Tag Archives: Subsidy

Integration of manure and mineral fertilizers among smallholder farmers in Kenya: a pathway to sustainable soil fertility management and agricultural intensification (Published)

Combination of mineral fertilizers and manure has been proposed as the sustainable approach of soil fertility management. This study evaluates the use of these two soil fertility practices. Data for this study was obtained through a survey conducted between January-March 2019 with 106 farmers. Results show that the proportion of farmers who used manure and inorganic fertilizer was 93.4% in each case. About 90% of the farmers used both fertilizer and manure. Farmers accessed fertilizers mostly through direct purchase from the local market (73.9%). Most of the manure is obtained on-farm (84.8%).  About 67% of farmers used fertilizer both for planting and top dressing. However, only 20% of the farmers used fertilizer every season.  Low income, low literacy, lack of soil fertility management skills,  small land sizes, low livestock units, limited and declining capacity of agricultural extension explain the low investment in soil fertility management. Timely delivery of low-cost, high quality fertilizer is of paramount concern.  Glaring loopholes undermining the efficiency of the government subsidy program have to be addressed. Farmers’ capacity building is necessary to ensure high quality manure. Policy and institutional support are necessary to reverse the declining capacity of soil science research and agricultural extension.

Keywords: Agricultural Extension, Fertilizer, Soil fertility, Subsidy, declining soil fertility, integrated soil fertility management, manure, sustainable agricultural intensification

Analysis the effect of Energy price increasing on economic sectors in Iran’s economy (Published)

In this paper we used from social accounting model for analyzing the effects of energy carriers’ price increasing on different part of economy. The effect of each of these seven carriers increasing is also analyzed separately and simultaneous. In this framework we showed that how increasing in energy’s price causes the increasing in manufacturing price in manufacture sectors and this will increase the products’ price.

 

Keywords: Energy Carriers, Energy Price Increasing, Social Accounting, Subsidy

The Political Economy of Oil Marketing In Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Politics of Petroleum and Petroleum Politics in Ghana. (Published)

This article probed the politics of subsidy in developing countries.  In spite of the adoption of neoliberal policies of capitalism where production, distribution and exchange of goods and services are supposed to be in the realm of the private sphere, most developing economies are still ingrained unrepentantly in sacrificing scarce national resources meant for infrastructural development on subsidies while scavenging for loans from the International Financial Institutions for development.  This paper focuses on Ghana’s experience of the unbridled subsidies on petroleum products in spite of the striking parallels that exist between the state’s economic resources and the sustainability of petroleum subsidies. This paper argue that Ghana’s economic challenges in recent times, and its indebtedness to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) are as a result of the unbridled subsidy and politicization of petroleum products since Ghana’s Fourth Republic.

Keywords: Deregulation, Marketing, Petroleum, Political Economy, Regulation, Subsidy

The Political Economy of Oil Marketing In Developing Countries: An Analysis of the Politics of Petroleum and Petroleum Politics in Ghana (Published)

This article probed the politics of subsidy in developing countries.  In spite of the adoption of neoliberal policies of capitalism where production, distribution and exchange of goods and services are supposed to be in the realm of the private sphere, most developing economies are still ingrained unrepentantly in sacrificing scarce national resources meant for infrastructural development on subsidies while scavenging for loans from the International Financial Institutions for development.  This paper focuses on Ghana’s experience of the unbridled subsidies on petroleum products in spite of the striking parallels that exist between the state’s economic resources and the sustainability of petroleum subsidies. This paper argue that Ghana’s economic challenges in recent times, and its indebtedness to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) are as a result of the unbridled subsidy and politicization of petroleum products since Ghana’s Fourth Republic.

Keywords: Deregulation, Marketing, Petroleum, Political Economy, Regulation, Subsidy