This is a paper review of the work presented at the Royal Agricultural University, Cirencester, United Kingdom. Using library research and reflection, document, journal papers and content analysis were used to generate data. The Sub Saharan African region covered in the paper is that of seven countries. The paper describes the role of agricultural extension models in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well traces the various extension models currently being developed or implement in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely; the top down approaches; from international institutions/ national governments and participatory approaches/bottom-up that engage farmers in decision making. Currently, there are six basic extension approaches/models in diverse stages of development and implementation in developing countries. These models have been structured in a more analytical way around key themes; top down; participatory; demand-led; group versus individual targeting; private sector and free/paid extension services. The reality is that pluralism of models has been employed in various forms in most countries in Sub-Sahara Africa. The paper critically examined seven models, including National Public Extension Model, Training and Visit (T&V) Extension Model, Private Sector Model, Fee-For-Service Extension Models, Farmer Field School Model, Non-Governmental Organization Extension Model, Commodity Extension and Research Model.
The engagement of countries within Sub-Saharan Africa in various measures to raise and equalise enrolment of boys and girls in schools demonstrates their commitment to include. However, developments reflect the challenges some national education systems in the region encounter to practice inclusive education. Educators within the region appear to be grappling with the notion of inclusivity and that is having effects on the provisioning of education that is indeed for all primary age children in local community schools within the context. The insistence to preserve existing local cultures and emphasis on competence based curriculum constrains efforts of practitioners to ensure the mainstreaming of presence, participation and achievement of all pupils at school. Some pupils consequently leave school without positive outcomes. Inclusive education as an approach to reposition education for all implies the adoption of curriculum of differentiation to be able to reach out to all pupils, including those who feel dissatisfied with existing school practices as well as those who seem distant in the context.
Determinants of Customer Patronage for Local Food Restaurants in a Typical Sub-Saharan African Context (Published)
This study centers on the determinants of customer patronage for local food restaurant in Awka metropolis. There exists dearth of empirical studies on the patronage behavior of customers of local food restaurants in Awka metropolis. The study employed survey design and the population of study is the customers of local food restaurants in the area. The sampling technique used was quota sampling and the sample size is 246 respondents. The research instrument was questionnaire while data collected were subjected to reliability test using factor analysis. The result of the multiple regression analysis shows that food quality is the best predictor of customer patronage of local food restaurants follow by food varieties, convenient location, cultural influence, physical environment and service quality while price is not a significant determinant. We therefore recommend that local food restaurant operators should improve on the quality of meals served; provision of varieties of meals with different spices and meals should express the culture of the customer among others.
The Role of Micro Insurance on Poverty Reduction: A Study of Insurance Companies in Ghana (Published)
Purpose- The purpose of this paper to investigate, explore and assess the role of Micro-insurance in poverty reduction Design/ methodology/approach- This paper is a qualitative analysis based on three case studies. Non-probability sampling techniques are used for choosing the unit of analysis which resulted in 4 firms (4 managers). Also, data were collected via a questionnaire and an in-depth interview. Findings- The study identified that Micro-insurance provides financial support to the poor in the event of a disaster, social protection against disasters and shocks, savings, employment, and as well as enhances asset accumulation among clients. The study found that the lack of innovative micro-insurance product, inadequate distribution channels, the lack of supportive micro-insurance legal framework, uncompetitive pricing of micro-insurance products, low government support in micro-insurance programs, low-income levels of respondents, the religious or cultural factors influence the demand of insurance products and low public trust are the factors that affect the demand of micro-insurance products. Also, the study found that the development of innovative products, establishing processes that build trust in clients, instituting efficient service delivery channels, documentation should be simplified and the government should support micro-insurance products are the ways to increase patronage of micro-insurance products.Research limitations- the sample size is still limited and in the future, a quantitative analysis should be used. The study is limited in terms of geographical area. The findings of the study are more likely to hold for another Sub-Saharan context. However, the applicability of these findings to other contexts needs further investigation. Originality/value- while interest in micro-insurance is increasing in emerging markets, there is little known and written on micro-insurance. Therefore, the role of micro-insurance has not been explored so far.
