The Dynamic Impact of Energy Consumption on Economic Growth in Sudan: A Vector Autoregression Analysis (Published)
The purpose of this study is to analyze the dynamic effect of energy consumption and CO2 emissions on economic growth in Sudan by utilizing annual time series data spanning the period 1971- 2015. After identifying the series order of stationarity by utilizing ADF and PP unit root tests, this study makes use of a ARDL and VAR model. The reason is that ARDL is preferable method since it incorporates both short and long run in its specification and can be used even when there is a mixed integration order. A VAR is the powerful in variance decomposition and the possibility of observing long run forecast in addition to the dynamic response to shocks.the findings indicate long run relationship among the variables of interest. Particularly, the results disclose that energy consumption and CO2 emissions exert positive and significant effect on economic growth in the long run. The causality analysis of the gradual shift indicates a uni-directional relationship running from energy consumption to economic growth. The test results support energy-induced growth hypothesis, which reveals that energy use impact greatly on economic growth and energy saving and/or energy shocks negatively affect economic growth. This means that Sudan’s economy is energy-driven and cannot embark or initiate conservative energy policies and strategies compromising economic growth. with the emergence of energy supply and global warming issues and their conceivable consequences on economic performance, investigating their interrelations is thus essential, which has been neglected baselessly in the literature especially in the case of Sudan.
The study aimed at answering the main general question: What are the electronic management application requirements for improving the secondary school management in Sudan. For that purpose, the descriptive / analytic method was used. The study depended heavily on the data/ collected from previous studies, besides, the literature and publications available in the field. The collected data was then compared and analyzed. The main results being reached are: technical facilities are not adequately available in the secondary school stage, beside a lot of obstacles and hindrances, which are mainly, administrative, materialistic, and human. In view of the results being reached, it is recommended that electronic management application requirements are to be more adequately available, in addition to removing all obstacles that face and impede practice. .
Factors Affecting the Performance & Business Success of Small & Medium Enterprises in Sudan (Case Study: Omdurman) (Published)
Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) have an important role to play in the development of the country. This study attempts to identify the antecedents of business success in Omdurman- Sudan, with particular reference to small businesses. . In Sudan, the growth of SMEs is significantly low. The study examined eight factors that influence the SMEs business success. . Eight hypotheses were developed to find out factors that are affecting Business Success of SMEs in Sudan. SMEs characteristic, External Environment (competition), Customer and Markets, the way of doing business & cooperation, Resources and Finance have significant positive effect on the Business Success of SMEs in Omdurman-Sudan. The regression analysis result shown that the above factors are the most significant factors affecting business success of SMEs in Sudan
This work attempts to examine the connection between imperialism and the socio-economic challenges that have hindered development in post-independence Sudan. With data derived extensively from secondary source materials on the subject, the paper reveals that the Sudanese have been victims of the struggles among contending imperialist powers in the country, which has over the years, resulted in political destabilisation and economic stagnation in the country. The contention of this paper is that while Anglo-Egyptian imperialism, laid the foundation for the present political and economic turmoil experienced in the country, the trend has been sustained in recent times, by China-US rivalry for the control of Sudan’s oil industry. The paper further reveals that the recent media propaganda and economic sanctions of the US against the Sudanese government in Khartoum, is not a humanitarian gesture. Rather it is part of US Strategy to force the regime of Omar Al-Bashir to sever economic and diplomatic ties with China, who is a major threat to US economic interest in the country. The paper concludes by stating that unless constitutionalism, the rule of law and true nationalism is promoted in the region, the Sudanese (both North and South) would remain pliant and amenable to the interest and subtle machination of contemporary imperialist powers
This paper examines critically the implication of wide scale adoption of sharia in a multi religious and pluralistic Nigeria. Specifically, it studies the effect of the legal system on the national integration and unity which paradoxically constitutes mantra in the mouth of almost every Nigerian national. It is discovered that the entrenchment of the criminal and non-personal aspects of Islamic law by the core northern states had become a counter-point on the corporate existence of Nigeria. This is more so as the country’s Constitution had restricted the application of sharia to its personal regime. The Boko Haram menace that ravages the country and its environs may not be unconnected with the much dreamt of islamization of the whole sovereign enclave. Yet, it is further noted that the huge population of southern Christians that virtually constitute half of the nation’s population cannot be cowed into the proselytist agenda. This development is a threat to national unity. A comparative analysis of the socio-legal phenomenon in relation to Sudan before the emergence of South Sudan was a task before the writer, especially as the Muslim/Christian ratio in the pre-divided Sudan resembles that in Nigeria. More still, the comparison is ad rem as the north-south religious divide in both jurisdictions is almost coterminous. This study recommends national dialogue, religious toleration, patriotic spirit, avoidance of fanaticism, inter alia, as antidote to disintegration.
AN OVERVIEW OF E-GOVERNMENT STRATEGY IN SUDAN (Published)
The explosive entry of technology into everyday life have changed how people live, work, how companies do their daily business and how governments serve their people. With the help of IT, governments are realizing that, by applying the same principles and technologies that are fueling e- business revolution, they can achieve similar transformation. The result is the emergency of e-governments. This paper will focus on e-government in Sudan. It will provide the general overview of e-government, its importance, types, stages and challenges facing this country in managing e-government. Finally, the study recommended that proper orientation should be given to E-Government adoption and development in Sudan.
This paper attempts to compare the financial reporting of two Islamic insurance companies “takaful” in two different countries; Bahrain and Sudan. Where Sudan is the first country to host takaful insurance in the year 1979. A case study methodology is applied where the financial reports of these two companies are studied over the years 2009 to 2012. The points under investigations are: Internal organizational structure, financial statements, financial policies, disclosure and notes to the financial statements, and management expenses. The results highlight that takaful companies in Bahrain are using mudharabah and wakalah models and their financial reports are prepared in accordance with IFRS are more informative and clearly understood. On the other hand takaful companies in Sudan use wakalah model and that their financial statements lacked elaborate disclosures rendering some of the information as not up to the standard. A closer look is taken by this study to investigate what could be the underlying factor for differences between these two companies in two countries
Accounting Policies and Financial Reporting – A case study (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper attempts to compare the financial reporting of two Islamic insurance companies “takaful” in two different countries; Bahrain and Sudan. Where Sudan is the first country to host takaful insurance in the year 1979. A case study methodology is applied where the financial reports of these two companies are studied over the years 2009 to 2012. The points under investigations are: Internal organizational structure, financial statements, financial policies, disclosure and notes to the financial statements, and management expenses. The results highlight that takaful companies in Bahrain are using mudharaba and wakala models and their financial reports are prepared in accordance with IFRS are more informative and clearly understood. On the other hand takaful companies in Sudan use wakala model and that their financial statements lacked elaborate disclosures rendering some of the information as not up to the standard. A closer look is taken by this study to investigate what could be the underlying factor for differences between these two companies in these two countries