Tag Archives: Strategies.

Role and strategies of international humanitarian organisations in handling the Liberia Ebola outbreak (Published)

In Early August 2014, the World Health Organisation declared an Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in the region of West Africa. The West African EVD outbreak was the largest, most severe, and complex in the nearly four-decade history of this disease. The management of EVD cases in Liberia was similar to the other affected West African countries. We reviewed the method and strategies used by some of the international humanitarian organisations in handling the 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in Liberia. This report is a collection of personal field experiences in Liberia as well as personal interviews of healthcare personnel working for some of these international organisations working on the Ebola emergency in Liberia.Medecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) was the first humanitarian NGO to deploy medical staff to the field in Liberia during the 2013-2016 EVD outbreak. MSF staffs were already operating in Liberia even before the declaration of the outbreak in August 2014.The slow response by the international humanitarian organisations to lend their support in bringing the EVD outbreak to and exhibited the fear the international community have for deadly infectious diseases more than armed conflicts. We recommend regularly training in public health emergency preparedness for third world countries that are highly susceptible to health emergencies such as Ebola outbreak to help prepared them ahead of such outbreak.

Keywords: Ebola outbreak, Liberia, Role, Strategies., international humanitarian, organisations

Community Education Strategies for the Control of Contagious Diseases in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated community education strategies for the control of contagious diseases in Rivers State. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a population size of 2,725 consisting of 25 experts in community education and 2,700 members of various Community-Based Organizations in four LGAs in Rivers State. A sample size of 370 respondents was drawn using proportionate stratified sampling technique. A questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. The instrument which was validated by three experts recorded a reliability coefficient of 0.86. The collected data were analysed using mean statistics and standard deviation. The analysed data revealed that the REFLECT , Each-One-Teach-One and the story telling are some of the community education strategies that could be used to create the needed awareness for attitudinal change on the control and management of contagious disease in Rivers State. Based on the findings, it was recommended among other things that The Federal and State Ministries of health should work hand in glove with the National Mass Education Commission and various state agencies of mass literacy to train health workers saddled with the responsibility of providing health education on how to adopt REFLECT and other community education strategies for awareness and knowledge creation for the control and management of contagious diseases in Nigeria.

Keywords: Community Education., Contagious, Diseases, Strategies.

Strategies for the Maintenance Management of Hostel Buildings in Nigeria (Published)

A directive was given in 2004 by the Federal Ministry of Education that federally-owned tertiary institutions should hands off hostel management. Consequent on the directive, Nigerian tertiary institutions now have both institutional and non-institutional hostels serving tertiary institutions. This no doubt has a lot of implications on the nature of management and maintenance of hostels in Nigeria.This paper assessed maintenance management strategies adopted in the maintenance of hostel buildings in Nigeria and formulated  guidelines for the maintenance of the hostels using the field data collected from the Federal Polytechnic Oko for the case-study. In order to achieve the  objective of the study, opinions of hostellers, school management, maintenance heads and private developers were sampled through structured questionnaires. The data collected were quantitatively analysed and the result of the analysis indicated the following as the problems of maintenance; non-availability of funds, indiscipline and lack of functional operational frame work and regulatory body, climatic conditions, lack of good maintenance culture, lack of skilled maintenance personnel, use of foreign building materials and unethical behaviours as some of the key factors responsible for poor maintenance work and management of hostels in tertiary institutions.  Effective strategies that should include a stipulated guide overseen by a body of professionals to enforce maintenance in hostels to avoid complacency, the adoption of a maintenance manual to be strictly monitored and the use of a computerised management system that will ensure proper maintenance records were recommended. 

Keywords: Maintenance Management, Nigeria, Strategies., Tertiary Institutions, computerised maintenance management system, hostel buildings

Strategies for developing English verbal communication: case study of secondary school students at Gezira state – Sudan (Published)

This research   paper investigates the   efficiency of applying some strategies to improve English verbal communication in Sudanese secondary schools    besides   the strategies teachers and learners are using now. To achieve   this   goal, the researchers assign some English language teachers and third grade secondary school   students as a target population. The researchers use different questionnaires and pre and post tests as most appropriate methods for collecting the data. Then, they utilise the descriptive approach to analyse the data. Moreover, they use the SPSS programme to compute it. One of the results is that the abuse and lack of strategies of teaching and learning the target language leads to the deterioration of verbal communication. The most important researchers’ recommendation is that, Sudanese English language teachers in secondary schools should apply all recommended listening strategies and train their students to listen more effectively to native listening materials.