The study focuses of five CEO characteristics with the aim of discovering the possible link between these characteristics and the capital structures of the firms they are attributed to. The study applied parametric or non-parametric test (depending on the outcome of the normality test) to determine the nature of relationship between CEO characteristics and capital structure. Data for this study was obtained from three sub-Saharan African countries: Kenya (twenty companies), Nigeria (twenty-three companies) and South Africa (twenty-one companies) for a period of five years (2012 to 2016). CEO nationality characteristic (which is a proxy for international experience/competence for the CEO) was found to be significant to the capital structure of companies.
The study examined the effect of CEO characteristics of tenure, nationality, gender and share ownership on the dividend paid by sixty-four companies located in Sub-Saharan Africa. It used data for five years (from 2012 to 2016) and covered three Sub-Saharan African countries. Twenty companies were selected from the sixty-five listed on the Kenyan Stock Exchange; twenty-three from the one hundred and seventy-two on the Nigerian Stock Exchange and twenty-one of the three hundred and seventy-six companies listed on Johannesburg Stock Exchange. Kruskal Wallis was applied to test four hypotheses. Two CEO characteristics – nationality and share ownership – were found to have significant relationship to dividend payout in the data available for the study.
Mobile phones have gone from luxury items to daily essentials in the lives of billions of people around the world. The start-up boom encouraged the creation of numerous apps targeting specific market niches and in the last decade, they have become more sophisticated offering thousands of streamlined services. With the touch of a button they are able to grant end-users access to various resources in different sectors, including agriculture. This paper evaluates the stance of mobile agricultural apps in sub-Saharan Africa. It gives a brief history on their development and points out why they have been a successful farm improvement tool in subsistence agriculture. It also identifies possible challenges that may stifle their applicability and growth potential in the region. It then goes ahead to highlight possible ways to mitigate these challenges
CULTURAL RE-ENGINEERING: THE WAY OUT OF HUMAN RIGHTS SUBVERSION IN SUB SAHARAN AFRICA, NIGERIA A CASE STUDY (Published)
The importance of culture need not be over emphasized in the life of a community, as it is a sign of their identity. Cultural practices reflect the fundamental values of the community which are geared towards protecting members of the community. These practices are good where they fulfil these functions. But sometimes traditional cultural practices are harmful, with negative consequences, violating human rights. This work asserts that cultural belief is one of the major reasons why human rights are violated. The world is not stagnant, but continues to evolve. With new discoveries and philosophies, world’s systems change and the world adjusts to the demands of the changing times. Cultures and traditions are no exceptions. Cultural rites are human rights, insofar as they relate to and affect human beings. The aim of this work is to identify some of these harmful traditional cultural practices that violate human rights and suggest ways in which they can be re-engineered to bring cultural practices in consonance with the human rights system, within the traditional setting
The Influence of Legitimacy and Marketing in the Context of Accounting for the Environment in a Sub-Saharan African Country (Published)
Purpose – The paper intends to serve as a contribution to the requirements for organizations to account for and disclose the social and environmental (SE) consequences of their activities, aspects of the concept of sustainability accounting (SA). In particular, this research study investigates the current practices of environmental accounting (EA), whether it is influenced by the same values as that of society and is used as a marketing tool of the oil and gas sector in Uganda, a less developed country. Design/methodology/approach – The study involved 57 oil and petroleum supply chains. Major data collection methods included a review of 13 annual reports/statements by oil companies and both a structured and a semi-structured questionnaire involving 272 respondents, with a response rate of 57.0%. A mixed-methodological approach was employed to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data together. Findings – (1) There are no detailed archival records related to EA; (2) respondents’ (106) responses to the possible consequences of not accounting for the environment were almost indifferent on issues that influence marketing, indicated by the small differences in the mean (1.83 to 2.50) and standard deviations (0.504 to 0.925); (3) responses on the influence of legitimacy and marketing on accounting for the environment ranged from 8.3% to 90.0%, while the mean ranged from 1.92 to 3.90 and the standard deviations from 0.303 to 1.482; (4) we suggest that EA is currently not being done, which is an indicator of poor management of the environment; (5) the results support that a marketing tool is not a significant determining factor of accounting for the environment, despite having a social role to fulfill; and (6) the results do support the theory of legitimacy, because oil and petroleum products suppliers in the country respond to environmental laws, regulations and guidelines. Originality/value – The highlighted perspective on how organizations account for and disclose the environmental trends of their activities – an aspect of the concept of SA in Uganda, a country with a youthful population, open markets, abundant resources and significant unexploited oil and gas reserves – distinguishes this study from others on similar topics.