Sustainability, Universal Primary Education

Management of Students’ Personnel Services and Sustainable Secondary Education in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between management of students’ personnel services and sustainable secondary education. The study area was Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State Nigeria. Two null hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. The survey design was adopted for the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to sample seven hundred and ten (710) senior secondary two (SS II) students from a population of 6131 students for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 4-point response type scale, developed by the researchers and titled “Management of Students’ Personnel Services and Sustainable Secondary Education Questionnaire (MSPSSSEQ)”. The reliability coefficient of the instrument was 0.78 using Cronbach alpha reliability method. The data collected were analyzed using Pearson’s product moment correlation statistics and the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that management of students’ personnel guidance/counseling and recreational services significantly correlated with sustainable secondary education. Premised on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the provision and effective management of students’ personnel guidance/counseling and recreational services had a positive impact on sustainable secondary education in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. It was therefore recommended among others that both the government and school administrators should work together to provide essential facilities for effective management of students’ personnel services to enhance sustainable secondary education.

Keywords: Personnel Services, Secondary Education, Students, Sustainability

Green Chemistry: a Panacea for Environmental Sustainability Agriculture in Global Perspective (Published)

The environment is a very important component necessary for the existence of both man  through agriculture. Agriculture is one of the oldest and global sources of human livelihood. Producing food, transportation, and energy for teeming population  has led to large and widespread increases in the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuel combustion, resulting in a leakage of N into the environment as various forms of air ,soil and water pollution. Information for the paper was through secondary data,  in which principles of green chemistry, impact of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers were discussed with the confirmation of negative impacts through their applications in agriculture.   Sustainable Agricultural Applications in Green Chemistry was discussed and bio-pesticides  and bio-fertilizers were recommended as an alternative tools . Green Chemistry aims not only for safer products, less hazardous consequences to the environment, saving energy and water, but includes broader issues which can promote in the end Sustainable Development. The beginning of green chemistry is frequently considered as a response to the need to reduce the damage of the environment by man-made materials and the processes used to produce them.

Keywords: Agriculture, Chemistry, Environment, Green, Sustainability

The Sustainability Of Urban Wild Area Changes And Urban Area Development: Case Study Of Wuhan City’s Metropolitan Area, P.R. China In 2002 – 2011 (Published)

Urban wild areas are the land maintains a wild ecosystem in metropolitan areas and it is urban resources of ecosystem services. When city planning is based on economic development, capitalism urbanization and industrialization, urban wild areas tend to decrease in size while strictly urban areas become larger. Between 2002 and 2011, the metropolitan region of Wuhan, C.P. China, also displays the relationship of increasing urbanization and the decline of urban wild areas. Thus the researchers will attempt to explain a decrease in the urban wild area in the city of Wuhan due to urbanization. The current research will analyze changes in images from Landsat 7 satellite, as well as statistics of Wuhan and then they compare the study results with international sustainable standard. All data analyzed show that urban wild areas change in quality and quantity; the data also suggest that industrial and urban development correlates significantly with negative impact upon urban wild areas. In addition, the study conducted by the researchers of changes of the benchmarks of urban wild area in Wuhan culminate in sustainable ultimate gold: in the future we wants’ commitment of the United Nations. The research displays that urban wild area changes are not according with sustainable ultimate goal and it is not suitable for the well-being of metropolitan life and it serves as a serious warning to the urban wild area conservation process.

Keywords: Land Resources Management, Sustainability, Sustainable Development, Urban Development Policy, Urban Ecology, Urban Study, Wuhan city, urban wild


Developing countries are without compromising the environment, environmentally friendly, economic development of Bangladesh is a burning issue and requires a large supply of power. The use of fossil fuels is limited, solar, wind; biomass renewable energy sources such as hydro power limit option might be compensated for the other countries of similar power crisis in Bangladesh are not separated. From the power supply grid connected through three quarters (76%) of the people of Bangladesh. No doubt it is natural gas that has been limited to using a variety of purposes. Mean energy demand alarm output gap is expected to increase exponentially. Despite expectations that renewable energy sources are now in this country, you only have a 0.3% share of renewable energy in the total energy supply. In this article, not only, however, for future use in Bangladesh and the state of renewable energy that can be obtained in Bangladesh to review the renewable energy technologies. It will also try to show that the direction of future research, the use of renewable energy to meet future needs.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Electricity generation, Fossil Fuel, Renewable Energy, Sustainability


Private and public higher education institutions have had the problem of financial un-sustainability in recent years. United Kingdom and European Union have instituted programs to work on financial sustainability of higher education. To achieve financial sustainability of higher education, institutions need to maintain or increase internally-generated funds that are regular, without future compromises. The paper establishes the legitimacy for future work needed for the variables to pursue sustainable growth. The study was designed to explore theories behind financial sustainability and established possible correlation between the sustainable growth rate and contributing factors that are sustaining the financing of higher education institutions. Quantitative research methodology was use for the research design with instrument on higher educational institutions across the globe. Results opened an important opportunity for discussion on financial sustainability in higher educational institutions. The outcome states that the predictive model is key to financial sustainability for higher educational institutions.

