Tag Archives: Supervision

Assessment of Supervision in Public Basic Schools in Northern Ghana: The Case of Lambussie-Karni District (Published)

This study sought to assess the effectiveness of supervision in public basic schools in Lambussie-Karni District of the Upper West Region of Ghana. The descriptive survey design was adopted, where quantitative data was collected and analyzed. The multi-stage sampling with the use of stratified random sampling and convenience sampling techniques were used to select 234 participants for the study. Structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Version 25 of the Statistical Product for Service Solution was used to analyze the data. The mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that clinical supervision was dominantly practiced than training and guidance supervision, collegial supervision and traditional supervision. Also, participants perceived all the components and well as the overall supervision as very effective in promoting effective teaching and learning. The challenges to effective supervision included unhealthy relationship between supervisors and supervisees, lack of regular in-service training, lack of funds, and follow-up activities. It was recommended that regular in-service training should be organized by Ghana Education Service (GES) for supervisors and teachers to update their knowledge and skills, and to be abreast with the changing trends in supervision in schools.

Citation: Enock Yeng, Anthony Woode-Eshun & Seth Badu (2022) Assessment of Supervision in Public Basic Schools in Northern Ghana: The Case of Lambussie-Karni District, British Journal of Education, Vol.10, Issue 1, pp. 17-35


Keywords: Assessment, Headteachers, Supervision, Teachers

Challenges Faced By Mathematics Education Student-Teachers during Macro-Teaching Practice (Published)

It sounds contradictory when students who are being trained to teach go to the field and end up performing quite below standard despite all efforts put in place by the university to produce effective and productive teachers. The issue been raised is, what then becomes the fate of the students they are teaching in terms of performance? It is in this view that the current research was conducted to examine the challenges faced by mathematics education students during macro-teaching. To achieve the objective of the study, a descriptive survey design was employed for the study. A sample size of 35 final year students offering Bachelor of Education (Mathematics) programme were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used as the main instruments for data collection during the research process. Results from the study indicated that student-teachers encounter environmental, instructional and supervisory challenges. Environment challenges faced by these students include inadequate teaching and learning mathematics and difficulty in transport to the schools. Other challenges encountered, conclusions, recommendations as well as the implications of the findings are discussed in the work.

Keywords: : Teaching practice, Challenges, Mathematics Education, Student Teachers, Supervision, basic schools, macro-teaching, off-campus

The Supervisors’ Practice of Collaborative Approach in Schools (Published)

This research paper is a part of larger project that examine the current practices of developmental supervision in Saudi Arabia. The focus of this study is to examine the practice of collaborative approach to supervision as one of the favorite approach in supervision. In this explanatory sequential mixed-methods, the data were collected through survey and subsequent semi-structured interviews.  The sample were teachers from elementary schools in Makkah. The findings indicated that supervisors sometimes practiced the collaborative approaches to development supervision.  Gender and years of teaching experience had no impact on participants’ responses regarding the practice of collaborative approach.  Level of education did appear to affect responses about the collaborative approach. In qualitative phase, the themes were organized to three themes and sub themes. The qualitative findings supported the quantitative results, which indicated that the supervisors are to some extent practicing the collaborative approach.

Keywords: Supervision, collaborative approach, developmental supervision

Supervision of Manpower Training and Development in the Nigerian Education System: An Important Role of the Education Manager (Published)

Manpower training and development are very essential for organizational effectiveness and efficiency especially in the education system. When manpower is adequately trained and developed, the positive impact is felt on organizational output. Looking at Nigeria’s educational system, it is important to note that the level of training and staff development would determine the quality and standard of Nigerian education. Achieving quality and standardization of Nigerian education is not an easy task. It needs the commitment of all educational stakeholders, particularly the education managers. When the processes of training and developing education manpower are duly supervised by the education managers, school effectiveness and improvement are achieved and this would get Nigeria and the Nigerian people close to achieving the much preached about quality education in Nigeria. A lot are involved in effective and efficient manpower training and development in the Nigerian education system. This may include the act of trying to impact on education workers new knowledge and skills that would assist them in their effective job performance, give them the ability to take on new roles and responsibilities, and make them adapt to and adopt changes in the education system. With constant innovation in education nationally and internationally, and the era of globalization and digitalization, constant training and development of education manpower and regular supervision of such training and development programmes by education managers are advised, encouraged and recommended. This paper wants to look at the role of education managers in the supervision of manpower training and development in the Nigerian education system.

