Tag Archives: Students

The Impact of Fear overcoming on enhancing oral Communication for Sudanese EFL Students (Published)

This paper aimed to investigate the impact of fear overcoming on enhancing oral communication for Sudanese EFL students. A teachers’ questionnaire was used to collect the students’ stand points about of our questions that subdivided into statements to be responded by the students.  The data was analysed by adopting (SPSS) program. The results reveal the following: Sudanese EFL students feel nervous and shy when they try to speak English. Sudanese EFL students afraid of facing the experience of speaking English.   Sudanese EFL students feel that they will never master spoken English. The researchers recommend that a new method of teaching should be adopted to help students to overcome fear, students should be motivated to learn English language, and they helped to build self confidence that English language can be studied and mastered.

Keywords: EFL, Fear, Impact, Students, oral communication, sudanese

Awareness and Perception of Plagiarism among Undergraduate Students of Selected Higher Institutions in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

Plagiarism has eaten deep into the fabrics of higher institutions worldwide and it has continued to be a global concern. A lot of measures have been put in place by organization/institutions to curb this menace. Some had even subscribed to plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin. This crime is so common among the undergraduate students, some go to the Internet or textbook to copy and paste without acknowledging the source. The understanding of various perspectives and attitude towards this issue is critical to finding a lasting solution. This study therefore investigated the awareness and perception of plagiarism among final year students of Faculty of Education in Rivers State University and Final year – HND2 students (Accredited departments) in Captain Elechi Amadi Polytechnic. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study, the study employed a descriptive survey research design and correlational study while using a well-structured questionnaire and rating scale as data collection instrument. The sample size of the study is 310, the instrument was designed into two sections. Section A covers the background data of the students while section B covered the research questions. Descriptive statistical techniques like table of frequency counts and percentages were employed in the analysis of the background data, mean score, standard deviation and correlation coefficient were used in answering the research questions while regression was used in testing the hypotheses. The result revealed that p-value of .211>.05 which means that there is no significant relationship between awareness and perception of plagiarism among the students. It also shows that every one of the discussants were aware of what plagiarism is and most students plagiarize without even realizing the implications. It was recommended that there should be penalties from institution and other relevant authorities to punish students who do plagiarism.

Keywords: Plagiarism, Students, Undergraduate, awareness of plagiarism, perception of plagiarism

Analyses of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurial Intention among Undergraduates Students in Nigeria (Published)

Entrepreneurship education and intention are major constructs that have enjoyed extensive investigation in literature as underlying factors for the development of potential and practicing entrepreneurs and the growth of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) sector. This study investigated the analysis of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Nigerian universities. Relevant theoretical framework and models such as Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) by Ajzen (1991) as well as Bandura’s (1986) Self-Efficacy model were employed to underpin the study. A sample of 469 undergraduates was investigated in Nigeria through a cross-sectional survey. A structured questionnaire was distributed online to respondents. Analysis was carried out using simple and multiple regression analysis. The findings from this study and the data analysis outcomes indicated that there is a positive significant relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Nigeria. This is in support of various positions in literature based on previous studies. However, the multi-dimensional perspective of entrepreneurship education only yielded two variables namely, entrepreneurship skills and knowledge as the determinant of entrepreneurial intention. This development gives credence to assess an optimum model for entrepreneurship education among the various antecedent factors that influence entrepreneurship education in relation to entrepreneurial intention. The study therefore recommends that adequate pedagogical approaches and tools be employed in the universities and other tertiary institutions that will impact emphasis on critical entrepreneurship education factors such as skills and knowledge for the management and policy framework for entrepreneurial activities and performance.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship education, Nigeria, Students, Undergraduates, entrepreneurial intention

Impact of integration of Information and Communication Technologies in Library Instruction Methodology on students in Federal Universities in Nigeria (Published)

The study is on the impact the integration of ICT in library instruction methodology has on students in federal universities in Nigeria.  The study adopted a random sampling method with a sampled population of 496 derived from 2018/2019 session 100 level students.  Two major instruments were developed for data collection and validated by two senior lecturers from the Department of Library and Information Science, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria with a reliability level of 0.82 and 0.84 respectively using Cronbach alpha (α) procedure.  The outcome of the study shows that there is a diversion from the traditional method (theoretical) of instruction with the integration of ICT which enhances students’ mastery of the use of library and other related technologies.

