Missionaries as Imperialists: Decolonial Subalternity in the Missionary Enterprise on The Coast Of Cameroon 1841-1914 (Published)
The coming of early missionaries to the global south in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and their activities have received a two sided analysis. While a school of thought holds that the missionaries were motivated by a spiritual revival and response to the call to ‘go ye therefore, and teach all nations… unto the ends of the earth…what I have commanded you’, Decolonial and subaltern studies hold the very strong opinion that missionaries, played an ambiguous role in preparing the grounds for European occupation and the entrenchment of coloniality. Within this civilizer-colonizer debate, I argue in this paper that there is a significant amount of historical evidence to justify that missionaries served as forerunners of colonialism and have used missionary correspondences, data on their interaction with the indigenous communities as well as critical secondary literature to present the Cameroon experience.
 The Holy Bible, Mathew Chapter 28:20
A Discordant Harmony – A Critical Evaluation of the Queer Theory from an Indian Perspective (Published)
Queerness or rather queer sexuality in India has always been the favourite child of debate and discussions. Queer identity in India has always suffered through the dilemma of to be or not to be. As Dasgupta puts it, “Identities are complicated to begin with and become more complicated when relating them to nation and sexuality”. Given the diversity of India in terms of not only culture but ethnicity as well, Indian sexual identities are the product of “Mulipicitous effects and perceptions of tradition, modernity, colonization and globalization” (Dasgupta) that are more often in conflict with each other than in a harmonious synthesis. The main argument of this paper is to trace a lineage of queerness in India both in terms of its representation in literature by analyzing The Editor (1893) and The Housewife (1891) by Rabindranath Tagore; Lihaaf (1941) by Ismat Chugtai; and R. Raja Rao’s The Boyfriend (2003), and how it prevailed in reality or the societal perception of the same. Providing a literature review by building a bridge in between the ancient and the contemporary India, the paper attempts to trace the missing links of when and how queerness went behind the curtains only to reappear in front of a more complicated, confused and probably a more rigid audience
The fundamental concern of this paper is that the process of naming in the short writings from Bulawayo, the ‘ City of Kings’ that includes short stories and poems encodes the ideological envision of Bulawayo as the second largest city in Zimbabwe. The last hundred years’ social history of Bulawayo has been sculpted alongside the broader Zimbabwean national history, by particular circumstances of colonial conquest occupation; of colonial capitalism, with its lopsided economy, a system of circulatory labour migration; and of policy controversies and resistance regarding the control of space: physical, social, political, psychological, and historical. This paper presents that these factors are typical of most cities in Southern Africa. What distinguishes Bulawayo an urban centre is not only its distinct socio-historical experience with white settler governments and social change but also its experience with the Zimbabwe African National Union- Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) government in the post-independence period, which has been characterised by politics of exclusion and attempts to obliterate the experiences of the Ndebele ethnic group in the national cultural symbols. Antroponyms, geographical names, names based on history and brand names, used by authors in short writings from Bulawayo, have a telling effect as they capture the cultural heritage and identity of the City of Bulawayo. The paper draws its examples from an understanding that the postcolonial period, within which Zimbabwe as a country celebrated its independence in 1980, has witnessed a massive drive towards renaming of streets, buildings, places, schools, and other social amenities in order to recapture the identity of Bulawayo and represent its peculiarity to the other cities in Zimbabwe and the whole world in general. Also of note has been the overriding need to preserve the exploits of the liberation war icons from Matabeleland. The continued redefinition of the history of Bulawayo, particularly in the post-2000 period characterised by extensive closure of companies and de-industrialisation, has been a major concern as the short writings have shown an attempt to restore the glamour of Bulawayo and the subaltern representation that has characterised the City as a marginalised entity in comparison to other cities such as Harare. In the final analysis, this paper engages with both the theoretical and literary discourses of regionification, nationhood and representation as forms of identity creation. In this light, the paper uses the socio-historical approach to premise its arguments.
The Deaf and Mute as Subalterns in Korean Contexts: Analysis of Korean Film of Silenced (Do-Ga-Ni) (Published)
This research is an investigation of a Korean film (Do-Ga-Ni or Silenced in 2011), which reflects the contemporary situation in South Korea where the sexual crimes against disabled children in educational institutions have occurred. In this research, the deaf students are positioned as subalterns who are recognized as the underrepresented that do not have the ability to speak for themselves. Through the methodology of illuminating individual cases of deaf students featured in this movie, this investigation approaches this interpretation: the testimony of the deaf children through their sign language in the courtroom, although this act of speaking for themselves suggests a possibility to change their identity from subalterns to non-subalterns, turns out to be ineffective due to the social elites’ rejection to admit their statement. This does result in a death of a subaltern, which makes the consciousness of the dead student disappear permanently from the understandings of the Korean public.