Tag Archives: Strategy

Strategies and Diplomacy in the Nigeria’s War of Unity, 1967-1970 (Published)

This study examines the aim and strategies of the Nigerian Civil War 1967-1970, emphasizing the diplomatic positions and war strategies adopted by the two sides involved. It agrees that series of researches have been carried out as regards the Nigerian Civil War but only a few viewed it on the ground of diplomatic maneuvering and strategy. The various literatures laid more emphasis on the causes, dimensions and effects of the war without a thorough analogy on the use of tact and strategy in the context of the war. The study examines the use of propaganda, military tact, media, peace talks and summits in the context of the Nigerian civil war. This study is divided into two parts; the use of strategies by the Nigerian government and the Biafra people, as well as the peace talks and summits that took place during the war. Both primary and secondary sources are employed in this research.

Keywords: Biafra, Civil War, Diplomacy, Nigeria, Peace talks, Propaganda, Strategy, maneuvering

Brazilian Air Force Fighter Pilots Threats Perception on Depth and Peripheral Defense Strategies (Published)

Countries use defense systems as a component of conventional deterrent to avoid conflicts, and aerospace defense collaborates in a relevant way for this purpose.  Among the peripheral and in depth defense strategies, some rulers chose to employ the latest. Through a qualitative interview with Brazilian fighter pilots, this work aims to verify if the view about the conventional deterrence of a country’s top management is aligned with that of pilots who are exposed to threats from peripheral and in depth aerospace defense, and which generates greater threat perception among them. According to the different aerospace defense strategies, surface-to-air weapons that vary in position, acquisition range radar and weapons system engagement were deployed in hypothetical scenarios. The pilots analyzed such scenarios and presented their perceptions of threats related to the likelihood of being engaged and fulfilling their missions. The results showed a higher perception of threat in the aerospace defense in depth concerning peripheral aerospace defense. The combatants’ perception of threats can be a relevant fact, possibly capable of influencing the propensity of these strategies to generate conventional deterrence in potential opponents. Thus, the knowledge obtained here can contribute relevantly to more in depth analysis in the field of conventional deterrence by countries that want to improve their defense capacity. Discussion on the subject and recommendations for future studies complement this work. The research is helpful for scholars and professionals involved in politics, strategy, defense, and overall practitioners.

Citation: Luís Marcelo Sotoriva, Raphael de Almeida Leitão, Murillo de Oliveira Dias, Rogério Barbosa Marques, Pedro Winkelmann Santana de Araújo; Flavio Duarte Machado (2021) Brazilian Air Force Fighter Pilots Threats Perception on Depth and Peripheral Defense Strategies, International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology Studies,Vol. 9, No.1, pp.38-53

Keywords: Strategy, air defense in depth., conventional deterrence, ground-based air defense, peripheral air defense

Political Education and Nigeria’s Sustainable Security Goals (Published)

In the last decade, Nigeria has been under the yoke of hideous security challenges ranging from Boko Haram insurgency, herdsmen atrocities, kidnappings, hostage   takings and abductions, militancy, banditry and the menace of cultism. By all objective standards, Nigeria could rightly be described as one country in a state of unconventional war in multiple fronts. The armed forces of Nigeria and indeed the entire security architecture have been strained and stretched to the limits. Successive Governments have tried to degrade and defeat this rampaging horde of terrorist groups without the desired results. There is therefore the urgent and compelling need for a paradigm shift from the strategy of military option and counter insurgency. A new model of engagement   within the context of mass political education is being advocated by this paper as a viable strategy to subtly galvanize the society and defeat organized terrorism now ravaging Nigeria. To realize this objective, the paper adopts the historical and   interpretive   research method. The paper also recommends that Nigeria’s educational system should be   revamped   with emphasis on core values of patriotism, civic obligations and responsible citizenship.


