Tag Archives: struggle

Nature is the Teacher to Santiago: A Symbolical Expression of Human Struggle in Hemingway’s ‘The Old Man and the Sea’ (Published)

The Old Man and The Sea’ (1951) is an epoch-making creation, of Ernest Miller Hemingway (1899-1961), a foremost American iconoclast, who targets on the representation of human struggles through the outreaching of different symbols and signs. Hemingway was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1953 and Nobel Prize in 1954 for this outstanding creation. Here, he intends to create a symbol for human existence through the struggles of Santiago-a Cuban fisherman as well as the protagonist in this novella. The struggles of Santiago are the manifestations of any individual’s capabilities of enduring the ultimate nature. Santiago is the incarnation of extreme reality who will be symbolized here as the unbeatable warrior of nature with which, he learns to believe in himself only because, he is the source of his own greatness and determination in the heart of the sea. Like Hemingway, he feels honor and proud in facing the struggle and in trying to keep up well with the passage of time, not being defeated by death or destruction. However, the aim of this further study is to intensify the things related to the various usages of symbols or sings by the writer here

Keywords: Adventure, Bravery, Perseverance, imagery, struggle, symbol

The Struggle for Sovereignty and Nation Building in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa You Mi: Implications for Contemporary Nigeria (Published)

Modern African dramaturgy is a re-enactment of native historical, political, economic and socio-cultural variables interfused with elements and modes of the west, which is a clear pointer to its dual heritage. This study, therefore, deploys Stephen Greenbalt’s New Historicism, as it privileges cultural context and history, to explore the struggle for sovereignty and nation building in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa You Mi. The main aim is not only to unravel the power play and concomitant rupturing of relations between the British (represented by the Royal Niger Company) and the natives in the ancient Akassa Kingdom of present-day Bayelsa State of Nigeria but also, perhaps more importantly, to essentialize the enduring virtues of unity of purpose and selfless leadership as a sine qua non for a hitch-free and viable contemporary Nigeria.

Keywords: Akassa You Mi, Contemporary Nigeria, Nation Building, Ola Rotimi, Sovereignty., struggle

Black Militant Theatre: Purificatory Rituals or Liberatory Violence? (Published)

Amiri  Baraka’s  pre-nationalist  and  nationalist  plays  such  as  Dutchman  and  Experimental  Death  Unit  # 1  largely  incorporates  scenes  of  murder  and  violence.  The cadaverous permeates. Baraka’s stage.  There  is  a  whole  sacrificial  system  that  determines  the  characters’ ultimate  destinies  and  lives.  This  mechanism  operates  not  merely  to  bring  death  to  those  who  betray  the  national  black  liberation  cause,  but  also  to  castigate  those  holders  of  the  slave  mentality and  chastise  the  assimilationists  who  hide  behind  a  white  mask.  This  sacrificial  mechanism  functions  as  a  generator  of  purification  to  cleanse  the  black community  from  the  vestiges  of  black  docility. In  the  Marxist  plays,  violence  and  murder  take  the  form  of  political  assassination.  A  play  such  as  The  Motion  of  History  displays  the  dynamics  of  political  struggle  that  conditions  the  kind  of  murder  or  acts  of  killings.  Whereas  in  the  nationalist  plays  murder  is  effected  for  purificatory  goals,  in  the  Marxist  plays  the  intersection  between  political  struggle  and  the  official  repression  of  the  state  determines  the  shape  of  physical  elimination  for  political  motives.  The  neutralization  of  political  opponents  assumes  that  murder  is  simply  a  means  of  exclusion  from  the  political  arena  and  restoration  of  political  and  social  stability.  Because  agitation  is detrimental  to  social  peace  and  political  order,  systemic  violence  takes  a  bloody  dimension  and  approximates  bloodshed.  This  paper  seeks  to  highlight  the  prevalence  and,  in  Frantz  Fanon’s  phrase,  the  instrumentality  of  violence  as  an  absolute  praxis  in  Baraka’s  dramatic  works.  Violence marshals then a new equation of asserted subjectivity. 

Keywords: Murder, Victimization, Violence, oppression., struggle

Sovereignty And Nation Building in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa You Mi: Implications for Nigeria (Published)

Modern African drama is a re-enactment of native historical, political, economic and socio-cultural variables supported by elements and modes of the west, which is a clear pointer to its dual heritage. This study, therefore, uses Stephen Greenblatt’s New Historicism, as it privileges cultural context and history, to explore the struggle for sovereignty and nation building in Ola Rotimi’s Akassa You Mi. The main aim is not only to unravel the power play and resultant rupturing of relations between the British (represented by the Royal Niger Company) and the natives of ancient Nembe Kingdom of present-day Bayelsa State of Nigeria. Also, more importantly is to present the enduring virtues of unity of purpose and selfless leadership as a sine qua non for a hitch-free and viable contemporary Nigeria.

Keywords: Nation Building, Nigeria, Sovereignty., struggle

THE USE OF ANCIENT MYTHS IN MODERN POETRY: THE MYTH OF SISYPHUS AS A CASE STUDY (Published)

The purpose of this study is to shed light on esthetic uses of Greek myth, its artistic and realistic uses, and the reasons for the allusions to it in contemporary poetry. Selected poetic texts will be analyzed for the use which some modern poets make of the legend of Sisyphus for expressing their views and for showing how they perceived its artistic value. Among these poets are Al-Sayyāb, Al-Bayātī , Adonis, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Muqāliḥ, as well as the Palestinians Aḥmad Daḥbūr, Murīd al-Barghūthī and Fārūq Muwāsī, all of whom made use of the legend in order to express both suffering and hope in the crisis of Arabs in current times, in an attempt to bring these across to the reader.

Keywords: Ancient, Myth, Sisyphus, Suffering, exile., nation, struggle, symbol