Functional Strategies and Performance: Empirical Evidence from Commercial Banks in Nakuru County in Kenya (Published)
Business environment is characterized by high turbulence in organizational performance. Functional strategies play a role as banks aim at customer retention, increased profits, increased sale volumes, efficiency and increased market share. The research established the effect of operational, marketing, finance and human resource management strategies on organizational performance. The study used descriptive research design with a target population of 205. Questionnaire was used to collect primary data which was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences software. Findings indicated that operational, marketing, finance and human resource management strategies affected the organizational performance. The correlation between the operational strategies and marketing together with human resource management strategies was negative and insignificant. The correlation between operational and finance strategies was positive and insignificant. Operational, finance, marketing and human resource strategies were not significant to organizational performance. It is recommended that functional strategies be improved.
Citation: Ken Njogu and Kipkorir Sitienei Chris Simon (2022) Functional Strategies and Performance: Empirical Evidence from Commercial Banks in Nakuru County in Kenya, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.4, pp.17-36
Clothing and Textile Skills: A Strategy for Optimizing Human Capital Development for Sustainable Family Living Amid Socio-Economic Challenges in Yobe State. (Published)
This study researched on Clothing and Textile Skills: A Strategy for Optimizing Human Capital Development for Sustainable Family Living amid Socio-Economic Challenges in Yobe State. Survey design method was adopted. Four research questions guided the study. Population of the study was drawn from all the families in Yobe State. Simple random sampling was used to select a sample of 200 families, comprising of Home Economics/Scientist, lecturers, teachers and students. Structured questionnaire was used to elicit data from the respondents. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study revealed that, if Clothing and Textile skills were optimized, it will boost human capital development in entrepreneurship skill acquisition, business venturing, innovation and creativity amongst others. This can sustain and stabilize families financially amid socio-economic challenges facing Nigeria presently. Based on the findings, recommendations were made.
Citation: Obiana, Uche Viola , Fadipe, E. O. and Ojiude, Perpetua U. (2022) Clothing and Textile Skills: A Strategy for Optimizing Human Capital Development for Sustainable Family Living Amid Socio-Economic Challenges in Yobe State, International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, Vol.10, No.2, pp.27-38
Teaching Strategies Employed By Teachers for Improving Students’ Learning in Business Education in Secondary Schools in Delta State (Published)
Citation: Onajite, G. O. (2022) Teaching Strategies Employed By Teachers for Improving Students’ Learning in Business Education in Secondary Schools in Delta State, British Journal of Education, Vol.10, Issue 3, pp., 85-100
Abstract:This study investigated teaching strategies employed by teachers for improving students’ learning in Business Education in secondary schools in Delta State. Four research questions guided the study. The descriptive survey research design was employed in the study. Population of the study consisted of all the 2,100 teachers teaching business education subjects in the 448 secondary schools in Delta State. Sample size of the study comprised 630 business education teachers from 224 secondary schools in Delta State selected using stratified random sampling technique. A 40-item researchers’ self-developed questionnaire titled “Teaching Strategies employed by Teachers for Improving Student’s Learning in Business Education Questionnaire (TSTISLBEQ)” arranged into four clusters, and structured on 4-point scale. The research instrument was validated by three experts and reliability determined through a pilot test which yielded an internal consistency reliability value of 0.74. Data collected were analyzed using the mean score and standard deviation. The findings of this study revealed among others that the teachers mostly employed the direct teaching strategies. All the other teaching strategies like the experimental, material/visual aids, interactive and the independent teaching strategies were largely not employed by the teachers in teaching business education in secondary schools in Delta State. From the findings, recommendations were made which include and among them were that principals in the secondary schools should encourage and support the teachers to employ other direct teaching strategies such as seminars, individualized instruction method, peer tutoring, team teaching and sharing students into different reading groups for improving students’ learning in business education in secondary schools in Delta State.
Plagiarism: All About How to Avoid (Published)
Citation:Mohammed Nurul Islam, Nisar Ahmad Koka, Mohammed Osman Abdul Wahab and Mohsin Raza Khan (2022) Plagiarism: All About How to Avoid, British Journal of English Linguistics, Vol. 10, Issue 1, pp.1-11
Abstract: Plagiarism is a critical concern at all academic institutions nowadays. When someone uses the words/texts of another person without acknowledging them, it is wrong. He can be accused of plagiarism if he does not acknowledge the source of information. This article begins with an overview of plagiarism, examples of different types of plagiarism, penalties for plagiarists, and sheds light on how to avoid it by different strategies. Finally, it discusses the citation (in-text and references) style (APA) elaborately that is most widely used by universities /ISI/refereed journals.
