Social Variables as Determinants of Suicide Behaviour among Adolescents in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated some social variables as determinants of suicide behaviours among adolescents in Rivers State, Nigeria. It adopted the correlational research design. The population of the study was 785 students of the three federal Government Colleges in Rivers State who manifest suicide behaviour. Using purposive sampling, they were drawn to ensure that only those that elicited suicide behaviours were used for the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses were tested in the study at 0.005 level of significant. Two instrument named suicide behaviour questionnaire- revised (SBQ-R) and determinants of suicide behaviour questionnaire (DSBQ) were used for the study. The SBQ-R was adapted and used to find out those that exhibit suicide behaviour while DSBQ was used to gather information on the independent variables such as substance abuse and sexual abuse. Experts in measurement and evaluation validated the instruments. The reliability index was 0.85 for SBQ-R, 0.81 for substance abuse and 0.68 for sexual abuse using Cronbach via SPSS. Simple regression was used to answer research questions 1 and 2 and its corresponding hypotheses while multiple regression was used to answer research questions 3 and its corresponding hypothesis at 0.005 alpha level. Findings were that substance abuse (p=0.000<0.005), sexual abuse (0.000<0.005) and joint social variables (p=0.00< 0.05) relates significantly with suicide behaviour. Based on the findings it was recommended that substances that are easily abused by adolescents should be kept out of their reach and Government parastatals like the Nigerian Drug and Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and CUSTOM officials that are in charge of ensuring that these dangerous substances do not see the light of the day should intensify their efforts in seizing and destroying them. Those that are traffickers of these substances should be counselled with therapies like CBT to help them stop trafficking dangerous substances. Perpetrators of sexual abuse should also be re-orientated, counselled and rehabilitated.
Citation: Essien, B.S. and Awujo, C.G. (2022) Social Variables as Determinants of Suicide Behaviour among Adolescents in Rivers State, Nigeria, British Journal of Education, Vol.10, Issue 2, pp. 1-12
Keywords: Adolescents, Suicide, substance abuse and sexual abuse, suicide behaviour
Personal-Psycho Characteristics and Attitude towards Suicidal Behaviour among University Students in South Eastern States of Nigeria (Published)
The study aimed at determining the relationship between personal-psycho characteristics and attitude towards suicidal behaviour among University students in South Eastern States of Nigeria. Two purposes of the study, two research questions and hypotheses guided the study. The cross-sectional survey research design was used. The population of the study comprised all the 34,169 year three students in the Nine (9) government-owned and state Universities in South Eastern States of Nigeria. A sample size of 380 year three students was selected using multi-stage sampling procedure. Proportionate sampling technique was used in selecting the faculties and departments for the study. A self-structured questionnaire entitled “Personal-Psycho Characteristics and Attitude towards Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (PCASBQ)” was used for data collection. Data were collated and analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Collection statistics, at .05 level of significance and at 378 degree of freedom. Findings of the study showed a very high positive and significant relationship between self-esteem, depression and attitude towards suicidal behaviour among university students. Conclusion was drawn from the findings and the study recommended among other things that, University counsellors should always counsel the students about upholding self-worth, maintaining confidence and positive view of themselves in their academic and social life pursuits. This will deter the students from committing suicide when confronted with strenuous conditions.
Keywords: Suicide, depression and self-esteem, suicidal behaviour
Suicide Linked To Excessive Homework in China (Published)
What made young people between the ages of 15 to 34 take their lives; affecting constantly the ‘Y’ and millennial generations? Sadly, and more often than not, it is the young people jumping-off buildings to their deaths. The common reason why this was happening came with the unrealistic expectations of success. One in which, it is a burden of 17 to 18 hour days/five to six days a week full of classes and plenty of homework. A stress level not often seen in Westernized countries, but across Asia, which is quite common in countries like: China, Japan and South Korea. Therefore, affecting the ‘flower of youth’, especially in the Ancient Middle Kingdom (China). The pressure is so great, because of the current-high level of competition, over expectation and the overpopulation. For every Chinese, they literally have to fight for every centimeter to achieve something. What commonly broke my heart were the young who couldn’t take this burdensome workload and decided to end their lives. Whether these youths were in primary school or those preparing for the ‘Hukou’ (the literal, ‘nail-biting’ tough college entrance exam). Therefore, linking homework to suicides in youngsters as the common cause of death! This investigation pretends to focus on a survey/questionnaire for high school students and teachers about suicide. The reasons why Chinese have excessive workloads and how can these problems be reduced inside a country with the highest-suicide rate in the world.
Keywords: Ages 15 to 34, Jumping-off Buildings, Overpopulation, Pressure, Stress, Suicide, the ‘Hukou’ exam, ‘Y’/Millennial Generations
Religious Perceptions of Suicide and Implication for Suicidiology Advocacy in Nigeria (Published)
The role of religion in contemporary suicide advocacy cannot be overemphasized. Suicide, in most cases had lent itself to multidisciplinary considerations, although before now has been largely scientific. This includes a combination of psychology, medicine, psychiatry, biomedicine, psychobiology, neurology, medical sociology and others. In most situations, religion, philosophy of religion and philosophy have not been given the rightful place in suicide consideration. This approach could be seen clearly as a negative oversight. The goal of this paper is to examine some common religious perceptions, and consequently apply such in the quest for suicidiology advocacy. The paper applied religious, philosophical, historical and sociological research methodology. It is recommended that a clear understanding of some common religious perceptions of suicide would engender an aggressive drive towards suicidiology advocacy. Consequently, there would be a reduction in the level of suicide behaviour or complete suicide.