Keywords: Manpower training and development, Nigerian education system and Education manager, Supervision

Electronic Evaluation: Facts, Challenges and Expectations (Published)

Due to its fundamental role in the teaching and learning process, the concept of evaluation   has been widely tackled in academic spheres. As a matter of fact, evaluation can help us discriminate between good and bad courses and thus establishes a solid background for setting success to major courses’ aims and outcomes. Whether in electronic or paper form and whether as a continuous or periodic process, evaluation helps teachers to form judgement values and students’ development and achievements. With regard to electronic evaluation, more and more university Algerian teachers are performing it though with a low degree through the online Master and Doctorate theses works’ supervision, for instance .The current study aims at investigating the teachers’ attitude to the use of electronic evaluation as a means to evaluate students’ performance and progress. The other aim is also to shed light on other aspects of electronic evaluation which are still under limited experimental process and needs to be upgraded in the university departments’ database. This might include mainly the electronic course evaluation system and course work assignment electronic submission. Results which were collected through an online survey submitted in the form of Likert scale questionnaire to 16 teachers randomly selected across different Algerian universities revealed interesting findings. Most teachers agreed that electronic evaluation system can replace paper evaluation system forms since it saves much of the teacher’s time and energy. Most importantly, all teachers admitted that the electronic course evaluation system would help them to provide quality courses.

Keywords: Assignment, Supervision, course submission, electronic evaluation

Parental Supervision: A Veritable Tool for Building Good Morals in Children (Published)

Most parents have derelicted in their duties of parenting especially in the area of supervision. They fail to realize that as parents, they have certain rights and responsibilities in the upbringing of their children. These behavioural patterns among some parents have affected most children and youths adversely as they tend to be ‘wild’ and morally bankrupt. This paper thus addresses the issue of proper parental supervision on their children and wards so as to train their children and build up good morals in them. It posited also that a morally sound person is the pride of his or her family, nation and by extension helps in the sustenance and development of the nation. Literatures reviewed amidst guided observations threw more light to the work. Suggestions were rendered on how parents, the government should help is seeing that children and youths are well supervised.


Keywords: Morality, Parents, Supervision, veritable

Administrative Networking Strategies and Principals’ Supervisory Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed administrative networking strategies and principals’ supervisory effectiveness in assessing teachers’ notes of lesson, teachers’ instructional delivery, students’ records, and non-academic activities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three null hypotheses were formulated accordingly to direct the study. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Census technique was adopted in selecting the entire population of 667 secondary school administrators in Cross River State. The instruments used for data collection were two set of questionnaires designed by the researchers including: Administrative Networking Strategies Questionnaire (ANSQ)”, and “Principals’ Supervisory Effectiveness Questionnaire (PSEQ)” respectively. The reliability of the instruments was established through Cronbach Alpha, and reliability estimates of .89 and .92 were obtained for the two instruments respectively. The null hypotheses were all tested at .05 level of significance using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis with the aid of SPSS v21. Findings from the study revealed that; there is a significant relationship between principals’ effective communication, school-community relationship, and teachers’ involvement in decision-making, with their supervisory effectiveness respectively. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended amongst others that; secondary school principals should endeavour to communicate relevant ideas, messages, and information to both teaching and non-academic staff of the school; and ensure that appropriate feedback mechanisms are provided based on such information.


Keywords: Administrative Networking, Networking, Networking Strategies, Principals, Supervision, Supervisory effectiveness

Empirical Analyses on Tutors and Mentees Perception of the Effectiveness of Out-Segment Supervision of Colleges of Education in the Ashanti Region, Ghana (Published)

This study explored the effectiveness of Out-segment supervision of the In-In-Out programme in Colleges of Education in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. It was a descriptive survey that used 207 link tutors and 334 mentees with a semi-structured questionnaire as primary data collection instrument. Data were analysed using Kruskal Wallis ANOVA and One-sample t-test. The study revealed that the Out-segment supervision was being carried out effectively despite some challenges that needed to be addressed. Specifically, some of the findings are that generally, most of the activities under the pre-observation conference were rated unsatisfactory by both respondents. However, for the observation activities, the findings revealed that mentees and link tutors in St Louis, Offinso and Akrokerri confirmed that they were effectively conducted in their schools. It was recommended that areas where the evaluation indicated unsatisfactory performance, management of those colleges should do well to address those challenges.