Citation: Chike A. Ezenwa  and Nwachukwu C. Igwilo (2021) Political Education and Nigeria’s Sustainable Security Goals, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.1, pp.52-59,

Keywords: Core Values, Security, Strategy, Terrorism, political education

The effect of strategic leadership on knowledge sharing in the Jordanian government schools from the teacher’s point of view (Published)

The current study aimed to identify the impact of strategic leadership on knowledge sharing in Jordanian government schools from the teachers point of view, and to achieve the goals of the study, the researcher followed the descriptive survey approach, in terms of applying the study tool, which was represented in a questionnaire consisting of (20) paragraphs, On the sample, which amounted to (356) male and female teachers from government schools in the Jerash Education Directorate, the study reached a number of results, the most important of which were: The degree of Jordanian government school principals’ possession of strategic leadership skills from the teachers ’point of view is medium, and that there are statistically significant differences to the degree of The directors of Jordanian government schools have strategic leadership skills from the teachers ’point of view due to the variable of gender and experience, and there is a statistically significant effect of strategic leadership skills on knowledge sharing from the teachers’ point of view. The study recommended a number of recommendations, the most important of which was: The administrator’s awareness about the importance of adopting a strategic management method to stimulate knowledge sharing between them and the teachers.

Keywords: Knowledge Sharing, Leadership, Strategy, Teachers

Impact of Safety Management Strategy on the Performance of Employees in Ashakacem Plc, Nafada-Bajoga, Gombe State-Nigeria (Published)

This study examines the impact of safety management strategy on the performance of employees in Ashakacem PLC. The main objective is to determine how safety management strategy of Ashakacem impact on employee’s performance. The study employs the use of both primary and secondary sources of data from different cadres of employees (managers, middle level, low level) and contract staff including distributors and customers of the company. The data were analyzed using Simple Percentages and Chi-square to test the formulated hypotheses which reveals that, “effective safety management strategy impact positively on the performance of employees”, particularly in the areas of the provisions  of personal protective safety equipment and enforcement of safety laws such as the provision of fire extinguishers, first aid facilities, hand gloves, mouth and Norse guard, dielectric safety boot and thermal socks, head gear kits, dielectric hard hat, high and medium energy goggle, Lab Coat etc. These have the most significant impact on employee’s performance while the establishment of factory Clinic for staff and seminar/safety talks and enforcement of ground safety rules has the least impact. Some recommendations were made; among which is the need for effective monitoring and evaluation of all safety measures in line with the ground safety rules to ensure safe and healthy working environment for effective performance. The study concludes that the company’s protective wears are of certified international standards made to be comfortable-to-wear, permanently flame-resistant and arc-rated material protecting workers against the thermal effects of both electrical arc flash and toxic materials arising from the factory production processes and procedures which is dependent on company’s strategic safety management policy and formation combined with excellent decision-making exercise that help in reducing employee’s risks conditions to the barest minimum level.

Keywords: Ashakacem Plc, Nigeria, Performance, Strategy, safety management

The Formation of Strategy (Published)

The formation of strategy has been described to stem from detailed rational-planning, the theory of planned strategy suggest that strategy always originates from formal plans and specific intentions, designed and articulated by the firm’s central leadership, supported by official controls in order to ensure a predictable or a controllable business environment. This paper review the submissions of leading critics who have categorised strategy into three (3), intended, emergent and realised strategies. Intended strategy is created at top management level, emergent strategy points to the decisions that emanate from the intricate processes in the firm and realised strategy is the actual strategy which is implemented, and only partly associated with the intended strategy from top management. Thus, as a result of global competition, organisations are forced to make dynamic decisions in order to strategically realign themselves within the business environment. The break-through of IKEA and WAL-MART were discoursed. These two organisations have become sensations around the world, however the intended strategy was not the major reason for their huge success. Arguments presented suggest that strategy is developed through adaptation, as well as adjustment to varied conditions. Therefore, the paper concluded that: since strategy is a process which involves continuous adaptation and adjustment to the changing environment, then it is unrealistic for it to be detailed and follow a rational process.

