Tag Archives: State

The State and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: The Challenge of National Security (2009-2015) (Published)

In the checklist of Nigeria’s security challenges, the Boko Haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, an Orthodox Islamist proselyte, the Boko Haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the Nigerian State. The group deployed improvised explosive devices, guerrilla warfare, suicide bombings, hostage taking, rape, and other heinous atrocities to undermine Nigeria’s sovereignty and national security. As a corollary to this pursuit, the paper is poised to unravel and expose the underlying factors through the context of the theory of post colonial state. The overriding tendency to cease and manipulate the state apparatus by the dominant power elite structurally disarticulates and weakens the state on the one hand and sustains the Boko Haram vicious campaigns of terror on the other hand. The paper therefore recommends a total reappraisal of the nature and character of the Nigerian state on the basis of entrenching a veritable democratic culture and de-emphasizing the frantic quest for political power by competing factions of the ruling class.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Security, State, ruling class and sovereignty.

State Police and Police- Operational Efficiency: Footing For Strengthening National Security In Nigeria: – A Scrutiny of Ojo in Lagos State (Published)

The current insecurity in Nigeria which includes widespread killings, kidnappings, cultism and police brutality justifies the agitation for creation of state police in Nigeria. Hence, this paper assessed the creation of state police and police operational efficiency as footing for strengthening national security in Nigeria. The study applied theoretical and quantitative methods; information was sourced secondarily through content analysis of textbooks, journals and newspaper. The quantitative data was obtained through administration of 250 questionnaires to the residents of Ojo Local Government by applying simple random sampling and convince techniques. Findings showed that 66 %( 165) of the respondents were male while 34% (85) of the respondents were female, 79%(198) of the respondents strongly agreed that state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria while 15%(37), strongly disagreed that creation of state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria however 6%(15) of the respondents were neutral. The paper recommends creation of state police with strict judicial control and deployment of smart security technologies. This study will be of immense benefits to government at various levels, NGOs, the Nigeria Police Force and the researchers in the field of security and public administration.

Keywords: Efficiency, Lagos, Nigeria, Police, Police-operation, State

Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)

Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Education, Sokoto, State, nomadic children

Exhibition and Oral Publicity as a Predictor of Utilization of Information Resources in University Libraries in Abia and Imo States (Published)

The general purpose of the study is to determine how exhibitions and oral publicity relate to utilization of information resources in university libraries in Abia and Imo States of Nigeria. The study covers the entire population of 394 library users.328 copies of the questionnaire were completed and returned for analysis representing 83.2%.The survey research design was used for the study. The survey research design was used for the study. Findings show that there is a significant relationship between library exhibitions and utilization of information resources in university libraries in Abia and Imo states ( 2 cal = 244.2 ≥  2 tab = 21.03), oral publicity and utilization of information resources ( 2 cal = 115.7 ≥  2 tab = 21.03). The study recommends that Library exhibitions must maintain a minimum standard to ensure that useful results and responses from users are obtained. University libraries should increase the number of potential patrons of their services by mounting exhibitions at regular intervals. Libraries should publicize their collections by linking oral publicity to their collections and services. Acquisition of major information resources and donations should be publicized orally to promote their use and to spur others to emulate the donors with their own donations.

Keywords: Exhibition, Imo, Information resources, Oral Publicity, State, University Libraries Abia

Context as the Principal Determinant of the Behaviour of States in Global Politics (Published)

This paper seeks to offer an explanation of the behaviour of states in global politics. It argues that a key lesson we can learn from international history is that the behaviour of states in global politics is principally determined by the context in which they behave or act; context determines whether states behave in line with the tenets of realism, liberalism, constructivism, English School, critical theories, or a combination of two or more theories. In order to concretise the discussion, the paper does a historical analysis of the international history of Africa which proves that context is the principal determinant of the behaviour of states in global politics; this is not only true of African international history, but also true of world history. Then the paper concludes that the sooner we learn this lesson, the better we will be able to create contexts that will engender desirable state behaviour!

Keywords: Africa, Context, Global Politics, International History, State, Theory

COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE STATE AND NGOS IN KAZAKHSTAN (Published)

Interest in collaboration between state and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) has grown dramatically in recent years in Kazakhstan. This article explores the history of NGOs, and NGO–state cooperation in Kazakhstan, in terms of the mechanisms and forms, the benefits and achievements, and the constraints and success factors. It highlights the positive dimensions in the NGO–state relationship in terms of the legal environment, in the different forms of public participation, and in the financial support provided by government. At the same time, there is a need to provide a real collaboration of NGOs with government. The NGO–state relationship in Kazakhstan is, still, in the early stage of development and is neither confrontational nor complementary. Currently, state social contracts are the most significant source of NGO funding. There is, however, a need to improve mechanisms for state contracting, in order to reflect the needs and priorities of NGOs’ constituents, to provide transparency of social contracts, to build institutional capacity of public sector agencies, and to strengthen long-term collaboration between NGOs and the state.

Keywords: Collaboration, Kazakhstan, Non-Governmental Organizations, State