Keywords: Implication, Religious perception, Suicide, Suicidology advocacy
Residential Differences in Suicide Ideation through Physiological Effects of Electric Current among Secondary School Students in South East Nigeria (Published)
The study was designed to determine residential differences in suicide ideation through physiological effects of electric current among secondary school students in South east Nigeria. The cross-sectional survey research design was used to study 520 secondary students in the area under survey. A self-constructed suicide ideation inventory (SII) was used for the study. The SII consisted of 35 items which was grouped into six ideation areas. Face validity of the instrument was determined by five experts in psychology and health education. The reliability of the inventory yielded a Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient of 0.89. This index was considered high enough based on Ogbazi and Okpala’s (1994) criteria of 0.60 acceptable for good instruments. Out of 520 copies of the questionnaire administered, 513 representing about 98.7% return rate, were used for analysis. Mean, standard deviation and t-test were used to analyze the data. While mean was used to describe the data; standard deviation was used to determine how the responses of the respondents vary and t-test statistic was used to analyze data in order to ascertain the differences in suicide ideation between the two categories of students. A mean of 2.50 and above was regarded as potentially dangerous suicide ideation and a mean below 2.50 was regarded potentially not dangerous. The results showed that students living in the rural area have a lower suicide ideation score than the students living in the rural area. However, no significant difference was found in the suicide ideation scores between students living in urban and rural areas. Health education intervention is required to further reduce the suicide ideation of both categories of students.
Keywords: Current, Electric, Ideation, Residential, South East Nigeria, Students, Suicide
Suicide in Yoruba Ontology (Published)
Suicide is generally regarded as all cases of death resulting from action taken by the victim themselves, and with the intention and prospect of killing oneself. The cause is frequently attributed to psychological disorders, substance abuse, shame, guilty, rejection, loss, and loneliness, death of a loved one, emotional trauma, serious physical illness, and unemployment or money problems. In this paper, the researcher studies the problem of suicide from Yoruba perspective. Yoruba is a language and the name of an ethnic group or tribe in Nigeria. The paper interrogates Yoruba concept of death, the quality of death through suicide and suicide among the Yoruba. For the Yoruba, when it comes to the issue of autonomy and competence as regards deciding on suicide, they would metaphorically claim that ‘bose wuni lase imole eni’ (one determines one’s faith the way one deems fit) drawing from the cultural construct of the Yoruba worldview that celebrate suicide in avoidance of shame- iku ya j’esin- a principle of dignity in dying. This understanding of suicide from an Yoruba perspective is believed will help enhance the value of human life and thus save the world from being plunged into a silent crisis of the value of life.
Keywords: Africa, Autonomy, Honor, Ontology, Suicide, Victim, Yoruba, ignominy
PHILOSOPHICAL PERCEPTIONS OF SUICIDE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE SANCTITY OF LIFE (Published)
The sanctity of human life is commonly adjudged as placing great moral burden on man. On this premise, some philosophers opined that man has no right to terminate his life. While others argued that having received life as a gift, man has the right to reject the gift when he perceives that there is no value in remaining alive. This could be due to grave illness or other forms of dissatisfaction. There are various arguments presented both in favour and against suicide by these proponents. Notable among the protagonists are some philosophers. The study therefore, seeks to examine the philosophical perceptions of suicide and implications on the sanctity of human life. The writer applied philosophical, sociological and historical research methodology in his investigation. It is recommended that man should not necessary see suicide as the right option for escaping the vicissitudes of life, which are often likely to confront man. On the other hand, it is a tremendous moral burden on man if he decides to terminate his life since he would be depriving those he could have supported, both financially and morally. The study also recommended that man should uphold the sanctity of life, as life is a gift from God. Man cannot give life and not justified to also take life, the study argued.
Keywords: Life, Perceptions, Philosophical, Sanctity, Suicide
Suicide in Yoruba Ontology (Review Completed - Accepted)
Suicide is generally regarded as all cases of death resulting from action taken by the victim themselves, and with the intention and prospect of killing oneself. The cause is frequently attributed to psychological disorders, substance abuse, shame, guilty, rejection, loss, loneliness, death of a loved one, emotional trauma, serious physical illness, and unemployment or money problems. In this paper, the researcher studies the problem of suicide from Yoruba perspective. Yoruba is a language and the name of an ethnic group or tribe in Nigeria. The paper interrogates Yoruba concept of death, the quality of death through suicide and suicide among the Yoruba. For the Yoruba, when it comes to the issue of autonomy and competence as regards deciding on suicide, they would metaphorically claim that ‘bose wuni lase imole eni’ (one determines one’s faith the way one deems fit) drawing from the cultural construct of the Yoruba worldview that celebrate suicide in avoidance of shame- iku ya j’esin- a principle of dignity in dying. This understanding of suicide from an Yoruba perspective is believed will help enhance the value of human life and thus save the world from being plunged into a silent crisis of the value of life
Keywords: Africa, Autonomy, Honor, Ontology, Suicide, Victim, Yoruba, ignominy