Nature is the Teacher to Santiago: A Symbolical Expression of Human Struggle in Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ (Published)
The Old Man and The Sea’ (1951) is an epoch-making creation, of Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961), a foremost American iconoclast, who targets on the representation of human struggles through the outreaching of different symbols and signs. Hemingway was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and Nobel Prize in 1954 for this outstanding creation. Here, he intends to create a symbol for human existence through the struggles of Santiago-a Cuban fisherman as well as the protagonist in this novella. The struggles of Santiago are the manifestations of any individual’s capabilities of enduring the ultimate nature. Santiago is the incarnation of extreme reality who will be symbolized here as the unbeatable warrior of nature with which, he learns to believe in himself only because, he is the source of his own greatness and determination in the heart of the sea. Like Hemingway, he feels honor and proud in facing the struggle and in trying to keep up well with the passage of time, not being defeated by death or destruction. However, the aim of this further study is to intensify the things related to the various usages of symbols or sings by the writer here
The Struggle for Sovereignty and Nation Building in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa You Mi: Implications for Contemporary Nigeria (Published)
Modern African dramaturgy is a re-enactment of native historical, political, economic and socio-cultural variables interfused with elements and modes of the west, which is a clear pointer to its dual heritage. This study, therefore, deploys Stephen Greenbalt’s New Historicism, as it privileges cultural context and history, to explore the struggle for sovereignty and nation building in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa You Mi. The main aim is not only to unravel the power play and concomitant rupturing of relations between the British (represented by the Royal Niger Company) and the natives in the ancient Akassa Kingdom of present-day Bayelsa State of Nigeria but also, perhaps more importantly, to essentialize the enduring virtues of unity of purpose and selfless leadership as a sine qua non for a hitch-free and viable contemporary Nigeria.
Amiri Baraka’s pre-nationalist and nationalist plays such as Dutchman and Experimental Death Unit # 1 largely incorporates scenes of murder and violence. The cadaverous permeates. Baraka’s stage. There is a whole sacrificial system that determines the characters’ ultimate destinies and lives. This mechanism operates not merely to bring death to those who betray the national black liberation cause, but also to castigate those holders of the slave mentality and chastise the assimilationists who hide behind a white mask. This sacrificial mechanism functions as a generator of purification to cleanse the black community from the vestiges of black docility. In the Marxist plays, violence and murder take the form of political assassination. A play such as The Motion of History displays the dynamics of political struggle that conditions the kind of murder or acts of killings. Whereas in the nationalist plays murder is effected for purificatory goals, in the Marxist plays the intersection between political struggle and the official repression of the state determines the shape of physical elimination for political motives. The neutralization of political opponents assumes that murder is simply a means of exclusion from the political arena and restoration of political and social stability. Because agitation is detrimental to social peace and political order, systemic violence takes a bloody dimension and approximates bloodshed. This paper seeks to highlight the prevalence and, in Frantz Fanon’s phrase, the instrumentality of violence as an absolute praxis in Baraka’s dramatic works. Violence marshals then a new equation of asserted subjectivity.
Modern African drama is a re-enactment of native historical, political, economic and socio-cultural variables supported by elements and modes of the west, which is a clear pointer to its dual heritage. This study, therefore, uses Stephen Greenblatt’s New Historicism, as it privileges cultural context and history, to explore the struggle for sovereignty and nation building in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa You Mi. The main aim is not only to unravel the power play and resultant rupturing of relations between the British (represented by the Royal Niger Company) and the natives of ancient Nembe Kingdom of present-day Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Also, more importantly is to present the enduring virtues of unity of purpose and selfless leadership as a sine qua non for a hitch-free and viable contemporary Nigeria.
The purpose of this study is to shed light on esthetic uses of Greek myth, its artistic and realistic uses, and the reasons for the allusions to it in contemporary poetry. Selected poetic texts will be analyzed for the use which some modern poets make of the legend of Sisyphus for expressing their views and for showing how they perceived its artistic value. Among these poets are Al-Sayyāb, Al-Bayātī , Adonis, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Muqāliḥ, as well as the Palestinians Aḥmad Daḥbūr, Murīd al-Barghūthī and Fārūq Muwāsī, all of whom made use of the legend in order to express both suffering and hope in the crisis of Arabs in current times, in an attempt to bring these across to the reader.