Keywords: Ghana, Link Tutor, Mentee, Observation, Out-segment, Supervision

Out-Segment Supervision in Colleges of Education in Ghana: Barriers and Way Forward (Published)

The purpose of this descriptive survey was to assess and analyse the challenges and suggestions for improving the Out- segment supervision of colleges of education in the Ashanti region of Ghana.  The study used 207 link tutors and 334 mentees with a semi-structured questionnaire as primary data collection instrument.  Results of the items were analysed using content analysis approach. The study revealed that the Out-segment supervision was being carried out effectively however, there were some challenges that needed to be addressed. Generally, some of the findings were poor vetting of teaching notes, inadequate teaching and learning materials, lack of transportation from college to schools of practice, inadequate advanced preparation by mentees before teaching, poor remuneration, supervisors not arriving on time at mentees’ schools of practice. Management of colleges of education are advised to address these perennial problems until they are no longer teething challenges in the supervision of Out-segment programme.

Keywords: Link Tutors, Mentees, Out-segment, Supervision, Teacher Education

Issues of Quality in Teaching Practice Supervision among Open Distance Students: Student and Lecturer Input (Published)

While Teaching Practice (TP) students are expected to carry out teaching duties as guided by their training institutions and instructions from the school managers, there is need that all stakeholders get involved to improve the quality of the practicum. As such, the purpose of TP supervision is meant to achieve the set of objectives of training and building up a teacher to the level of acceptable standard.  This study was conducted with the open distance students who were following up a Post-Graduate Diploma in Education at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU).  The study employed focus group method with participants and a few open ended questionnaires were administered. In the study it was established that TP supervision was regarded as effective in some ways such as being timeous but not productive in giving students room to air their opinions as discussions were dictatorial and hurriedly done. The study suggests, among other things, a relook by the University on the minimum numbers of students each TP supervisor should supervise on a given day, especially in remote areas where schools are far apart.

Keywords: : Teaching practice, Student, Supervision, distance learning, student teacher

Plan Implementation in Teaching-Learning Observations: Management Implications for Diagnostic Supervision of Secondary Schools in Calabar, Nigeria (Published)

Instructional leadership may affect much innovation only if plan implementation can be properly monitored for improved educational outcomes and expectations. Therefore, this study explored plan implementation in Teaching-Learning Observations (TLOs) and its implications for diagnostic supervision of secondary schools in Calabar, Nigeria. The justification of this study was to determine the power of prediction of instructional plan design and plan monitoring on qualitative teacher education programme for professionalism. A descriptive survey design study was adopted with two research hypotheses to guide the investigation. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 200 teachers out of 590 teachers. Data was collected using researcher designed questionnaire. Percentages, population t-test and multiple regression analysis were applied to statistically analyze data collected. Results obtained revealed that instructional plan implementation could determine the magnitude of teaching-learning observations in the secondary schools studied. It was concluded that proper plan design and plan monitoring were critical conditions which could guarantee better educational outcomes and professionalism. It was recommended that participatory effort should be encouraged among teachers to maintain critical path of quality instructional service delivery for the achievement of diagnostic supervision.

Keywords: Diagnostic, Learning, Plan, Supervision, Teaching

Principals’ Instructional Supervision and Teachers’ Effectiveness (Published)

The study examined the differences in teachers’ effectiveness based on principals’ instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee in Akwa Ibom State. Four objectives and their corresponding research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto design was used in carrying out this study. Two hundred and one teachers and 14 principals were drawn from the population of 1,105 teachers and 14 principals respectively to participate in the study. Two researchers-developed instruments, “Principals’ Instructional Supervision Interview (PIS1)” and “Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TTEQ)” were used to gather data. Data collected were analyzed using the mean and independent t-test statistics was used. The findings were that there is a significant difference in teachers’ effectiveness based on classroom observation, analysis/strategy, post-conference analysis and post-analysis conference. Teachers in schools where instructional supervision was adequate were more effective than those that had inadequate instructional supervision. It is, therefore, recommended among others that, the principals should carry out an adequate instructional supervision of teachers so as to enhance their teaching effectiveness.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Instruction, Principals, Supervision, Teachers