Keywords: Federal Universities, Integration, Library, Nigeria, Students, information and communication technologies, instruction methodology

Impact of Library Services and Resources on Undergraduate Students as users of faculty Library: A case study of Faculty of Management Science Library, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH) Ogbomoso, Nigeria (Published)

This paper examined the impact of library resources and service on undergraduate students as users of Faculty library. The research also based on the type of materials accessed by users, impact of library services provided, adequacy of library resources and service, problem faced in the usage of faculty library and solution. To retrieve the necessary information, a questionnaire was randomly distributed to a sample of 300 respondents drawn from a population of 600 library users of undergraduate students of Faculty of Management Science Library, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The findings revealed that library resources were not stressful to access to students as a result of adequacies emanating from resources.  A response rate of at least 100% was achieved. The researcher used frequency and simple percentage to analyze the data, the outcome results indicated that the majority of 78% of the respondents find the resources and service of Faculty Library effective. 85% of the respondents agreed that the Faculty Library resources are adequate for their various information needs. Base on the finding, recommendations were made in order to boost the library services and resources provided to meet more of the demands of teeming population of users. It was recommended among others that electronic /online information resources should be made available in the library to help students and scholars to have access to current materials. Also the library collection should be well organized to ensure that the catalogue and other bibliographic access resources reflect the truth content of the library.

Keywords: Faculty, Library, Library Resources, Nigeria, Students, Undergraduate, University, impact of library service

Assessment of Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Students’ Achievement in Mathematics (Published)

In Nigeria, the continuous fall in students’ achievement in mathematics has been a major source of concern to policy makers and stakeholders in the nation’s education sector. A lot of measures taken over the years to reduce this trend have not produced the desired results. Some measures taken targeted solely on teachers’, and infrastructural improvement, without taking into consideration the measures to improve the learners’ characteristics for effective learning. Hence, the focus of this study was on the assessment of emotional intelligence and its relationship with students’ achievement in mathematics in Enugu Education zone, Enugu, Nigeria. The research questions and hypotheses used as guide to the study were three and two respectively.. The study adopted a correlation design. The population of the study comprised 4825 Senior Secondary School two (SS2) students in 25 government secondary schools in Enugu Education zone. The study had a sample of 483 SS2 mathematics students from six senior secondary schools in the study area. Multistage sampling consisting of simple random and stratified sampling techniques were used for selection of the schools and the subjects for the study. Youth version of emotional quotient inventory (EQ-i2.0) and a mathematics achievement test (MAT) were used for data collection. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regressions to answer the research questions, and test null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results revealed that there was a significant positive correlation between the components of emotional intelligence and students’ achievement in mathematics and the components, singly and jointly, contributed significantly to the variation in students’ achievement in mathematics.

Keywords: Achievement, Education, Emotional Intelligence, Mathematics, Students

Use of Instructional Media as Determinant of Students’ Achievement and Attitude in English Language (Published)

This paper examined the use of instructional media as determinants of students’ achievement and attitude towards English Language. Specifically, the purpose of the study was to find out whether the use of instructional media is a determinant of SS2 students achievement and attitude towards English language. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted the descriptive research design. The population comprised 1600 teachers and 2800 SS2 students in 217 public secondary schools in Ebonyi state. Through the simple random sampling technique a sample size of 540 respondents was selected for the study. The instrument for data collection were three structured questionnaires which dealt with instructional media, students achievement and students attitude to English language. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages. Result of the findings showed the following: There is a significant relationship between the use of instructional media and students achievement in English language. 2. There is a significant relationship between the use of instructional media and students’ attitude towards English Language. Based on the findings, one of the recommendations was that the government should provide audio and audio-visual aids in all the schools in the federation for improved students achievement in English language and the development of positive attitude towards the subject.

Keywords: Achievement, English Language, Students, attitude, instructional media

Constraints on Acquisition of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Work Skills among Students in Technical colleges in Akwa-Ibom State (Published)

The study sought to find out Constraints on Acquisition of Electrical Installation and Maintenance Work Skills Among Students in Technical colleges in  Akwa-Ibom State,. Descriptive survey design was used in the design of the study. The population of the study consisted of a total of 332 respondents comprising 286 final year vocational III students and 46 teachers of VOCIII students from the five (5) government technical colleges in Akwa Ibom State. Simple random sampling technique was employed in the selections. For the teachers, all the 46 of the VOCIII teachers were used. A structured questionnaire titled ‘Constraints on Acquisition of Electrical Installation  and Maintenance Work Skills Questionnaire was developed to elicit responses from the respondents after being validated by the supervisor and three other experts and reliability tested through the use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation Method to obtain an average reliability coefficient of 0.86. Mean was adopted for answering the research questions. The hypotheses were tested using z-test statistics. The result revealed that some of the factors that constitute as constraints on acquisition of electrical installation and maintenance work skills among students in technical colleges in Akwa Ibom State include: teaching methodology, and students’ associated factors. Based on the findings, it was recommended that special agency should be established for training and retraining of technical teachers and government should establish Agency for Attitudinal Change for technical colleges to take charge of students’ performance award, motivation, discipline and encouragement of in all the technical colleges.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom State, Electrical Installation, Maintenance, Students, Technical Colleges, work skills