Keywords: Emergent Strategy, Global Competition, Intended Strategy, Rational-Planning, Realised Strategy, Strategically Realign, Strategy

The Impact of the Learning Strategy through Solving Problems in the Development of Academic Achievement for Jordanian Public School Students in Biology (Published)

: The objective of the present study was to identify the impact of problem solving strategy in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students in biology. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool, data collection and analysis, The study population may be from all 10th grade in the southern Ghor District,  The sample of the study consisted of a group of students from the 10th grade of Al Safi Secondary School for Boys with (30) students. The study found that there is an impact of the problem solving strategy in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students. (65%) in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students in the biology sector. He recommended that the problem solving strategy be implemented in all areas of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan because of its many benefits in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students In biology

Keywords: Biology, Collection., Problems, Strategy

The Impact of Learning-Based Learning Strategy through Discovery in the Development of Student Motivation towards Learning English in Jordan (Published)

The present study aimed to identify the impact of learning-based learning strategy through discovery in the development of student motivation towards learning English in Jordan. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool and data collection and analysis. The study found that there were (35) students from Deir Al-Liat secondary school for girls. The study found that there is an impact on the strategy of learning based on learning through discovery in the development of motivation Lab about learning English in Jordan, the researcher recommended to circulate the results of the current study by the Jordanian Ministry of Education on the various directorates to take advantage of the results in raising the students’ motivation to learn English.

Keywords: Discovery, Motivation, Strategy

Effectiveness of Project-Based Learning Strategy on the Achievement and Mathematical Writing of Preparatory Year Students at Najran University (Published)

The problem of low academic achievement in mathematics at university is one of the most important educational and psychological issues that may lead to students’ suffering, failure, and poor personal and social adjustment. The present study aimed to address the impact of project-based strategy on the promotion of the academic achievement and mathematical writing of the preparatory year students at Najran University. The present study was applied to fifty students enrolled in the “Introduction to Mathematics” course in the second semester of the academic year 2016/2017. Quasi-experimental approach was used. Results of data analysis indicated that there were significant differences between the means scores of participants in the control and experimental groups in the academic achievement and mathematical writing due to the use of project-based strategy that was used during the course period.

Keywords: Achievement, Mathematical Writing, Najran University, Preparatory Year Students, Project-Based Learning, Strategy

Countering Modern Terrorism: Military and Other Options (Published)

Terrorism has been part of human development dating back to the era of the struggles for independence and liberation but still defy attempts at an accepted definition. Hence, it has become increasingly necessary for governments to tackle this menace by whichever counter-terrorism measures possible. However, one pivotal means is the use of military force introduced by the then President of the United States, George W. Bush through his “War on Terror” speech on September 20, 2001. This paper tries to assess the pros and cons of this measure and other counterterrorism strategies.

Keywords: Counterterrorism, Military, New terrorism, Strategy, Terrorism, ‘War on Terror’

Competitiveness Improvement Strategy Formulation on Individual Hotel: Case of XYZ Hotel at City Of Bogor (Published)

Proportional to the growth of tourism industry in Indonesia, the city of Bogor has experienced an increase in the number of tourists, where it is followed by the growing number of hotels, including the brand-affiliated hotels. As a result, the independent hotels are at risk to experience a decrease in occupancy rate, including Hotel XYZ. Therefore, it is important for independent hotels to increase their performance thus their priceremains competitive in the market. This study aims to identify the internal and external factors of Hotel XYZ, and to formulate the strategy to increase Hotel XYZ’s competitiveness. The methods employed in this study are as follows: VRIO, PESTLE, Five Forces Porter, IFE, EFE, TOWS, and Strategic Architecture. IFE analysis shows that the employees’ loyalty and the wide area (land) have the same weighted value of 0.451. The main weakness of Hotel XYZ is the low level of education of the employees, with the weighted value of 0.223. EFE demonstrated that the main opportunity of Hotel XYZ is the technology advancement that has improved the business process to be easier, with the weighted value of 0.465. In the other hand, the main threat of Hotel XYZ is the growth of similar business thus leaving consumer with many options, with weighted value of 0.223. TOWS Matrix produced 10 alternative strategies, which then developed to the Strategic Architecture. The strategic architecture isdivided into four periods with each duration of one and a half year.