Behavioral Anchored Rating Scale and 360 Degrees: Performance Appraisal Strategies for Achievement in Healthcare Facility (Published)
The central concept of the study was achievement in terms of employee engagement, teamwork and time management. The objectives were, to investigate the effects of 360 degree appraisal and behavioral anchored rating scale on achievement. The target population was 206. Stratified random sample was used to select a sample size of 60 respondents. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of statistical package for social science. The findings revealed that behavioral anchored rating scale and 360 degree appraisal had a positive and significant effect on achievement. The study concluded that appraised employees accomplish targets, set goals and organization good at time management hence achievement. Employee performance depends on level of management and 360 degree evaluation and behavioral anchored rating techniques. The healthcare facilities should appraise employees periodically, review, revise and align performance appraisal strategies towards achievement of goals and objectives. It is also recommended that feedback mechanism be reviewed, simplified and improved to reflect prevailing performance levels in the organization.
Citation: Keter Leonard Kiplangat, and Kipkorir Sitienei Chris Simon (2021)Behavioral Anchored Rating Scale and 360 Degrees: Performance Appraisal Strategies for Achievement in Healthcare Facility, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.9, No.5, pp.1-21
The concept of community policing has remained a subject of interest among scholars since the twentieth century, especially as the need to checkmate the surge in crime among various societies continued to take top position in governments’ scale of preference. Given the foregoing premise, this research undertakes a historical examination of community policing in Akwa Ibom State between 1999 – when Akwa Ibom State reverted to civilian rule – and 2019 – marking a year of democratic elections in the state. Deploying the historical method laced with both descriptive and analytical approach with primary and secondary sourced evidence, this research addresses the question of crime prevention through community policing technique. Moreso, the research unearths the strategies employed in community policing as well as the challenges of community policing in Akwa Ibom State. It, therefore, postulates that even though the concept of community policing has long been introduced in Akwa Ibom area, the period between 1999 and 2019 appeared to witness more concerted efforts from government in the utility of the this system towards the purpose of combating and prevention of crime in Akwa Ibom State
Citation: Ubongabasi Israel (2021) Community Policing Strategies in Akwa Ibom State, 1999-2019, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp.9-27
In a few months of COVID-19 pandemic, millions of people were hit by the deadly virus which claimed a lot of lives worldwide, including Nigeria. The Federal Government declared total lockdown of outdoor economic activities, institutions, ceremonies, religious activities and gave a stay at home order to prevent the spread of the deadly virus in the country. This declaration made life difficult for the masses. The livelihood of Nigerians appeared to have been adversely affected by the pandemic. This seemed to make it very hard for people to improve their economic powers. The populace faced challenges in coping with the pandemic in the 36 States of the country. Hence, this paper looked at the concept of COVID-19 pandemic; household livelihoods; challenges from the pandemic; impact of COVID-19 on Girls and Women; copping strategies for the effects of the pandemic. The theory underpinning this study is the motivational instinct theory of survival. The researcher employed secondary data from existing literature from dailies, journals, libraries and text books to source information. The study discovered that the livelihood of people was adversely affected by the circumstances of the pandemic as a result of the hardship caused by government’s restrictions. Several households relied heavily on government cash relief and food handouts for survival. It was recommended that there should be more intervention strategies for resilience against such shocks in future. Actions should be taken to limit more risk, struggling of households and their livelihoods in urban and rural areas of the country.
Role and strategies of international humanitarian organisations in handling the Liberia Ebola outbreak (Published)
In Early August 2014, the World Health Organisation declared an Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in the region of West Africa. The West African EVD outbreak was the largest, most severe, and complex in the nearly four-decade history of this disease. The management of EVD cases in Liberia was similar to the other affected West African countries. We reviewed the method and strategies used by some of the international humanitarian organisations in handling the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in Liberia. This report is a collection of personal field experiences in Liberia as well as personal interviews of healthcare personnel working for some of these international organisations working on the Ebola emergency in Liberia.Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) was the first humanitarian NGO to deploy medical staff to the field in Liberia during the 2013-2016 EVD outbreak. MSF staffs were already operating in Liberia even before the declaration of the outbreak in August 2014.The slow response by the international humanitarian organisations to lend their support in bringing the EVD outbreak to and exhibited the fear the international community have for deadly infectious diseases more than armed conflicts. We recommend regularly training in public health emergency preparedness for third world countries that are highly susceptible to health emergencies such as Ebola outbreak to help prepared them ahead of such outbreak.