Keywords: Strategies., descriptive approach, post-tests, pre-tests, the SPSS programme., verbal communication

Strategies for Sports Products and Place Management Adopted by Football Club Operators in South-South Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated strategies for sports products and place management adopted by football club operators in south-south, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population as well as sample for the study was 450 football club operators. A structured questionnaire titled strategies for sports product and place management questionnaire (SSPPMQ) was used for data collection. The reliability co-efficient of 0.77 was established through test-retest method using Pearson product moment correlation. The generated data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for research questions, while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The findings of the study revealed that, some of the sports products management strategies such as provision of quality sports equipment for sports consumers and sales of quality sports items were not adopted by football club operators in south-south Nigeria. The findings also showed that, some of the sports place management strategies include adequate parking space, clean environment and the lightning inside and around the stadium were not adopted by football club operators in south-south Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended that, sports products should be regulated by sports ministries and the club management should provide adequate parking space, clean environment and the lightning inside and around the stadium.

Keywords: Marketing Mix, Strategies., football club operators, sports place, sports products

Impact of early reading skills and teachers perceptions in English as a foreign language using ICT: Evidence from Vietnam (Published)

This study aimed to identify the early reading skills in English as a foreign language via information and communication technology in Vietnam as well as early childhood student teachers perception. Currently, information and communication technology and part of the teacher’s perception in the classroom practices performed an effective role in the learning aptitude of students and enhanced their reading skills in English as a foreign language. The nature of the study was cross-sectional and data were collected from 100 students and teachers from Hanoi National University of Education. The output of the study revealed that more students were agreed and had a positive perception towards the uses of information and communication technology in teaching reading in English as a foreign language. The results also indicated that teachers used the best skills and strategies to enhance children’s vocabulary in the classrooms. Lastly, findings indicated that students faced a lack of resources and technical support as significant barriers. Implications for early childhood pre-service teacher training and educational policy are discussed.

Keywords: Barriers, Early Childhood Education, Reading, Strategies., Students, Teachers’ Perception, Vietnam, and skills

Criticism of Issues and Strategies of Nigerian OTM Curriculum Review and Implementation: A Study of Rivers State Polytechnics (Published)

This study adopted a survey research design on Criticism of Issues and Strategies of Nigerian OTM Curriculum Review and Implementation: a Study of Rivers State Polytechnics. The population of the study was numbered 866 OTM students with a sample of 270 using Krejie and Morgan as sampling technique. Five purposes, research questions and hypotheses were posed and formulated to guide the study. The research instrument used was called “Criticism of Issues and Strategies of Nigerian OTM Curriculum Review and Implementation (CIASONOTMCRAM)” with a four point scale. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts. To ascertain the reliability and consistency of measurement, a pilot study was done on 14 students which yielded 0.89 co-efficient. A total of 270 copies of the questionnaire were administered and successfully retrieved. Mean statistics was used to answer the research questions,  Standard Deviation was employed to find out the extent in which scores clustered around the means and t-test used to analyse the hypotheses. The findings of the study confirmed that there was low level of review and implementation of OTM curriculum in Rivers State Polytechnics. Among other things, it was recommended that there should be very high level of regular review of OTM curriculum, training and retraining to enable lecturers possessed high level of ICT expertise in teaching OTM students to achieve high level of implementation of OTM curriculum in Rivers State Polytechnics

Keywords: Curriculum, OTM curriculum, Strategies., criticism of issues, level of implementation of curriculum, level of review of OTM curriculum, review of curriculum, rivers state polytechnics and Nigeria

Effect of Communication and Complaints Handling Strategies on Customer Loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited, Kenya (Published)