Impact of early reading skills and teachers perceptions in English as a foreign language using ICT: Evidence from Vietnam (Published)

This study aimed to identify the early reading skills in English as a foreign language via information and communication technology in Vietnam as well as early childhood student teachers perception. Currently, information and communication technology and part of the teacher’s perception in the classroom practices performed an effective role in the learning aptitude of students and enhanced their reading skills in English as a foreign language. The nature of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected from 100 students and teachers from Hanoi National University of Education. The output of the study revealed that more students were agreed and had a positive perception towards the uses of information and communication technology in teaching reading in English as a foreign language. The results also indicated that teachers used the best skills and strategies to enhance children’s vocabulary in the classrooms. Lastly, findings indicated that students faced a lack of resources and technical support as significant barriers. Implications for early childhood pre-service teacher training and educational policy are discussed.

Keywords: Barriers, Early Childhood Education, Reading, Strategies., Students, Teachers’ Perception, Vietnam, and skills

Negative Impact of Online Resources on Research Writing from Teachers’ and Students’ perspective, at King Khalid University: A case study of 4th year students, in the Department of English Language, College of Science and Arts, King Khalid University, Tanumah Branch (Published)

This paper aims to examine qualitatively and quantitatively the use of deixis in a political speech, guided by Halliday’s (1985/1994) Systemic Functional Grammar theory of language. The data examined here is a message delivered, on 10 February 2019, by the President of the Republic of Cameroon to the youth of his country, on the commemoration of the 53rd edition of the country’s National Youth Day. The message, in its English version, is retrieved from the official website of the Presidency of the Republic of Cameroon. Specifically, the study sets out to determine the different types of deictic resources used by Paul Biya in his message to the Cameroonian youth, and the frequencies of Paul Biya’s usage of these deictic resources in this political speech. The study reveals that Paul Biya employed different types of deictic resources including 103 personal deixis (52.2 %), 17 spatial deixis (9.4%), 21 temporal deixis (11.7%), 30 social deixis (16.7%), and 8 discourse deixis (10%). In terms of frequency of usage of these deictic resources, the study also revealed that personal deixis were the most used category of deixis in President Paul Biya’s message to the Cameroonian youth and suggested that this reflects the President’s power and dominance over his audience, but also his desire to involve this audience in his decisions, as a sign of his sensitivity towards them.

Keywords: Research Writing, Students, Tanumah, Teachers, king Khalid University, online resources

The effect of active learning strategies on developing self-efficacy and academic achievement for seventh grade students in Jordan (Published)

The study aimed to investigate the impact of active education strategies on developing self-efficacy academic achievement. The number of the study members reached (59) students from the seventh primary grade. They were chosen from the seventh primary grade students. To achieve the goals of the study, a measure was used in the subjective effectiveness, and an achievement test in the subject of Islamic education. The results of the study revealed the presence of statistically significant differences between the results of students in the two groups in the study of self-efficacy and academic achievement, in favor of the experimental group. This study concluded with a number of proposals calling for concern to employ active learning strategies in the various subjects.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Self-Efficacy, Students, active learning

The Effect of using concept maps to improve the level of academic achievement of students at the basic stage in Jordan (Published)

This study aimed at assessing the impact of conceptual maps on academic achievement in Islamic education for fifth-grade primary students at Fatima Al-Zahraa Elementary School in Ghour Al-Safi. The sample of this study consisted of two groups, each of which equals (21) students (experimental and controlling). The concept maps required for teaching Islamic education were constructed using the “concept maps” method, while the same content was taught to the control group by the traditional lecture method. The two study groups were pre-tested, and after a two-month teaching period they continued for two months. The two study groups were tested post-test. The results of the study showed that the achievement of the experimental group students was better than the achievement of the control group, and with statistical significance, how the study results showed that the method of concept maps can benefit students who are scholastic, and students who are less distinguished equally.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Students, concept maps, improve

Teachers’ Perception of Graded Readers in Motivating EFL Students on Extensive Reading (Published)

