Physico-Chemical, Heavy Metal and Microbiological Concentrations in Soil and Water Samples around Veritas University Campus, Obehie, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical, heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University, Obehie, Abia State, Nigeria to prevent the risk on the public health. Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001), and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low, ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases, with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions. Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples, ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations, ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples, except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence, regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.
Phthalate Ester Plasticizers in Orogodo River Delta State and Their Potential Health Effects (Published)
This study was carried out to analyse the presence of different phthalates such as dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalates (DEP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), buttylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) in Orogodo River. Samples were collected from eight points along the river channel, extracted using liquid-liquid method of extraction and was analysed using GC/MS. Levels of phthalates in water samples from the river ranged from 0.00µg/L to 2.22µg/L. The highest concentrations of phthalates were DBP and DEHP, which is consistent with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals. It was found that the individual phthalates concentration was low but total phthalate levels were high in most stations. Total phthalates for each of the location ranges from 1.34µg/L to 3.29µg/L at each station. Some of these were higher than the criterion of 3µg/L phthalates recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) for the protection of fish and other aquatic organisms. The high concentrations may be as a result of dumping of untreated effluent/solid waste and emissions arising from burning of refuse containing plastic materials along the stretch of the river. The results for phthalates in the water samples give cause for environmental and health concern for people living downstream of the river. These results can be used as reference levels for future monitoring programs for pollution studies of the river.