Effect of Carboxymethylcellulose Incorporation on the Functional, Pasting and Sensory Properties of Water Yam (D. alata) Flour (Published)
The research aim was to evaluate the effects of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) incorporation on the functional, pasting and sensory properties of water yam (D. alata) flour. The water yam tuber was processed into flour, blended with CMC at various concentrations (0.05%, 0.25%, 0.50% and 1.00%) and compared with the control with 0.00% CMC. The pasting characteristics were significantly different (p<0.05) among the sample blends. On average, sample blends 0.50C and 0.05A had the lowest and highest value in their pasting properties including; peak viscosity (158.950-287.250RVU), trough viscosity (146.150-248.500RVU), breakdown viscosity (20.70-23.00RVU), final viscosity (270.300-406.100RVU), setback viscosity (12.415-15.760RVU) and pasting temperature (80.025-93.500oC) respectively. The functional properties of the sample blends were significantly different (p<0.05). The pH showed the least level of significance. The sensory attributes of paste from the sample blends were significantly different, although some sampleblends were comparable. These variations would improve on the choice and better utilization of water yam flour in variety of food applications.
PHONOLOGICALLY CONDITIONED MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESS IN MODERN STANDARD ARABIC: AN ANALYSIS OF AL-IBDAAL ‘SUBSTITUTION’ IN FTAʕAL PATTERN USING PROSODIC MORPHOLOGY (Published)
This paper provides an analysis of Al-ibdaal ‘substitution’ phenomenon found in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) derivational processes, particularly, in the pattern ftaʕal. Al-ibdaal ‘substitution’ is defined in many Arabic morphological books (Al-Raagihi, 1984; Al-Galaayiini, 1991) as removing a letter and replacing it by another. For example, the /t/ in ztaha: is replaced by /d/ resulting in zdaha: ‘flourished’. The paper analyzed examples of words representing the pattern ftaʕal based on prosodic morphology; an approach used to describe non-concatenative morphological processes as those found in Arabic and other Semitic languages (McCarthy, 1981). The analysis of the words revealed that there is actually no substitution of sounds and the change that takes place in that pattern is phonologically motivated. The paper recommends the reconsideration of the concept of Al-ibdaal ‘substitution’ in the pattern ftaʕal in Arabic morphological books