Keywords: Brand-Affiliated, Competence, Five Forces Porter, Hotel, Individu, Pestle, Strategy

Utilization of Adult Education Strategies in handling situational crisis in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions. (Published)

Situational crisis is becoming rampant in our tertiary institutions. The frequency of its occurrence signals the need for proactive plans and strategies to curb and diffuse the perceived effects of crisis in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The process requires the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes needed to bring about behavioral changes that will enable children, youth and adults to prevent conflict and crisis, and peacefully resolve same at event of its occurrence, through the creation of conducive atmosphere of  peace, at all levels of relationship (interpersonal intrapersonal, intergroup within the system. The paper is focused on providing alternative approach in the handling of crises in Nigerian tertiary institutions so as to avert the irreparable damages that could result from crises.  The concept of conflict/crisis were discussed, and causes identified. Adult education strategies such as conscientization, dialogue and peace education were proffered to curb crises in the system. The study also outlined other ways forward which if followed will address the problem of conflicts/crises in Nigerian tertiary institutions.

Keywords: Adult Education, Situational crisis, Strategy, Tertiary Institution

Influence of Strategic Composition of Board of Directors on Organizational Performance of Mission Hospitals in Kenya (Published)

There is an increased public concern about health issues in Kenya. This is because of changes in healthcare funding; advanced technology and the dramatic changes in demand of healthcare services over the last decade. In the context of these challenges, it is imperative for mission hospitals to know which strategic management practices contribute to superior organizational performance. These are the factors that mission hospitals need to treat with renewed emphasis to improve delivery of healthcare service and boost the health sector in Kenya.  The governance factor in mission hospitals, which is the responsibility of the board of directors had been identified as a major weakness that required to be addressed.

Keywords: Board Of Directors, Organizational Performance, Strategic Composition, Strategy

Effect of Collaborative Awareness on Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya (Published)

Global competition within firms has forced most manufacturing industries to become more innovative and strategic in their supply chain practices. One way of achieving this is through Supply Chain Agility. The study focussed to assess the Effect of Collaborative Awareness on Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetic Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya. Relational View theory, Resource Based View Theory and Stategy, Structure and Performance Theory was adopted in the study. Cross-sectional survey research design was used in the study. The target population of the study was 714 employees working in the Cosmetic Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya. A sample of 256 was selected from the target population using a Multi Stage Sampling Technique. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the collected data. The results of the study reveal that collaborative awareness contributes positively to supply chain agility of cosmetics manufacturing firms in the County Government of Nairobi.Generally, majority of the respondents agreed that Collaborative Awareness contributes positively to Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi. The results also indicates that there is a positive and statistically significant correlation between collaborative awareness and supply chain agility (r=0.505, p<0.001). This implies that collaborative awareness enhances supply chain agility of cosmetics manufacturing firms in the County Government of Nairobi.  As evidenced from the results it can be concluded that collaborative awareness positively affects the Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms and as such the firms should constantly be in collaboration with their partners since it one of the strategies employed by firms to deal with uncertainties. Interesting findings might be obtained from studies that explore integral relationship strategies in other industries or settings.