Community Education Strategies for the Control of Contagious Diseases in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated community education strategies for the control of contagious diseases in Rivers State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a population size of 2,725 consisting of 25 experts in community education and 2,700 members of various Community-Based Organizations in four LGAs in Rivers State. A sample size of 370 respondents was drawn using proportionate stratified sampling technique. A questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. The instrument which was validated by three experts recorded a reliability coefficient of 0.86. The collected data were analysed using mean statistics and standard deviation. The analysed data revealed that the REFLECT , Each-One-Teach-One and the story telling are some of the community education strategies that could be used to create the needed awareness for attitudinal change on the control and management of contagious disease in Rivers State. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things that The Federal and State Ministries of health should work hand in glove with the National Mass Education Commission and various state agencies of mass literacy to train health workers saddled with the responsibility of providing health education on how to adopt REFLECT and other community education strategies for awareness and knowledge creation for the control and management of contagious diseases in Nigeria.
A directive was given in 2004 by the Federal Ministry of Education that federally-owned tertiary institutions should hands off hostel management. Consequent on the directive, Nigerian tertiary institutions now have both institutional and non-institutional hostels serving tertiary institutions. This no doubt has a lot of implications on the nature of management and maintenance of hostels in Nigeria.This paper assessed maintenance management strategies adopted in the maintenance of hostel buildings in Nigeria and formulated guidelines for the maintenance of the hostels using the field data collected from the Federal Polytechnic Oko for the case-study. In order to achieve the objective of the study, opinions of hostellers, school management, maintenance heads and private developers were sampled through structured questionnaires. The data collected were quantitatively analysed and the result of the analysis indicated the following as the problems of maintenance; non-availability of funds, indiscipline and lack of functional operational frame work and regulatory body, climatic conditions, lack of good maintenance culture, lack of skilled maintenance personnel, use of foreign building materials and unethical behaviours as some of the key factors responsible for poor maintenance work and management of hostels in tertiary institutions. Effective strategies that should include a stipulated guide overseen by a body of professionals to enforce maintenance in hostels to avoid complacency, the adoption of a maintenance manual to be strictly monitored and the use of a computerised management system that will ensure proper maintenance records were recommended.
Strategies for developing English verbal communication: case study of secondary school students at Gezira state – Sudan (Published)
This research paper investigates the efficiency of applying some strategies to improve English verbal communication in Sudanese secondary schools besides the strategies teachers and learners are using now. To achieve this goal, the researchers assign some English language teachers and third grade secondary school students as a target population. The researchers use different questionnaires and pre and post tests as most appropriate methods for collecting the data. Then, they utilise the descriptive approach to analyse the data. Moreover, they use the SPSS programme to compute it. One of the results is that the abuse and lack of strategies of teaching and learning the target language leads to the deterioration of verbal communication. The most important researchers’ recommendation is that, Sudanese English language teachers in secondary schools should apply all recommended listening strategies and train their students to listen more effectively to native listening materials.
Strategies for Sports Products and Place Management Adopted by Football Club Operators in South-South Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated strategies for sports products and place management adopted by football club operators in south-south, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population as well as sample for the study was 450 football club operators. A structured questionnaire titled strategies for sports product and place management questionnaire (SSPPMQ) was used for data collection. The reliability co-efficient of 0.77 was established through test-retest method using Pearson product moment correlation. The generated data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for research questions, while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of the study revealed that, some of the sports products management strategies such as provision of quality sports equipment for sports consumers and sales of quality sports items were not adopted by football club operators in south-south Nigeria. The findings also showed that, some of the sports place management strategies include adequate parking space, clean environment and the lightning inside and around the stadium were not adopted by football club operators in south-south Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, sports products should be regulated by sports ministries and the club management should provide adequate parking space, clean environment and the lightning inside and around the stadium.
Impact of early reading skills and teachers perceptions in English as a foreign language using ICT: Evidence from Vietnam (Published)
This study aimed to identify the early reading skills in English as a foreign language via information and communication technology in Vietnam as well as early childhood student teachers perception. Currently, information and communication technology and part of the teacher’s perception in the classroom practices performed an effective role in the learning aptitude of students and enhanced their reading skills in English as a foreign language. The nature of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected from 100 students and teachers from Hanoi National University of Education. The output of the study revealed that more students were agreed and had a positive perception towards the uses of information and communication technology in teaching reading in English as a foreign language. The results also indicated that teachers used the best skills and strategies to enhance children’s vocabulary in the classrooms. Lastly, findings indicated that students faced a lack of resources and technical support as significant barriers. Implications for early childhood pre-service teacher training and educational policy are discussed.