Competition in business has gained a whole new dimension due to global consumerism, rapidly changing consumer buying patterns and high technological innovation. Consequently, the market players have switched focus from customer attraction to customer retention than at any other time in the recent past. Communication and complaints handling has become an area of interest to scholars, marketers and organizations operating in various sectors of the economy from which customer satisfaction and loyalty can be secured. Therefore, customer complaint management and effective communication form the decisive test of organization’s customer focus that eventually affects customer satisfaction and loyalty. In spite of the vast literature on the effect of communication and complaint handling strategies on loyalty, exhaustive empirical research has not been directed towards the retail setting in the FMCG industry. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of communication and complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at Almasi Beverages Limited (ABL) in Kenya. The study was guided by the following research questions: What is the effect of communication on customer loyalty at ABL? What is the effect of the complaints-handling strategies on customer loyalty at ABL? A survey research design was employed and the target population was the Coca-Cola retailers who sold through the company-owned Cold Drink Equipment (CDEs) for over a period of three years. The sample size was 369 respondents. Data was collected through the use of structured questionnaires and content validity of the instruments was achieved by incorporating the views and recommendations of marketing experts who assessed the research instruments. Data collected was analysed through quantitative statistics and presented in charts, graphs and frequency tables. The study adopted chi-square to test the hypotheses. The findings established that effective communication and satisfactory complaint-handling strategies are vital in developing and nurturing healthy business relationships that subsequently lead to loyalty. The study concludes that when an effective communication and complaints-handling oriented program is implemented correctly, an organization begins to focus more on managing its customers rather than its products. This enables companies to establish strong performance that lead to long-term profits and increased competitive edge as result of stable partnerships. Evidently, organizations are confronted with complaining customers and despite the precautionary measures taken by an organization to avoid conflict with customers; problems are bound to occur in the relationship. Therefore, the study recommends that companies should focus effective communication and proper complaints handling in order to keep the customers delighted. One implication of this study is that companies like ABL need to have in place proper mechanisms for registering and addressing customer complaints.

Keywords: Almasi beverages, Customer loyalty, Effect, Kenya, Strategies., communication, complaints-handling

Perception of Stakeholders on the Maintenance Management Strategies for Sports Facilities in Selected Universities in Southwestern, Nigeria (Published)

The paper identified and examined facilities maintenance strategies adopted in selected universities in south-western Nigeria, examined maintenance planning and factors influencing the choice of maintenance strategies adopted in the study area. Data were sourced using a structured questionnaire administered on sportsmen and women and the maintenance staff of the maintenance department in the universities sampled. The sample size captured all the fifteen games, featured in Nigeria university games association (NUGA) in the three federal universities that had such facilities for the fifteen games and have hosted the national and international sporting event were purposively selected. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, percentages and mean response analysis. The findings revealed that the most influencing factors for the choice of maintenance strategies were maintenance policy with a mean score of (3.90), technological factors (3.85), maintenance standard (3.76), maintenance tactics (3.74), economic factors (3.74), and environmental factors (3.73). The study concluded that the most widely used maintenance strategy was reactive maintenance strategy and identified its problem to be the adoption of a piecemeal approach to the maintenance of facilities thereby resulting in under-maintenance of sports facilities.

Keywords: Factors, Maintenance, Management, Planning, Sports Facilities, Strategies.

Genderlect and Thanking (Published)

Thanking is one of the best ways to maintain harmony between people. As face is so fragile, thanking is of the effective ways to saves face of the interlocutors. This being said, thanking is an indispensable part of language. This study deals, not only with thanking as it is, it studies another topic and that is ‘gender’. Some studies showed that some linguistic items are used in different percentages among speakers when it comes to gender; say, females are more polite to some extent. Iraqi EFL learners are the sample of this study. This type of study, i.e. to know the differences between males and females concerning a specific area in linguistics is new and exciting. The aims of this study are the following:

  1. Finding out the strategies Iraqi EFL learners use concerning the speech act of thanking.
  2. Concluding whether female learners thank more than the males overall.

To fulfill these aims, it is hypothesized that:

  1. Iraqi EFL learners use the direct (or explicit) strategies to thank more than the indirect (or implicit) ones.
  2. Female learners use more thanking strategies than the male ones.

After presenting the literature, the researcher conducts a test to a random sample of Iraqi EFL fourth year students at the Department of English/ College of Education for Human Sciences.

University of Babylon (2016-2017) The results of the test are analysed as well. After applying the test to the sample, he researcher concluded that the students used the direct strategies to thank almost all the time and they even left some of the strategies (especially the indirect one) unused. This emphasized the first hypothesis of this study. As for gender; females used thanking strategies a bit less than the males and this conclusion rejects the second hypothesis of the study.

Keywords: EFL Learners’, Gender, Implicit, Speech Acts., Strategies., explicit, felicity conditions, thanking

Current Advances in Strategies to Mitigate the Impacts of Micro/Nano Plastics (Published)

With the increasing demand for and reliance on plastics as an everyday item, and rapid increase in their production and subsequent indiscriminate disposal, the environmental implications of plastics are of growing concern. Given that plastic polymers are highly resistant to degradation, the influx of these persistent, complex materials is a risk to human and environmental health. Microplastics is described as a truly heterogeneous mixture of particles ranging in size form a few microns to several millimetres in diameter; including particles of various shapes from completely spherical to elongated fibres. Microplastic pollution has been reported on a global scale from the poles to the equator. The main route of concern is currently as a consequence of ingestion, which could lead to physical and toxicological effects on aquatic organisms. To this end, in order to minimize the negative impacts posed by plastic pollution (microplastics), a plethora of strategies has been developed at various levels to reduce and manage the plastic wastes. The main objective of this paper is to review some of the published literatures on management measures of plastic wastes.