Keywords: Collaborative Awareness, Competitive Advantage, Relational View Theory, Resource Based View Theory, Strategy, Structure and Performance Theory, Supply Chain Agility

The Strategy of Practicing Methods of Building Community Partnership among the Heads of Departments in Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University (Published)

This study is an attempt to identify the strategies practiced by heads of departments in Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University in building community partnership with individuals and institutions of the local community from their perspective and to identify the statistically significant differences between the scores of participants due to the variables (Scientific Qualification, Years of Work Experience and Number of Training Courses). To achieve the study objective, the two authors designed a questionnaire for “The methods of building community partnership” that consisted of (51) items distributed to (5) domains: (administration, activating the role faculty members, funding and economy, developing the programs of community partnership, and community guidance and awareness). The sample consisted of (58) department heads, randomly selected. The study resulted that the administrative domain occupied the first rank, while the economic domain ranked the last. The arithmetic mean of the participants for the total domains was (2.75), medium-leveled. According to the findings, some recommendations have been made.

Keywords: Prince Sattam Bin Abdul-Aziz University, Strategy, community partnership

Role of Customer Relationship Management Strategy on Competitiveness of Commercial Banks in Kenya (Published)

This paper analyzed the role of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) strategy practices on the competitiveness of commercial banks in Kenya.  The paper looked at CRM as the implementation of an effective customer – centric strategy within an organization in order to create superior value that is required for sustenance of the exchange process between the organization and its target customers in a competitive market.  Companies are becoming increasingly aware of the many potential benefits provided by CRM.  The study used primary and secondary data to address the following objectives :-(i) to establish the role of customer relationships focus on the competitiveness of commercial banks.  (ii) to determine the role of customer – centric organization configuration on organizational competitiveness. (iii) to assess the role of customer contact platforms or touch points on the competitiveness of commercial banks. (iv) to establish the role of comprehensiveness of customer database on competitiveness of commercial banks. (v) to determine the role of integration of customer information on the competitiveness of commercial banks. (vi) to assess the role of accessibility to customer information on the competitiveness of commercial banks. (vii) to establish the role of competitors focus on the competitiveness of commercial banks. (viii) to assess the role of analysis of customer information on the competitiveness of commercial banks. The study utilized a descriptive correlational research design and data was collected from 34 out of the target population of 43 registered banks in Kenya. Data analysis and interpretation was based on descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics mainly linear regressions. The study found statistically significant positive linear relationships between CRM strategy and organizational competitiveness. It was found that organizational competitiveness is achieved through appropriate CRM strategy practices. The paper gave managers invaluable insights on how to effectively build their CRM strategy and leverage on their organizational factors to enhance the role of CRM strategy practices on organizational competitiveness

Keywords: Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Organizational Competitiveness., Strategy

Strategic Management of Government Public Policy: Key for Economic Stability (Published)

Strategic Management basically deals with discovery and description of the strategies that leaders/managers can take so as to realize improved competitive advantage and performance for their organization. Firm is said to have competitive advantage if its profitability is higher than the average profitability for all competing firms in the same line of business. The guiding philosophy in any strategic management procedure, either public or private sector, is all about understanding what changes are desirable, how to implement and manage these changes, and how to create a blueprint for sustaining improvements that lead to better performance. Strategic management provides overall direction to the enterprise and involves specifying the organization’s objectives, developing policies and plans designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the plans. The objectives of this paper are to: Examine the degree to which government public policies impact positively on economic stability of Nigeria. Ascertain the extent to which strategic management of government public policies enhance economic development of Nigeria. Find out how strategic management of new government public policies enhances public confidence on the Nigerian leadership. This study engaged analytical and qualitative research methods as we did not test any model. Data was gathered from multiples sources, including internal documents, policy documents, and publications of research organizations, articles published in management and social sciences journals and the internet. The current Nigeria public policy have definitely started to reflect a shift from traditional management concepts about public management and organizational design, a coherent procedure for creating and sustaining enhanced performance that reflects changes in the internal and external environment is clearly deficient. Indication does suggest that change is affecting the Nigerian economy, and this change is manifesting in all sphere of structures and processes of many private and public organizations. The paper demonstrated that strategic management of government public policy is one of the basic tool for economic stability and development of Nigeria Economy. Findings also reveal that strategic management of new government public policies enhances public self-reliance on the Nigerian leadership particularly when there is growing understanding on the part of many that policies have to be formulated through the vigorous participation of the concerned communities. A learned anointed professional would do better than unlearned but do anointed, therefore  expert that are knowledgeable about strategic management should be allowed to be at the forefront of strategic management of government public policies. This will certainly enhance economic development of any Nation.