Criticism of Issues and Strategies of Nigerian OTM Curriculum Review and Implementation: A Study of Rivers State Polytechnics (Published)
This study adopted a survey research design on Criticism of Issues and Strategies of Nigerian OTM Curriculum Review and Implementation: a Study of Rivers State Polytechnics. The population of the study was numbered 866 OTM students with a sample of 270 using Krejie and Morgan as sampling technique. Five purposes, research questions and hypotheses were posed and formulated to guide the study. The research instrument used was called “Criticism of Issues and Strategies of Nigerian OTM Curriculum Review and Implementation (CIASONOTMCRAM)” with a four point scale. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts. To ascertain the reliability and consistency of measurement, a pilot study was done on 14 students which yielded 0.89 co-efficient. A total of 270 copies of the questionnaire were administered and successfully retrieved. Mean statistics was used to answer the research questions, Standard Deviation was employed to find out the extent in which scores clustered around the means and t-test used to analyse the hypotheses. The findings of the study confirmed that there was low level of review and implementation of OTM curriculum in Rivers State Polytechnics. Among other things, it was recommended that there should be very high level of regular review of OTM curriculum, training and retraining to enable lecturers possessed high level of ICT expertise in teaching OTM students to achieve high level of implementation of OTM curriculum in Rivers State Polytechnics
Keywords: Curriculum, OTM curriculum, Strategies., criticism of issues, level of implementation of curriculum, level of review of OTM curriculum, review of curriculum, rivers state polytechnics and Nigeria
Effect of Communication and Complaints Handling Strategies on Customer Loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited, Kenya (Published)
Competition in business has gained a whole new dimension due to global consumerism, rapidly changing consumer buying patterns and high technological innovation. Consequently, the market players have switched focus from customer attraction to customer retention than at any other time in the recent past. Communication and complaints handling has become an area of interest to scholars, marketers and organizations operating in various sectors of the economy from which customer satisfaction and loyalty can be secured. Therefore, customer complaint management and effective communication form the decisive test of organization’s customer focus that eventually affects customer satisfaction and loyalty. In spite of the vast literature on the effect of communication and complaint handling strategies on loyalty, exhaustive empirical research has not been directed towards the retail setting in the FMCG industry. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of communication and complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited (ABL) in Kenya. The study was guided by the following research questions: What is the effect of communication on customer loyalty at ABL? What is the effect of the complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at ABL? A survey research design was employed and the target population was the Coca-Cola retailers who sold through the company-owned Cold Drink Equipment (CDEs) for over a period of three years. The sample size was 369 respondents. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires and content validity of the instruments was achieved by incorporating the views and recommendations of marketing experts who assessed the research instruments. Data collected was analysed through quantitative statistics and presented in charts, graphs and frequency tables. The study adopted chi-square to test the hypotheses. The findings established that effective communication and satisfactory complaint-handling strategies are vital in developing and nurturing healthy business relationships that subsequently lead to loyalty. The study concludes that when an effective communication and complaints-handling oriented program is implemented correctly, an organization begins to focus more on managing its customers rather than its products. This enables companies to establish strong performance that lead to long-term profits and increased competitive edge as result of stable partnerships. Evidently, organizations are confronted with complaining customers and despite the precautionary measures taken by an organization to avoid conflict with customers; problems are bound to occur in the relationship. Therefore, the study recommends that companies should focus effective communication and proper complaints handling in order to keep the customers delighted. One implication of this study is that companies like ABL need to have in place proper mechanisms for registering and addressing customer complaints.
Perception of Stakeholders on the Maintenance Management Strategies for Sports Facilities in Selected Universities in Southwestern, Nigeria (Published)
The paper identified and examined facilities maintenance strategies adopted in selected universities in south-western Nigeria, examined maintenance planning and factors influencing the choice of maintenance strategies adopted in the study area. Data were sourced using a structured questionnaire administered on sportsmen and women and the maintenance staff of the maintenance department in the universities sampled. The sample size captured all the fifteen games, featured in Nigeria university games association (NUGA) in the three federal universities that had such facilities for the fifteen games and have hosted the national and international sporting event were purposively selected. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages and mean response analysis. The findings revealed that the most influencing factors for the choice of maintenance strategies were maintenance policy with a mean score of (3.90), technological factors (3.85), maintenance standard (3.76), maintenance tactics (3.74), economic factors (3.74), and environmental factors (3.73). The study concluded that the most widely used maintenance strategy was reactive maintenance strategy and identified its problem to be the adoption of a piecemeal approach to the maintenance of facilities thereby resulting in under-maintenance of sports facilities.
