Tag Archives: Style

Exploring EFL Students’ Deficiency in Using Cohesive Devices in Writing Essays (Published)

This study is an approach to investigate how far EFL students at University Level use cohesive devices skilfully in writing their essays  . The important issue addressed in the study is closely related to what extent do students perceive the basic aspects of writing coherent essays as one of the requirements of graduation. The most critical question addressed was: To what extent do students use cohesive devices in the clarity and organization of their essays.? The study adopted an analytical-descriptive method. The students answered questionnaires to check their skills in mastering writing skill. In addition, samples of  essays were examined and analyzed  to evaluate the students’ writing  abilities in using these semantic markers. A number of findings were found out. The most critical finding was that the students did not fully master the basic necessary skills  required  of applying these cohesive markers  appropriately.

Keywords: Coherent, Style, cohesive devices

Style in Religious Discourse: An Analysis of the Beatitudes (Published)

This study uses the linguistic stylistic theory to examine the use of language in the Beatitudes. This is carried out in order to demonstrate to readers that a speaker can deploy language to achieve stylistic effects. The study uses stylistic and content analysis to analyse the linguistic choices used by the speaker in the Beatitudes. The study reveals that each of the Beatitudes is a brief meaningful proverb-like proclamation of blessings. Each line of the Beatitudes has three parts: an ascription of blessedness, a description of the person’s character and a statement of the reason for the blessedness. The first eight sentences comprise two main clauses joined by a coordinator ‘for’, making them compound sentences. Line nine of the Beatitudes deviates from the rest of the lines. It has a single ascription with three conditions which are requirements for the blessedness. The verb to be form ‘are’, is the main form used in the first clauses of the Beatitudes and ‘Blessed’ is the ‘Subject’ throughout the text. The analysis identified three types of parallelism used in the beatitudes namely whole text parallelism, inter-sentential parallelism and intra-sentential parallelism. The use of these types of parallelism improves writing style, readability and comprehension of the text. It was also found that parallelism carried the idea of semantic equality of sentences and clauses within the Beatitudes, performed an emotive function on the reader, and created a satisfying rhythm in the language used by the speaker. The  paper  found  out  that  each  of  the linguistic choices  has identifiable function  that  is performed  in the  Beatitudes. It is concluded that these linguistic elements contribute meaningfully to the thrust of the overall message of the Beatitudes which assures people of high religious virtues to serve faithfully in order to receive blessing in the near future, and that the manipulation of words by a writer creates a distinct style through which he/she reaches out to the audience.

Keywords: Beatitudes, Christianity, Jesus, Parallelism, Style, Stylistic Analysis

Management Styles and Employees’ Performance in Small Scale Business Enterprises in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined management styles and employees’ performance in small scale business enterprises in Akwa Ibom State. Six specific objectives, six research questions were formulated.The expost-facto design was adopted. The population of the study comprised 1632 employees of small scale business enterprises from which sample size of 373 was selected using Krejcie and Morgan formula. Management Styles Questionnaire(MSQ) and Employees Performance Questionnaire (EPQ) were used to collect data. These instruments were validated by three research experts and tested to be reliable using Cronbach Alpha, and a reliability coefficient of 0.90 was obtained. A total of 373 copies of the questionnaire were retrieved and found useable. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to answer the research questions and also test the six null hypotheses. The result of the analysis of the research questions showed a positive relationship between management styles and employees’ performance small scale business enterprises, with the exception of autocratic and lasses-faire management styles whose results were negative. Result also showed that participative management style was more positively related with employees’ performance than other management styles. Hence, there is a need for operators of small scale business enterprises to involve their employees in decision making so as to improve their performance.

Keywords: Employee, Management, Perfoemance, Style

Deviant Collocation As A Writing Technique In African Literature: A Stylistic Study of Helon Habila’s Measuring Time. (Published)

This paper appraises the use of deviant collocations in Habila’s Measuring Time. Ordinarily, collocations are words or expressions that naturally co-occur. But some literary artists have as a matter of fact made some incongruous blending for stylistic stand point and to unravel the ills in their environments. This inquiry adopts the systemic functional Grammar because it highlights the functions of language, the descriptive methods of data analysis, the primary and secondary data collection methods. It was discovered that language use depicts the afflictions of the people like the twins La Mamo and Mamo in the novel. Thus, elements of language as used in the Measuring Time stand for Habila’s ideological orientation. He therefore, uses deviant collocations such as personification, paradox, oxymoron, grotesque scheme, hybridity and so on to unearth the sense of fragmentation, despair and perplexity, which define his fictional Keti community, which is a paradigm for Nigeria and indeed Africa.