The purpose of this research was to explore the overall perceptions of EFL teachers at the PYP towards the use of graded readers in motivating Saudi EFL learners to go extensive reading. This area as the researcher thinks has not been given due investigation therefore, The literature reveals that literary texts including songs, poetry, short stories and plays could positively impact learners knowledge of English. However, this paper attempted to highlight using graded readers that are judiciously chosen and within learners experience in motivating them to read extensively or intensively. A total of twenty six male and female teachers at the PYP Najran University, Saudi Arabia participated in the study. They were given the chosen copies of graded readers to examine and form ideas about them. Also these teachers were strongly encouraged to do online reading to acquaint themselves with such readers.Data were collected by means of questionnaire to give answer to the two major questions: to what extent could SRs or GRs (the ones familiar to learners) motivate learners to go extensive reading? And are the teachers at PYP aware of GRs?The findings from the study showed that even the few who were not familiar with graded readers have become proponents of the approach once they had seen and read the copies. They also expressed a fondness for graded readers as source of motivation for young adults because of the simplified language and appealing themes that characterize such reading materials, hence the participants expressed willingness to urge upon their students to continue reading them. Teachers also recognized the linguistic benefits of extensive reading including vocabulary expansion, positive reading attitude, and a sense of accomplishment from reading extensively. The paper will also argue that many of the claims and criticisms raised against using literature are not supported by empirical research. I will assert, therefore, that grader readers within students experience are indispensable in our teaching scenario.

Keywords: EFL, Extensive Reading, Students, Teachers’ Perception, graded readers

School Strategies for Managing Social Media Influence on Students’ Discipline in Kenyan Secondary Schools (Published)

Social media is a global phenomenon changing the world in different ways. It has also been found to have both positive and negative influences on education processes as well as on students’ discipline. Therefore, the study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the research findings on the study objective which sought to establish and assess the strategies that the schools have and can put in place to manage the influence of social media on students’ discipline. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County. The target population of study was 19,000 students in Form 3. Scott Smith’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended questions. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Multiple Regression used to analyse the quantitative data. The strategies for managing discipline by schools were rated highly for implementation. The study recommended that schools should allow social media to be used as a teaching and learning tool only. They should also employ experts to control social media misuse by students. Schools should also enable teachers to monitor the use of social media by students. Meanwhile, they should strive to reduce exposure time to social media by students. This study will help schools to better address the root causes of student indiscipline and thus enhance learning in their institutions.

Keywords: Discipline, Secondary Schools, Students, managing social media influence, school strategies

Influence of Social Media on Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Kenya (Published)

Social media are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration and enable deliberation across stakeholders. The study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools. The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which social media has influenced students’ discipline in schools based on the research. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County targeting a population of 19,000 Form 3 students. Scott Smith`s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended items. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse data. Social media was found to have influenced students’ discipline negatively in schools.  The study recommended that parents, educational and political leaders should implement policies on limiting social media influence on students’ discipline. It is expected that the Kenya Ministry of Education and other education stakeholders will utilize the results of the study to manage the influence of the social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools.

Keywords: Discipline, Influence, Kenya, Secondary Schools, Social media, Students

Cyber -Trolling, Cyber-Impersonation and Social Adjustment among Secondary School Students in Calabar Education Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study is an investigation of cyber-trolling, cyber-impersonation and social adjustment among secondary school students in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria.  Two hypotheses were formulated to guide the discovery of the influence of cyber-trolling and cyber-impersonation on social adjustment of SS1 students which is the main purpose of the study. The research design adopted was the ex-post facto research design. 8829 public secondary school students formed the study population. A total sample of 579 students was selected through the purposive sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was the researcher-made Cyber bullying Assessment Questionnaire (CAQ), constructed on a four-point Likert scale of strongly agreed, agreed, disagreed and strongly disagreed. The Cronbach Alpha Reliability method was used to establish the reliability coefficient of the instrument with a range of 0.71 to 0.79. The statistical tool for data analysis was the One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings of the study revealed after the testing of the two hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance were that cyber-trolling and cyber-impersonation have negative influence on the social adjustment of secondary school students in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Based on the findings, the need for the government to formulate policies to assist in effective eradication of harmful online communications was stressed. It was also recommended that Social Welfare Agencies should device means of implementing and consolidating effective cyber frame works that will protect students from being harassed.

