Tag Archives: Suffering

Thomas Gray and Jasimuddin: The Voice of Extreme Agony in Both Unique Universal Souls (Published)

This paper attempts to evaluate the agony of Thomas Gray, an English poet, and Jasimuddin, a Bangladeshi rural poet. Thomas Gray is a transitional poet. He is generally considered the second most important poet of the eighteenth century. A deep pain of losing their loved ones through death is depicted in their writings. Gray is widely famous for-“Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” that is one of Gray’s most famous poems. He depicts the lives of the obscure rustics buried in the churchyard. Jasimuddin is also famous for his poem ‘Kobor’. The grandfather has lost his wife, son, son’s wife, daughter and grand-daughter. The aim of this paper is to discover the similarities between the two unique universal souls regarding the sufferings of losing their nearest and the dearest ones through their famous poems ‘Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard’ and ‘Kobor’/Graves respectively that gives the readers a reminder of mortality.

Keywords: Death, Suffering, elegy, graves, kobor, lamentation

Different Forms of Violence in Edward Albee’s who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (Published)

Violence is one of the most overworked terms within academia as it drove researchers in various disciplines to explore its multidisciplinary nature and effects. Literature is no exception. Out of the master forms of violence, the present paper analyzes the different forms of domestic violence in Edward Albee’s Who Afraid of Virginia Woolf? And A Delicate Balance. The major forms of domestic violence analyzed herein are psychological violence, physical violence, verbal violence and sexual violence. It attempts to investigate the different violent characters in such plays. Moreover, it sheds light on different networks among characters suffering from violence. These highlighted family relationships include husband-wife and father-daughter, relationships.


Keywords: Albee, Domestic Violence, Networks, Suffering, psychological violence, verbal violence

Media Depiction of Sufferers/Victims of Boko Haram Attacks in Nigeria and Audience Response (Published)

This study employs focus group discussion to explore the Nigerian audiences’ reactions and responsibilities to the suffering images of victims of the Boko Haram. The study further utilizes two audience practices, which are media witnessing and moral responsibility as its theoretical frameworks. It extends to the position of audiences as witnesses to the mediated images and their actions towards events witnessed. Extant literature suggests that in depicting the suffering victims, the media plays a number of roles in engaging and connecting audiences to the suffering of others. Scholars have also argued that factors such as distance, gender and culture contribute to or influence how audiences respond to the depicted images of suffering victims on the media. Compelled by these factors identified by Western scholars, this study weighed their authenticity within the Nigerian context. No known study has empirically measured this in Nigeria. This study is an attempt to bridge that gap. The finding of this study reinforces earlier findings that viewers of suffering victims tend to show compassion towards ameliorating the conditions of the sufferers. On the contrary, this study finds that Nigerian audiences feel pity and compassionate towards the suffering victims despite their gender and lack of proximity. While this finding may not have ‘charted a new territory’, it has demonstrated that reaction to media messages is culturally relative.

Keywords: Audiences’ response, Boko Haram, Media Depiction, Media Witnessing, Suffering, responsibility

Suffering and Human Existences: Beyond National Boundary (Published)

This paper submits that the problem of suffering is a perennial one. It cuts across every nation, race and people of the world. Different arguments from the different worldviews such as Buhdist, existentialist and the African thought system were examined to analyze the problem that bothers on the existence of man in the world. Beyond that, emphasis was laid on the notion of ignorance as the basis for human suffering. This paper also suggests ways through which people can alleviate or stop their suffering especially in the face of man inflicted suffering on others.  

Keywords: Human Existences, National Boundary, Suffering


The purpose of this study is to shed light on esthetic uses of Greek myth, its artistic and realistic uses, and the reasons for the allusions to it in contemporary poetry. Selected poetic texts will be analyzed for the use which some modern poets make of the legend of Sisyphus for expressing their views and for showing how they perceived its artistic value. Among these poets are Al-Sayyāb, Al-Bayātī , Adonis, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Muqāliḥ, as well as the Palestinians Aḥmad Daḥbūr, Murīd al-Barghūthī and Fārūq Muwāsī, all of whom made use of the legend in order to express both suffering and hope in the crisis of Arabs in current times, in an attempt to bring these across to the reader.

Keywords: Ancient, Myth, Sisyphus, Suffering, exile., nation, struggle, symbol

The Causal Correlation of Sin and Suffering (Published)

The paper analyzed the causal relation of sin and suffering, including illness. Modern/postmodern societal perception of suffering, and relationship with ill persons was studied. In addition, the Bible (the Books of Job and Luke) was investigated on the subject. The idea is to use Jesus’ actions and teachings as the assessment criteria. The study is important because it may help minimize or stop the practice of wrong accusations against victims who suffer in any way that their plight is their own doing. The findings of the paper are that: to a great extent people’s perception of illness or suffering in modern/postmodern society and that of the biblical times are similar despite the enormous social and historical gap between both eras. Illness or suffering is seen as a reflection of the sinful state of the victim. This explains why people disassociate with victims of ‘disgraceful’ illnesses. The study concludes that to a large extent, modern perception of illness, particularly, of the debilitating ones, as well as relationship with victims are unethical because it does not tally with that of Jesus whose way of life, actions and teachings form the fons et culmen of Christian ethics and therefore, must be corrected.

Keywords: Correlation, Illness, Perception, Relationship, Retribution, Sin, Suffering