Effects of salinity and hardness on the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Northern Punjab region of Pakistan. (Published)
The tolerance of salinity and hardness was checked on the growth and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in National Agriculture Research Council (NARC) Islamabad. Fry of the Tilapia measuring between 2.5cm to 2.9cm in total length and weighing between 0.435g to 0.603g (Body Weight BW) were used for the salinity and hardness treatment. Different levels of salinity from 0-15ppt were developed for the three months. 100 % survival rate was observed in 0-7.5ppt while in 12.5ppt and 15ppt all the fish died. Salinities between 0-10ppt were endured by the fish however the most appropriate salinity level was 5ppt on which maximum growth was recorded. For hardness treatment different concentrations of 350mg/lit, 450mg/lit, 550mg/lit and 650mg/lit of CaCl2 were used. No mortality was observed in this case and the most preferred concentration on which the fish showed maximum growth was 550 mg/lit.
This paper views marketing education in two perspectives-as a practice whereby school-leavers exchange their knowledge and skills for money and secondly, as a practice whereby the entire educational institution like, the University of Uyo, exchanges/should exchange her stock of knowledge and skills to make more money. The paper concentrates more on the second perspective and highlights four strategies which the University of Uyo uses to source for more money. These include product diversification, discriminatory charging of students’, the use of multiple distribution channels and outright use of marketing promotion strategies, like advertising and appeal for support from the public. Education marketing is found to contribute greatly towards the internally-generated revenue (IGR) of the University of Uyo. Suggestions for greater strides in marketing by the university include setting up a distinct marketing management unit, experimenting on having cottage industries, especially for products that are of high demand by the employees like fuel; more involvement of the Alumni in fund generation, extending university services to artisans and finally, auditing the marketing outcomes and activities. The paper concludes that involvement in marketing is one sure way of stopping over-dependence on the government/proprietor for funds by higher educational institutions in Nigeria.
An Early Warning System on the Propensity of Survival and Failure of Non-life Insurance Firms in the Philippines (2002-2011) (Review Completed - Accepted)
This study examines the factors affecting survival and failure of non-life insurance firms in the Philippines and classifies the survivability of the firms into strong, moderate, weak and insolvent firms. Selected insolvency indicators are represented by the variables most commonly found and validated in insurance literature. The study used a 10-year panel data of 79 non-life insurance firms in the Philippines from year 2002 to 2011 Annual Statements (AS) reported at the Philippine Insurance Commission (IC). The variables of the study were tested using Levene-Welch-Games-Howell and logit regression. The result shows that firm size, natural catastrophe due to typhoon and flood, ownership, leverage, degree of diversification, growth of equity and paid-up capital compliance are significant factors that affect the survivability of non-life insurance firms in the Philippines. The result of the study serves as a useful tool for the regulator and stakeholders involved in the industry