Principal’s Management Support Practices for Enhancing Teachers’ Performance in Secondary Schools in Nigeria (Published)

This paper investigated principal’s management support practices for enhancing teachers’ performance in schools in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design, the population totaled 5,083 principals and teachers with a sample of 1803 selected using proportionate random sampling techniques. Two sets of questionnaire “Principals’ Management Support Practice for principals and teachers were instruments used for data collection. Four research questions were answered using mean score statistics while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level using z-test. The result showed that school principals lacked supervisory skills and as a result entrusted academic supervision in the hands of external supervisors. Most principals’ feel reluctant to endorse in-service training for their teachers and teachers in turn hid their pursuit for higher degree from principals for fear of victimization. The result on motivation and welfare of teachers showed no significant difference in the mean ratings of both the principals and teachers.

Keywords: Management Support Practices, Motivation and Performance., Professional Growth, Supervision, Welfare

Principals Performance of Supervision of Instructions in Secondary Schools in Nigeria (Published)

The study examined principals’ performance of internal supervision of instructions in public secondary schools in Ebonyi State. Principals’ internal supervision was delimited to classroom supervision of instruction, monitoring students’ achievement, instructional materials and staff development. Two research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. A sample of 605 out of 1640 teachers was drawn using stratified proportionate sampling techniques across urban and rural teachers. A questionnaire titled ‘principals’ performance of supervision of instruction questionnaire’ was used as the instrument. The data collected were analyzed using mean scores, standard deviation and t-test statistics to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings showed a significant positive difference between urban and rural teachers on principals’ performance of supervisory functions. The study recommended regular internal supervision of instruction since it encourages wider coverage of the curriculum and reduces incidences of examination malpractices by students

Keywords: Instructional Supervision, Leadership, Supervision, Urban and Rural Teachers


Defective construction refers to works which fall short of complying with specified descriptions or requirements of a construction contract, especially any drawings or specifications, together with any implied terms and conditions as to its quality, workmanship, durability, aesthetics, performance or design. This research evaluated defective construction works in a residential estate in Akure, Nigeria. Reviewing relevant literature and focusing on Sunshine Gardens, Oba-Ile, Akure as a case in point, some major factors were discovered to be influencers of defective construction, these include: the use of substandard building materials, poor workmanship, inadequate supervision, and design deficiencies. Strict supervision, proper construction management and quality control, thorough training and education of artisans and the use of quality materials were recognized as possible preventive measures against the construction of defective buildings. It was recommended that proper construction management and quality control measures be employed to curb the incidence of defective construction so as to promote a liveable residential environment.

Keywords: Building Materials, Defective Construction, Deficiency., Supervision, Workmanship

Is Teaching Practice for Grading or Improvement? Examining Student teachers’ Perception and Experience at the University of Dar es salaam, Tanzania (Review Completed - Accepted)

Teaching practice is the central activity in testing teaching skills gathered in classroom learning and in preparing professional teachers in any country. The current study investigated student teachers perception and experience on the teaching practice supervisor’s treatment, student supervisor pre or post classroom discussion and teaching practice processes in general. The data to inform the study were collected from 112 student teachers: 67 were males and 45 females and the tools used were questionnaires both structured and non-structured. Of these 52 were second years while 60 were third years. Majority of respondents about 95(84.8) were pre service and 17 (15.2%) were in-service. The findings revealed that student teachers had positive perception on teaching practice exercise, teaching practice supervisor’s treatment, and supervisor-student feedback provision style. It was also discovered that demographic variables such as: sex, year of study and professional background had a slight influence on student teachers perception on teaching practice exercise, supervisors treatment, and supervisor-student feedback styles. In line to that 42 (37.5%) student-teachers’ acknowledged the concept that teaching practice is for improvement and the remaining percentages were given to factors associated to opposite dimension. It was therefore concluded that, there is a need for strengthening the teaching practice supervision exercise and specifically the collaboration between university teaching practice office and the teaching practice-host institutions should be improved so as to minimize the challenges emanating from miscommunication during the teaching practice exercise

Keywords: : Teaching practice, Assessment, Feedback, Perception, Supervision