Tag Archives: Surveillance

The Effect of Surveillance and Evaluation Expectation on the Creativity of Primary School Pupils (Published)

Creativity seems to be one of the determinants of perpetuation of species. Humans need to invent creative ways for dealing with the challenges of surviving in a continuously evolving planet. Creativity also has great implications for a nation’s development. Nurturing and enhancing creativity is a major concern for educators. This study focusses on finding the effect of surveillance and Evaluation, two factors identified as killers of creativity; on the creativity of primary school pupils. Piaget’s theory of creativity and Vygotsky’s theory of creativity were used to explain the possible relationships in the study. The research design is the post-test control group quasi experimental design. Thirty-five children from two intact classes were purposively selected for the study. Four research questions were asked and two hypothesis formulated for the study. Data was collected from creative arts classwork of the pupils and analysed using the Independent population t-test. Results revealed a significant effect of both surveillance and evaluation expectation on the creativity of primary school pupils. Recommendations were made.

Keywords: Creativity, Evaluation, Innovation, Self-reliance, Surveillance

How the availability of private security services assist in crime control in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)

The study was motivated by the fact that despite the presence of private security companies and the availability of their services in Nairobi city, there was still an upsurge of insecurity. This study was informed by Situational crime prevention and Crime prevention through environmental design theories. Descriptive survey research design was used, and the study utilized stratified random sampling technique to select respondents from the study population which was 500 respondents. Data were obtained using a combination of a questionnaire and interview schedule. Copies of the questionnaire were administered to 151 respondents, who were drawn from the private security companies in the area of study, and the members of staff working in the private institutions and also the area residents. The study was carried out in Karen location which is an upper market estate in Nairobi County. The study identified five categories of crime control services provided by private security companies, with providing alarm response and loss prevention being the major crime control service. The study further found that majority of the residents in the study area goes for the medium level security premium which offers alarm response and security guarding services. Findings revealed that a majority of respondents (52%) perceived the level of effectiveness by private security companies to be fairly moderate, 28% perceived them to be average and 20% of the respondents perceived them to be good. Overall, private security services, were perceived, to be relevant in crime control in Karen location.

Keywords: Crime, Crime Control., Security alarms, Surveillance, access control

Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms and Patients’ Risk Factors in the Intensive Care Unit of King Fahad Hofuf Hospital, Saudi Arabia (Published)

Introduction: Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAIs), including Multi-Drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) are significant global public health problems. This paper analyses a surveillance system dataset in order to describe the epidemiology of HAIs (MDROs and non-MDROs) in the intensive care unit (ICU), King Fahad Hofuf Hospital (KFHH), Saudi Arabia.

Methods: The three year period (2010 to 2012) of KFHH surveillance system data (both sporadic and outbreak) were analysed.

Results: There were 496 notifications of HAI cases, with 68.2% being MDROs and 31.8% non-MDROs. A total of 758 organisms were identified with 90% being Gram Negative Organisms (GNO). Of the GNOs, 51% were MDROs. Device-associated infections were detected in 48.9% of patients. The most common device-associated infections were ventilator-associated pneumonia, central line associated blood stream infections, and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. The most frequently isolated MDROs were Acinetobacter species at 57.4%, extended spectrum beta lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumonia at 13.2%, MRSA at 9.8%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 6.5%.

Conclusion: HAIs cause a significant burden of disease at KFHH. The high prevalence of risk factors including pre-existing medical conditions, invasive procedures, and the long duration of hospital stays, are more prominent in ICU. This study highlights the changing trend of MDROs towards MDR gram negative organisms. High rates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were prominent in the ICU


Keywords: ICU, Infection control, KFHH, MDROs, Saudi Arabia, Surveillance