Keywords: Management, Policy, Strategic Management and Government Public policy., Strategy

Marketing Strategy and Innovation at Michelin (Published)

The great management guru, Peter F. Drucker, once made a very profound observation that, “Because the purpose of business is to create customers, a business enterprise has two and only two basic functions – marketing and innovation. Marketing and innovation produce results; all the rest are costs” (Drucker, 1995). In this paper, we focus on the marketing strategies and innovation strengths at the France based company, Michelin. The company simply produces tires made of rubber, but still has a multi-billion dollar empire and is a leader in the tire industry, and continues to generate new plans for advancing its business. Indeed, Michelin has one of the most recognizable logo in the world (see above). We delve into the history of Michelin, its association with French culture, and seek to deduce what are the factors resulting in its marketing and innovation models that contribute to its huge success over the last 125+ years. The central scope of the paper is to understand the marketing strategy of Michelin in the global marketplace, and, at the same time, to analyze how Michelin has been successful in being able to innovate and maintain a stronghold in this sector in terms of market share. With respect to innovation, we note key disruptions that Michelin has been producing in its research labs and with respect to its marketing. We dig deeply into the strategic-branding approach at Michelin and analyze topics such as brand positioning, brand image and equity, advertising, market segmentation, and targeting, all in the aforementioned global setting.

Keywords: Advertising, Brand Image, Innovation, Marketing, Michelin, Strategy

The Irony of Nigeria’s Fight against Corruption: An Appraisal of President Muhammadu Buhari’s First Eight Months in Office (Published)

Nigeria as a country is not only popular for its economic and man power potentials but also, for monumental corruption ‘manifestations’ that plagues its government and institutions. The country, in the past decades has been ‘decorated’ with top ten position among the league of corrupt nations by Transparency International and other international watchdog organizations. With anti-graft in his campaign manifesto, it was an ‘easy’ task for Muhammadu Buhari to succeed the government of Dr. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan which was famous for corruption ‘manifestations’ and impunity in the 2015 presidential elections .This work appraises Nigeria’s strategy in the fight against corruption under President Muhammadu Buhari’s first eight months in office. The work argues that Buhari’s anti-graft strategy in its first eight months is misguided and misconceived. A theoretical framework is adopted for clear focus and distinction between the blurred edges of corruption and its manifestation. Primary evidences in the form of interviews and official reports are complemented with secondary and tertiary evidences gathered from Newspaper reports, textbooks, publications from journals as well as internet sources in the course of carrying out this research.

Keywords: Corruption, Corruption Manifestation, Fight Against Corruption, Root Of Corruption, Strategy

The Use of Motivational Teaching Strategies of Teaching Business Education at Botho University in Botswana (Published)

The purpose of this study was to examine how frequently and effectively lecturers use motivational teaching strategies in their teaching of business education to undergraduate students at Botho University. A number of authorities allude to the fact that the choice and use of teaching strategies are critical factors in the success of the teaching/learning process. It is also shown in literature that motivational teaching strategies give ownership of the learning process to the students and hence is a highly stimulating way of ensuring students are actively engaged and benefit from their learning. The study assumed a quantitative approach with a structured questionnaire that employed a five-point Likert scale used for data collection. The SPSS version 21 was used for data analysis. Results of the study showed that most of the lecturers teaching at undergraduate level at Botho University frequently and effectively use motivational teaching strategies

Keywords: Strategy, active learning, motivational teaching strategies, student engagement, teaching strategy