Sufis in Indonesia spread their ideology across the Indonesian Islands through trading, marriages, and Sufism teaching. They came to Indonesia through Sumatra Islands and then spread to other Islands in the west to the eastern part of Indonesia. However, the Sufism diaspora in Indonesia is limited to known, particularly the well-known Sufis and their roles in each island. Their origin and roles have also long been in debate due to a lack of documented resources. Through the historiography method, we studied the origin and the diaspora of Sufis in Indonesia islands in Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and Maluku islands and their roles in spreading Sufism in those islands. We found that number of well-known Sufis from Middles East came to Indonesia through Sumatera Islands around the sixth century. From Sumatera island, they spread to other islands in the eastern part of Indonesia. We suspect that all of them taught Sufism to Muslim communities in all islands trading and marriage interaction. A number of artifacts which are resembled West Sumatra artifacts can be found in Java, Sulawesi, and Maluku islands. That evidence proves that the Sufis have contributed significantly to religious and social development in Indonesia.
Thou Shalt Love!: The Contemporary Relevance of Rumi in Elif Shafak’s The Forty Rules of Love- a Character Based Study Establishing Love as the Central Theme of the Novel and Humanity (Published)
This paper aims to analyse Love and its dearth in today’s world that forms the crux of Elif Shafak’s novel The Forty Rules of Love. The novel connects human predicament of the thirteenth century of Rumi- a poet, and his Sufi friend Shams, with the twenty-first century of Ella and her mystic friend cum lover Aziz. The novel presents several Sufi tenets, but it is Elif’s conviction of love that firmly holds the Sufi theme in the novel, according it with magnitude and potency. Achieving oneness with the creator is the goal of mankind, and it is only possible through spirituality which, in turn, is indispensable to love. Therefore, Love forms the substratum of the novel in question. This paper scrutinizes Elif’s portrayal of characters and their predicaments illustrating how the Oneness can be achieved despite differences through the path of love and love alone.