Keywords: Micro, Nano Plastics, Strategies.

The Preferred Crisis Management Strategies among Lecturers in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria and the Need for Guidance and Counselling Intervention (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate the preferred crises management strategies among lecturers in tertiary institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study was one thousand two hundred and forty-two (1,242) lecturers. The total sample used for the study was five hundred respondents who were drawn through stratified random sampling from four institutions of higher learning in Cross River State. The instrument used for the data collection was the researcher’s developed Preferred Crisis Management Strategies Questionnaire (P.C.M.S.Q). It has two sections, A and B. Section A contained the personal data while B contained four point Likert scale type, made up of sixteen (16) items. The data collected from the samples were subjected to statistical analysis using the population and independent t-test. To accomplish the study objective, two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The following findings emerged; the preference for force crisis management strategy by lecturers was significantly low in tertiary institutions in Cross River State. Sex does not influence lecturers’ preference for dialogue as a crisis management strategy. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made. The government should adequately fund education, and the schools should devise local sources of generating funds while well-meaning individuals and companies should assist, dialogue should be adopted as evidenced in the study.

Keywords: Lecturer, Management, Preferred, Strategies., Tertiary Institutions, crises

Is There Any Match Between Students’learning Style, Strategies, And Lecturers’ Teaching Techniques ? A Case Study of Benin EFL Students at the University Level (Published)

Educational research has identified a number of factors for some of the differences in how students learn (Reid, 1987). One of these factors, learning styles, is of widespread interest in the education area. In fact, each of us has an individual learning style, which means that we learn and process information in different ways. Also, there has been a prominent shift within the field of  learning strategies, and teaching techniques over the last twenty years. How students process new information and what kinds of strategies they employ to understand, learn or remember the information has been the primary concern of number of researchers. Furthermore, the way courses are delivered by lecturers, the teaching techniques used has a great impact on students’ achievement. The objective of this current study aims at establishing a comparison between two groups of students at  the university level. (A Training College and a Public University) in order to determine their learning preference, strategies, and the teaching techniques that they would best select. The researcher collected data from a sample of approximately  225 students. From the data, there is a significant  difference between the two types of  students  in terms of the appropriate teaching, techniques used by lecturers and their match with students’ learning style and strategies.

Keywords: Learning Style, Strategies., Students, Teaching Techniques

Social Development Strategies for Promotion of Community Development in Nigeria (Published)

Every social action is perceived as a joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in the society. Social development as an educational process stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a concept is used to stimulate awareness in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their social realities ant their potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as strategies of social development in stimulating community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to ensure that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation and communication as well as that social development should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.

Keywords: Community development, Nigeria, Social Development, Strategies.

The Strategies Put In Place by Selected Private Universities in Kenya to Address the Issues of Financial Sustainability (Published)

Private universities have a great responsibility of managing financial sustainability and hence the need to explore different strategies that would enhance their financial sustainability. Kenya Vision 2030 requires institutions to develop strategies that will help in achieving its goals. Therefore, this paper explores the strategies administrators in private universities use to manage financial stability. Three major strategies were adopted by selected private universities to enhance their financial sustainability. These strategies include students’ recruitment strategies, internal and external funding strategies and program development, review and diversification. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy’s General System Theory (GST) originally developed in the 1940’s – which later came to be known as System Theory – was the conceptual framework that guided this study. Qualitative grounded theory design was used for collecting, analyzing, interpreting and reporting data. An interview guide was used to collect data for the two research questions that guided the study. Data was collected using self-developed interview schedule, and were digitally recorded and transcribed. The data was then organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through use of codes and formation of categories which eventually developed broader and tentative themes and patterns that brought meaning out of the information collected. Twenty respondents of this study were chosen purposefully from four out of the five universities in Kenya founded as theological colleges and had been chartered as private universities at the time of the study. Triangulation was used for data collection to increase the trustworthiness of the findings. The findings of this study indicate that the strategies that were put in place were not yielding sufficient income because of the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore this study recommends ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are major impediments to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financial sustainable university.  