Keywords: African literature, Deviation and Collocation, Language, Style

A Socio-Stylistic Analysis of Niyi Osundare’s “Blues for the New Senate King” (Published)

Style is an important aspect of literary analysis of text. The manipulation of words by a writer creates a distinct style through which he/she reaches out to the audience. A literary stylistic analysis of Niyi Osundare’s “Blues for the New Senate King” is carried out in order to demonstrate to the readers that a poet can deploy language to achieve satirical effect. To achieve this, lexico-syntactic patterns, graphological devices, phonological and morphological choices of the poet are stylistically analysed, using the approach that describes style as the linguistic choice of a writer. The paper found out that each of the linguistic choices has identifiable function that is performed in the poem. It is concluded that these linguistic elements contribute meaningfully to the overall message of the poem which satirizes the ignominious manner in which the Nigerian Senate President assumed the leadership of the upper chamber of legislature in Nigeria for the 8th Assembly.

Keywords: Linguistic, Literacy, Nigeria, Niyi Osundare, Poet, Style

Stylistic Choice of Euphemism as a Strategy against Vulgarity in Social Media (Published)

There is no gainsaying the fact that social media such as facebook encapsulate language of obscenity, vulgarity and indecency. Using the stylistic approach that considers style as choice, the paper contends that stylistic strategy of euphemism can be deployed to mitigate obscenity and vulgarity in the language of social media. An article on facebook “Letter to my Boss” serves as data for the analysis of obscenity in the language of social media. Linguistic contents of the article, purposively selected and placed in the first columns of both tables I & II, represent the stylistic choices of the writer, while the linguistic content on the second columns of the tables represents the available linguistic options open to the writer. The analysis reveals that the writer carefully selects his/her linguistic choices while ignoring other choices of the available options even though they contain the same meanings. This is perhaps done in order to mitigate the obscenity that the article would have portrayed. The paper therefore suggests that this euphemistic strategy can be deployed as stylistic choice in any literary piece where vulgarity and obscenity are inevitable.

Keywords: Language, Mitigation, Obscenity, Style, Taboo

Style of Nigerian English Conversation: A Discourse-Stylistic Analysis of a Natural Conversation (Published)

The study entitled ‘Style of Nigerian English conversation: a discourse- stylistic analysis of a natural conversation is a linguistic stylistic analysis of educated Nigerian English conversation. The study following the example of Davy and crystal (1969) was aimed at identifying the common features of conversation in educated Nigerian English in relation to the linguistic features of conversational English. Our findings showed that Nigerian English conversation has the features of inexplicitness of expressions, randomness of subject- matter and general lack of planning;, normal non-fluency and gap-fillers; the use of in-group slang and abbreviations known to participants; extreme informality, etc. In specific terms, Nigerian English conversation closely approximates the Standard English conversation in terms of its style and interactive qualities as a language in use in social contexts. The study discovered, that, Nigerian English conversation, apart from the common core – features which it shares with the general conversational English, has some indexical markers which locate it in its socio-cultural and sociolinguistic context as English as a second language

Keywords: Conversation, Discourse-Stylistics, Nigerian English, Style


This inquiry focuses on Chimamanda Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus. This is precisely because scholarly studies on Adichie and her literary pieces have attracted increasing interest in literature in recent times, as a result of her recognition as the new voice of Nigerian and indeed African literature, given that she has gained a measure of success that eludes many old and new generation writers within and outside Africa. Earlier scholarship on Chimamanda Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus was generally concerned with plot advancement, character presentation, subject matter and thematic projection. Regrettably, none has paid adequate attention to the aesthetic values of Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus. This therefore is the preoccupation of this exploration. This examination contends therefore that to extol her artistic liberty, Adichie uses Igbo English (IE) significantly as a deliberate but significant stylistic gizmo. Thus, Adichie writes her Purple Hibiscus in English Language and then she deploys supra-linguistics and para-verbal nuances such as local expressions, African oral tales, oral songs, code variation, transliteration, linguistic apposition, local idioms, incantations, and lampoons. All these language games and stylistic strategies boost the Africanity in her Purple Hibiscus.

Keywords: Creativity, Foregrounding, Nativization, Oral tradition, Style, Stylistics