Keywords: Authentic leadership and Sustainable growth rate, Financial Sustainability, Investment portfolio, Networking, Organizational Culture, Public Relations, Sustainability


Developing countries are without compromising the environment, environmentally friendly, economic development of Bangladesh is a burning issue and requires a large supply of power. The use of fossil fuels is limited, solar, wind; biomass renewable energy sources such as hydro power limit option might be compensated for the other countries of similar power crisis in Bangladesh are not separated. From the power supply grid connected through three quarters (76%) of the people of Bangladesh. No doubt it is natural gas that has been limited to using a variety of purposes. Mean energy demand alarm output gap is expected to increase exponentially. Despite expectations that renewable energy sources are now in this country, you only have a 0.3% share of renewable energy in the total energy supply. In this article, not only, however, for future use in Bangladesh and the state of renewable energy that can be obtained in Bangladesh to review the renewable energy technologies. It will also try to show that the direction of future research, the use of renewable energy to meet future needs.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Electricity generation, Fossil Fuel, Renewable Energy, Sustainability


Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) play a major role in improving the living standards of families’ households, groups and individuals in any country especially in Kenya and yet its downplayed therefore, this paper posits that through financing There has been a significant increase in activities from Non-Governmental Organizations NGOs) with regards to funding of various projects as a practice (Adera, 2012). This paper seeks to posit financial sustainability practices and outcomes in Kenya’s Non-governmental organizations in a quest to deepening and creating an in-depth knowledge on some of these practices and their outcomes initiated or funded by non-governmental organizations to creating financial sustainability. The objectives of the article are three fold: to identify financial sustainability practices such as surplus, cash available to pay bills, credit facilities and community participation, to evaluate on the role of funding policies for financial sustainability of non-governmental organizations and finally to explore any inherent paradox on non-governmental financial sustainability principles and outcomes. The hypotheses were developed and tested using data collected using survey of the four regions selected in Kenya. Stratified random sampling technique was used to pick 110 managers in the region. Data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires to the respondents. Pearson correlation and multiple regression models were used in the analysis to assess the financial sustainability. Financing policies was positively correlated to financial sustainability beta coefficient 0.296, ρ<0.05 does affect financial sustainability. level of access to donor funds was positively correlated to financial sustainability (Pearson correlation=0.468, p value=0.000) financing policies was 0.249 with p value 0.000<0.05 significance level, thus the study provide precursory evidence to reject null hypotheses that donor financing policies had no significance effect on financial sustainability of the project and infer that donor financing policies positively affect financial sustainability, thus enhancing financial policies will improve the financial sustainability of a project. The study is intended to strike a realistic approach of donor implementers and various governments on development assistance and allocative performance in creating financial sustainability and improving non-governmental organization performance which normally trickles down on citizen’s sustainability

Keywords: Financial Sustainability, Funding Policies and Donor Funding Policies, Sustainability

Religion, Man and His Environment (Published)

The paper focuses on three main issues of religion, man and environment. Of the diverse environments, only the natural environment is dwelt upon in the paper, which also sheds light on how religion makes man to benefit from the natural environment. The interactions of man in the natural environment are discussed and the ways these interactions are adversely affecting its sustainability explained. The paper deposed that religion is about sustainability, which is the wish of God for the planet earth, as well as his wish for humankind and the environment. Religion should not only save the soul of man, but assure the sustainability of the natural environment created by him to sustain the life of humankind

Keywords: Environment, Man, Religion., Sustainability

Determinants of Agricultural Sustainability in Southeast Nigeria -The Climate Change Debacle (Published)

The renewed quest for sustainable economic development which is synonymous with sustainable agricultural development and hence agricultural sustainability impelled this study titled “Determinants of Agricultural Sustainability in Southeast Nigeria”. Southeast Nigeria is located within latitudes 5oN to 6o N of the equator and longitudes 6oE and 8oE of the Greenwich (prime) meridian (M.S corporation, 2009). Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a sample of 312 cassava based food crop farmers from whom data were collected using structured and validated questionnaire. Data bothering on the respondents’ socio-economic characteristics, the type, quantity, and sources of inputs used and output produced were collected. These were analysed with the use of descriptive statistical tools and ordinary least square multiple regression analytical tools. Result showed that factors such as farm size, annual income, household size, level of education, and climate change are significantly and inversely proportional to sustainability level of farmers, while labour cost was significantly but directly proportional to agricultural sustainability. It was concluded that, efforts should be made at both micro and macro levels of government to improve on the mitigation and adaptive strategies of climate change available to farmers by making such more affordable, available and user friendly through extension education on the appropriate uses of such technologies in a more sustainable manner.

Keywords: Adaptive and Mitigation, Appropriate, Climate Change, Determinants, Regression, Sustainability