Keywords: Adjustment, Social, Students, cyber, impersonation, trolling

Influence of Teaching Methods on Students’ Performance in Kiswahili Poetry in Secondary Schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

The 2002 revised curriculum for Kiswahili for secondary school education in Kenya incorporated content on poetry. Students have continually performed poor in Kiswahili paper 102/3 in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) with the poetry section being the most failed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of instructional methodology on students’ performance in poetry in Kiswahili in Kenyan secondary schools, taking a case of Lugari Sub-County. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the research findings on the methods and teaching resources used by teachers of Kiswahili in teaching poetry. The study was based on Dale’s cone of experience theory which states that learners retain more information by what they ‘’do’’ as opposed to what they ‘’hear’’, ‘’read’’ or ‘’observe.’’ The study adopted a survey research design. It targeted secondary schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kakamega County in Kenya. The researcher used stratified sampling to place schools into three strata; four schools per strata were sampled making a total of twelve schools with twelve teachers of Kiswahili from the sampled schools. Purposive sampling was used to sample Form Three students. Data were collected using two sets of questionnaires, observation checklist, and document analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the obtained data and findings placed under themes. It was found that oral questioning and lecture methods dominated poetry in Kiswahili lessons. Therefore, the research recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should explore a variety of interactive teaching methods to enhance students’ mastery of content.

Keywords: Influence, Kenya, Kiswahili Poetry, Lugari, Performance, Secondary Schools, Students, Teaching Methods

Extent of Students’ Involvement in Sports Betting In Public Secondary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)

Effective curriculum implementation can be challenging in an environment where other factors are competing for the learners’ attention. One such factor in Kenya is sports betting. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students’ involvement in betting on learning process among secondary schools in Mumias-East Sub-County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the findings on the extent of students’ involvement in betting. A causal-comparative design was used in the study. Respondents included 369 students, 206 parents and 21 class teachers obtained by stratified random sampling. Data was obtained by use of questionnaires, and analysed using frequencies, means and percentages. The study found that 30.9% (n=369) of students were involved in sports betting. Therefore, there is high student involvement in betting, with more male students involved than female students. Most parents are not aware of whether or not their children engage in betting. Majority of students who bet own personal phones. Those who bet lose their bets more times than they win. Based on the results of the study, the Kenya government should review gambling regulations and legislation to include laws that prohibit school-going students from betting, since most students who bet are aged 18 years and above, meaning that they enjoy legal protection albeit being school students.

Keywords: Extent, Kenya, Mumias, Secondary Schools, Students, involvement, sports betting

Determine and Estimate the Numerical Aptitude of Delta State Senior Secondary School Students (Published)

In order to determine and estimate the numerical aptitude of Delta State Senior Secondary School Students, the researcher developed a Numerical Aptitude Test (NAT). The design of the study was instrumentation research design based on the Classical Test Theory. From a population of 4,379 senior Secondary School Students in Delta State, 576 students were drawn from Senior Secondary School I & II as sample for the study. Three research question were proposed and answered. Three hypothesis were formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha levels. Data were analyzed using Kuder-Richardson formula 20, descriptive statistics and t-test. The findings showed reliability coefficient of 0.66. The result also showed that NAT items are valid and did not differentiate between genders. Based on the findings from this work, the researcher made the following recommendations: the Ministry of Education Delta State   should use the developed NAT as a tool for selecting students, also school administrators should use the developed test to get valid, reliable and usable relevant information about Senior School Student’s numerical aptitude for administrative functions.

Keywords: Delta State, Estimate, Secondary School, Students, determine, numerical aptitude

Influence of Street Hawking on Study Habit and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)

Unemployment and poor economic condition of many families in Nigeria has forced some parents to engage their children in street hawking to support family income. This can have hazardous effects on the children and put their future at risk. This paper examined the impact of street hawking on study habits and academic performance of secondary school students in Ado Ekiti. The population consisted of all students involved in hawking in secondary schools. The sample was 180 secondary school students selected through purposive sampling technique. One research question was raised and three research hypotheses were tested. Two instruments titled “Questionnaire on Street Hawking and Study Habit (QSHSH)” and “Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT)” validated and tested for reliability were used for the study. The reliability test yielded 0.74 and 0.71 coefficients for QSHSH and SSAT respectively. Data collected were analysed using frequency count, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation at 0.05 level of significance. Finding of the study revealed that student hawkers exhibited poor study habits which led to their poor academic performance. It was recommended among others that student hawkers should learn to form good study habits of reading and preparing early for examination so as to improve their academic performance while government should improve the standard of living of the people in order to reduce poverty which is the main cause of street hawking.

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Street hawking, Students, Study Habit, achievement test, student hawkers.