Genderlect and Thanking (Published)
Thanking is one of the best ways to maintain harmony between people. As face is so fragile, thanking is of the effective ways to saves face of the interlocutors. This being said, thanking is an indispensable part of language. This study deals, not only with thanking as it is, it studies another topic and that is ‘gender’. Some studies showed that some linguistic items are used in different percentages among speakers when it comes to gender; say, females are more polite to some extent. Iraqi EFL learners are the sample of this study. This type of study, i.e. to know the differences between males and females concerning a specific area in linguistics is new and exciting. The aims of this study are the following:
- Finding out the strategies Iraqi EFL learners use concerning the speech act of thanking.
- Concluding whether female learners thank more than the males overall.
To fulfill these aims, it is hypothesized that:
- Iraqi EFL learners use the direct (or explicit) strategies to thank more than the indirect (or implicit) ones.
- Female learners use more thanking strategies than the male ones.
After presenting the literature, the researcher conducts a test to a random sample of Iraqi EFL fourth year students at the Department of English/ College of Education for Human Sciences.
University of Babylon (2016-2017) The results of the test are analysed as well. After applying the test to the sample, he researcher concluded that the students used the direct strategies to thank almost all the time and they even left some of the strategies (especially the indirect one) unused. This emphasized the first hypothesis of this study. As for gender; females used thanking strategies a bit less than the males and this conclusion rejects the second hypothesis of the study.
With the increasing demand for and reliance on plastics as an everyday item, and rapid increase in their production and subsequent indiscriminate disposal, the environmental implications of plastics are of growing concern. Given that plastic polymers are highly resistant to degradation, the influx of these persistent, complex materials is a risk to human and environmental health. Microplastics is described as a truly heterogeneous mixture of particles ranging in size form a few microns to several millimetres in diameter; including particles of various shapes from completely spherical to elongated fibres. Microplastic pollution has been reported on a global scale from the poles to the equator. The main route of concern is currently as a consequence of ingestion, which could lead to physical and toxicological effects on aquatic organisms. To this end, in order to minimize the negative impacts posed by plastic pollution (microplastics), a plethora of strategies has been developed at various levels to reduce and manage the plastic wastes. The main objective of this paper is to review some of the published literatures on management measures of plastic wastes.
The Preferred Crisis Management Strategies among Lecturers in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria and the Need for Guidance and Counselling Intervention (Published)
The aim of this study was to investigate the preferred crises management strategies among lecturers in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study was one thousand two hundred and forty-two (1,242) lecturers. The total sample used for the study was five hundred respondents who were drawn through stratified random sampling from four institutions of higher learning in Cross River State. The instrument used for the data collection was the researcher’s developed Preferred Crisis Management Strategies Questionnaire (P.C.M.S.Q). It has two sections, A and B. Section A contained the personal data while B contained four point Likert scale type, made up of sixteen (16) items. The data collected from the samples were subjected to statistical analysis using the population and independent t-test. To accomplish the study objective, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The following findings emerged; the preference for force crisis management strategy by lecturers was significantly low in tertiary institutions in Cross River State. Sex does not influence lecturers’ preference for dialogue as a crisis management strategy. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made. The government should adequately fund education, and the schools should devise local sources of generating funds while well-meaning individuals and companies should assist, dialogue should be adopted as evidenced in the study.
Is There Any Match Between Students’learning Style, Strategies, And Lecturers’ Teaching Techniques ? A Case Study of Benin EFL Students at the University Level (Published)
Educational research has identified a number of factors for some of the differences in how students learn (Reid, 1987). One of these factors, learning styles, is of widespread interest in the education area. In fact, each of us has an individual learning style, which means that we learn and process information in different ways. Also, there has been a prominent shift within the field of learning strategies, and teaching techniques over the last twenty years. How students process new information and what kinds of strategies they employ to understand, learn or remember the information has been the primary concern of number of researchers. Furthermore, the way courses are delivered by lecturers, the teaching techniques used has a great impact on students’ achievement. The objective of this current study aims at establishing a comparison between two groups of students at the university level. (A Training College and a Public University) in order to determine their learning preference, strategies, and the teaching techniques that they would best select. The researcher collected data from a sample of approximately 225 students. From the data, there is a significant difference between the two types of students in terms of the appropriate teaching, techniques used by lecturers and their match with students’ learning style and strategies.