Keywords: Financial Sustainability, Marketing, Private University, Program development, Strategies., Student Recruitment, review and diversification

The Challenges Encountered by the Selected Private Universities in Kenya in Implementing Strategies that Would Lead to a Financially Sustainable University (Published)

Great expectations of high quality education are held by many people due to a high demand of tertiary education in private Kenyan universities. Higher education in Kenya has experienced a lot of numerical growth of the number of universities chartered. As of November 2015, Kenya had a total of 70 chartered universities. Of these, 17 were private chartered ones which had grown in number from 3 to 17 in just two decades (CUE 2015, Chacha 2004,4). That notwithstanding, private universities face numerous challenges, which if not addressed, their sustainability will be threatened.  This paper therefore seeks to explore the challenges encountered by selected private universities in Kenya, in implementing strategies that would lead to a financially sustainable university. These challenges were classified into two categories: the internal and external challenges. The internal challenges, experienced from within the university included: inadequate finances, university leadership and structures while the external ones include: government funding, government regulations and donor support. Qualitative grounded theory design was used in which an  interview guide and a self-developed interview schedule were used in data collection. Twenty respondents were involved from four theological private universities. A fifth university was used for a pilot study. Data was organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through the use of codes and formation of categories. The strategies utilized were: students’ recruitment, internal and external funding, program development, review and diversification. The findings show that different universities are engaging in different strategies without much success in terms of income generated. This was attributed to the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore, this study proposed a financial sustainability system that is based on grounded theory which recommends the need to prioritize income generating strategies – developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are a major impediment to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financially sustainable university. This paper concludes by suggesting ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams that will enhance the financial sustainability of the sampled universities. Moreover, it recommends that universities should develop more creative strategies that are not yet in place, review their status and also diversify their strategies to achieve financial sustainability.

Keywords: Challenges, Donor, Financial Sustainability, Higher Education, Private University, Strategies.

Strategies for the Engagement of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations in Landscape Governance (Published)

Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (ENGOs) are most often considered as key actors in territorial development. However, the strategies applied by these institutions to effectively engage in landscape planning have been less studied. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of how two ENGOs are attempting to influence landscape scale governance in Luxembourg. The results disclose that because ENGOs are not often incorporated at the preliminary stages of policy planning, they retaliate by using two main methods of engagement; self-mobilisation and legal actions. These approaches have been blamed for slowing down regional projects. Nonetheless, they are argued for promoting effective participation in sustainable landscape development.

Keywords: ENGOs, Landscape Governance, Luxembourg, Participation, Strategies.

Research and Innovation Strategies for Economic Competitiveness and Industrial Growth: Lessons for Nigeria (Published)

One of the leading unrealized opportunities in Nigerian industrial organizations is the full influence of research ideas and knowledge to transform business products and processes into long-term innovation. Business research and innovation contribute significantly to improvement in enterprise productivity and quality and in the integral components of business strategy and success. Drawing heavily from published literature, this paper highlights the enormous benefits of continual research and innovation on national economies, and proffers recommendations on how Nigeria could key into this concept to promote its economic competitiveness at the global level.

Keywords: Competitiveness Industrial Growth, Economic, Innovation, Nigeria, Research, Strategies.

Social Development as a Catalyst for Promotion of Community Development in Nigeria (Published)

Every social action is seen as a catalyst to promote joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in human environment. Social development as a process is employed to stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a catalyst is used to promote awareness creation in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their prevailing social realities ant potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as areas of social development intervention in promoting community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to see that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation, and communication as well as other areas of intervention of social development which should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.

Keywords: Community development, Promotion, Social Development, Strategies.

Research on the Strategy-Based Instruction of News Broadcast Listening For English Minors in China (Published)

News broadcast, as a kind of authentic input, are invaluable materials to improve listening proficiency for both ESL and EFL learners. However, the particular characteristics of news broadcast present a number of challenges to achieving comprehension: unfamiliar patterns of discourse, vocabulary, speech rates, syntactic structures, and a high density of factual contents, etc. In this paper, based on the Constructivism views on education, the author chooses 86 English learners in China who take English as their second major as the research subjects, carries out a strategy-based instruction to the experimental group. After the 15-week instruction, the author collects and analyses the data to examine whether the strategy-based instruction would help students improve their news listening performance.

Keywords: Authentic Input, Constructivism, News Broadcast Listening, Strategies., Strategy-Based Instructions