Stigmatization of Mental Illness: Implications for Mental Health Recovery among Persons Receiving Mental Health Care at Ankaful Psychiatric Hospital, Ghana (Published)
Despite the breakthrough made in the field of psychiatry as a branch of medicine in enlightening our understanding of mental illness, persons with mental illness (PWMI) continue to be saddled with numerous challenges as a result of stigmatization. This study explored factors that account for stigmatization and the effect of these factors on persons with mental illness receiving treatment at Ankafu Psychiatric Hospital in Ghana. Using a concurrent mixed method design, data was gathered through a structured questionnaire among PWMI and, by means of an interview among health professionals and patients’ relatives. Purposive sampling techniques (maximum variation sampling technique and criterion sampling) were used in combination with convenience sampling technique to gather data from 88 respondents selected from a population of 263 mentally ill patients and health professionals. Findings from the study showed that media-related factors, clinical factors such as signs and symptoms among PWMI, side-effects of medication, and social beliefs, accounted for stigma towards PWMI. The study also revealed that stigmatization affects the mental health recovery of PWMI leading to relapse of their condition. The study, recommended that the Mental Health Authority in conjunction with management of the Ankaful Hospital should intensify health education and contact with PWMI in order to help them cope with stigma. They should also ensure that mental ill patients are psychologically prepared by the hospital before discharging them into the communities to minimize the incidence of relapse.
Psychosocial Perspectives of Stigmatization and Discrimination of Persons Living With HIV and AIDS: The Case of Winneba Municipal Hospital (Published)
The study explored the psychosocial perspectives of stigmatization and discrimination of Persons Living with HIV (PLWHA) in the Effutu Municipality with Winneba Municipal Hospital in focus. The research design employed was the descriptive survey using the explanatory mixed method approach which utilized questionnaire and interview as the research instruments for data collection. Two (2) research questions and two (2) hypotheses guided the study. Fifty-three (53) participants comprising fifty-one (51) PLWHA and two (2) HIV counsellors were sampled using the convenience, purposive, and snowball sampling techniques. Data were analyzed using inferential statistics (t-test & regression) to test the hypotheses while the qualitative data were analysed thematically with verbatim quotations from participants to support issues as they emerged. The study revealed that stigmatization and discrimination against PLWHA are not significant even though there was evidence of their existence in the areas of employment and workplace, community contexts, family contexts, and access to healthcare. It was, therefore recommended that the local authorities together with the District Ghana AIDS Commission should strengthen the awareness creation on the need for harmonious living with PLWHA in the community and the District Ministry of Health should employ more health personnel to engage in follow up services to PLWHA patients.
Social Marketing Campaign as a Tool for Reducing Financial Cost of HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Nigeria (Published)
In this study the impact of social marketing campaign as a tool for reducing the financial costs of HIV/AIDS on people in Nigeria is explored. This was motivated by the excruciating financial, social ostracization and psychological burdens of stigmatization (costs), people living with HIV (PLIs) and their families are saddled with in the country. The study objectives were to: ascertain the effect of social marketing campaign messages of abstinence for reducing the financial costs of HIV/AIDS on people in Nigeria; determine the impact of social marketing campaign tools of counselling for reducing the social ostracization of people living with HIV (PLIs) by their families in Nigeria; and assess the effect of social marketing campaign tools of Africa traditional media (oramedia) for reducing the stigmatization of people living with HIV (PLIs) in Nigeria. The area of study was three big cities in Nigeria: Calabar, PortHarcourt and Enugu, reputed as having very high students and youths’ population, considered as endemic group. A sample size of 300 was purposively determined and proportionately allocated to the 3 cluster cities. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaire in Likert’s 4-points scale, which was also used in analysing the data. Results obtained indicate that: Social marketing campaign messages of abstinence was significantly effective for reducing the financial costs of HIV/AIDS on people in Nigeria; social marketing campaign tool of counselling was significantly effective for reducing the social ostracization of people living with HIV (PLIs) by their families in Nigeria; social marketing campaign tools of Africa traditional media (oramedia) were significantly effective for reducing the stigmatization of people living with HIV (PLIs) in Nigeria. Based on these results, governmental agencies, health marketers and behaviour-change agents in the country were advised to emphasize the use of these tools in other to reduce the costs of the HIV/AIDS burdens on the PLIs.
The Psychosocial Effects Of People Living With HIV/AIDS At The Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri, Bayela State Nigeria (Published)
The psychosocial effects of the people living with HIV/AIDS have been acknowledged in sociological literature with few or little empirical study to justify its consequences on the affected people in contrast to its biomedical effects. This paper acknowledges that the biomedical consequences of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) is still essential, but focuses more on the psychosocial effects of PLWHA that aggravate their health conditions. Engel’s biopsychosocial model was utilized as analytical framework and a descriptive research design for the study. One hundred and fifty (N=150) respondents participated in the study in a chain-referral technique at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okoloibiri Bayelsa State using a structured questionnaire as instrument of data collection. Frequency and percentage distribution tables were used to present and analyzed the quantitative data collected for the study using SPSS version 17.0. Findings showed that there were psychosocial effects that aggravate the conditions of PLWHA ranging from depression and perhaps self-destruction arisen from stigmatization, discrimination, denial, loss of relationships and social disarticulation among others. The paper concluded that though the biological determinants of the transmission of the disease need to be emphasized and discouraged among people of the society through campaign and sensitization across board, but more emphasis and attention should be laid on efforts to embrace those already affected with HIV/AIDS by eradicating all forms of stigmatization, discrimination, deprivation through love and supports for them rather than disarticulating them from the members of the society.
TVET (Technical Vocational Education and Training) programmes have been in existence in most developing African countries including Ghana for decades. But their intended productive and inventive output of producing readily employable and or self-employable graduates, and serving as real economic bail out for the deteriorating economies in Africa is yet to be achieved. This worrying development has culminated in a stigmatization towards the study of the TVET programmes in higher institutions in Ghana. This paper therefore explores briefly the historicity of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Ghana, including the tertiary-based TVET institutions (particularly, polytechnics and universities). Through in-depth inquiry, this paper investigates the root cause of the stigmatization and its concomitant effects on the nation, the learners and the higher institutions of training in such programmes. Using comparative analytical methodology, the study revealed that there is curriculum deficiency in TVET programmes; logistical challenge due to inadequate funding; poor linkage of TVET to industry; unfair trend of inappropriate categorization of graduates on the field and a continuous chain of leadership crisis. The paper recommends more dynamic, innovative and modern curriculum review to include product and industrial design courses such as animation, game design, robotics, interior decoration, multimedia design, aircraft, automobile and ship design, structural and industrial painting and medical engineering.
HIV/AIDS Stigmatization on Relatives and Associates of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Psychological Study (Published)
The present study examined HIV/AIDS stigmatization on relatives and associates of people living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. After seeking informed consent from relatives and associates of HIV/AIDS patients on hand at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, using purposive sampling technique, a sample of 60 responded to the HIV Stigma Scale and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale. One Way Analysis of variance, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Independent t-test were the statistical tools used for the analysis of the 3 hypotheses. Analysis of results indicates that no significant difference exists between the levels of stigma experienced by various associates of patients with HIV/AIDS. However, female associates of children with HIV/AIDS experienced more stigma than their male counterparts. The study found no significant relationship between stigma level and psychological distress among relatives and associates of the patients living with HIV/AIDS. From the Ghanaian setting, it is conclusive that regardless of the nature of relationship existing between people living with HIV/AIDS and their significant others, some level of stigma is still experienced across board. The implications of the study were discussed in line with the literature and the concept of Indigenous Cultural and Family Insurance