Tag Archives: State

Journalistic Responsibilities amid Primordial Pressure in Reporting Conflict in Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

Conflict is a dangerous situation but when it is properly managed and reported, it becomes a blessing to the parties experiencing it. This study examined the responsibilities of journalists and the pressure they encounter while reporting conflicts in Benue State of Nigeria. The study adopted qualitative research method with 20 journalists purposefully selected from Radio Benue, Makurdi;  NTA Makurdi;  Sun Rays FM, Korinya and The Pavilion Newspaper, Makurdi  including male and female journalists. Research questions focusing on the purpose of the investigation guided the study. A standardized open-ended interview format was used to collect data. The data collected were analyzed using explanation building model. The result of the research questions showed that the factors that influence journalists, pressure that influence framing of news by journalists, strategies journalists employ in reporting conflicts are many. The study revealed that journalists are contributors of peace building before, during, and after crises. The study recommended among others that journalists should be peace-oriented when reporting conflict especially those of cross-border nature. And journalists can do this by providing a forum for a critical analysis of issues in a conflict through incisive, informed and critical comments from editorialists, columnists, opinion and feature writers among others so as to open up the space for discussion from all fronts which would enlighten the reading public and possibly, the official negotiators in a conflict.

Keywords: Benue, Conflict, Nigeria, State, journalistic responsibilities, primordial pressure

Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium among Primary School Pupils in Zaki Local Gogernment Area of Bauchi State (Published)

The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, and its effects on the academic performance of primary School pupils in Zaki local government of Bauchi State. The research design was experimental and a complete randomized design was adopted in sampling, samples of urine was collected from three primary schools in Zaki Local Government area ,50 specimen bottles we’re distributed to each school, and 133 samples were successfully returned. The samples were transported to the laboratory and were experimented using a urine sediment preparation method. 19 Ova were detected in central primary School Zaki with (46.34%) prevalence, 20 ova detected in Galadima primary School with ( 40%) prevalence and 17 ova were detected in central primary School Sakwa with (40.48%) prevalence. It was concluded that Schistosomiasis is prevalent ( mild prevalence) in Zaki local government area of Bauchi State. Knowledge of personal hygiene and how to be safe when coming in contact with fresh water containing snails has to adopt and finally there should be safe source of water available.

Citation: Isa M.K., Jahun U.A., Zagi A. (2023) Prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium among Primary School Pupils in Zaki Local Gogernment Area of Bauchi State, European Journal of Biology and Medical Science Research, Vol.10, No.4, pp.,1-5

Keywords: Bauchi, Schistosoma haematobium, State, Zaki, primary school pupils

Socio-Cultural Variables and Child Abuse in Akwa Ibom State (Published)

This study examined socio-cultural variables and child abuse in Akwa Ibom State.  Four objectives, four research questions and four hypotheses guided this study. A correlation research design was used and the population of this study was 57,004 students in senior secondary II classes in the 253 public secondary schools for the 2020/2021 academic session in the study area and a sample size of 570 students from 11 of the schools selected through simple random sampling technique was used for the study but 526 students returned the questionnaires. A researcher-made questionnaire named Socio-Cultural Variables and Child Abuse Questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.74 was the instrument for data collection. The instrument was duly administered on the respondents and the data collected were used in testing the hypotheses formulated. The data were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation at .05 alpha level. The findings of the study showed that poverty, domestic violence, child rearing practices and family structure significantly related with child. Based on these findings, it was concluded that socio-cultural variables significantly contribute to child abuse in Akwa Ibom State. It was recommended that parents/guardians irrespective of the family structure should strive as much as possible to provide for their children, positively influence them, and raise them properly with love so that they can develop the right attitude to life rather than allowing life situations to make them abuse their children.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom, Child abuse, Nigeria, Socio-cultural factors, State

Community Policing Strategies in Akwa Ibom State, 1999-2019 (Published)

The concept of community policing has remained a subject of interest among scholars since the twentieth century, especially as the need to checkmate the surge in crime among various societies continued to take top position in governments’ scale of preference. Given the foregoing premise, this research undertakes a historical examination of community policing in Akwa Ibom State between 1999 – when Akwa Ibom State reverted to civilian rule – and 2019 – marking a year of democratic elections in the state. Deploying the historical method laced with both descriptive and analytical approach with primary and secondary sourced evidence, this research addresses the question of crime prevention through community policing technique. Moreso, the research unearths the strategies employed in community policing as well as the challenges of community policing in Akwa Ibom State. It, therefore, postulates that even though the concept of community policing has long been introduced in Akwa Ibom area, the period between 1999 and 2019 appeared to witness more concerted efforts from government  in the utility of the this system towards the purpose of combating and prevention of crime in Akwa Ibom State

Citation: Ubongabasi Israel  (2021) Community Policing Strategies in Akwa Ibom State, 1999-2019, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research, Vol.9, No.3, pp.9-27


Keywords: Akwa Ibom, Community Policing, State, Strategies.

Parents’ Attitudes towards Arabic Studies at University Level: Case Study of Department of Arabic, Yobe State University, Damaturu (Published)

The study investigated Parents’ attitudes towards Arabic Studies at University Level Case Study of Department of Arabic, Yobe State University, Damaturu. The Study became necessary due to the fact that despite the significance of Arabic Studies at the University level still the number of candidates applying to read B.A Arabic Programme is very low compared to other Fields. Most of those candidates were not given the desired encouragement by some Parents and Guardians to study the course at the University level because they consider the course as “UNPROFESSIONAL”. According to some Parents and Guardians if their children specialized in the field they may not get white collar jobs after graduation. In the procedure of investigation, thirty (30) items were presented in the sets of questionnaire to Parents and Guardians. Stratified random sampling was used as tool for data collection. This sample is from Parents and Guardians residing in the three selected Local Government Councils of the three senatorial zones of Yobe State. One thousand (1000) questionnaire were distributed. Three hundred and fifty questionnaire were received out of which one hundred (100) responses were randomly selected. The percentage technique of data analysis was used to analyse the data and the final results were presented in tables. The findings revealed that most Parents and Guardians have negative attitude towards allowing their children study B.A Arabic at University level due to fear of inability to secure white collar jobs after University graduation.


Citation: Muhammad Alhaji Maidugu (2021) Parents’ Attitudes towards Arabic Studies at University Level: Case Study of Department of Arabic, Yobe State University, Damaturu, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.8, pp.11-22

Keywords: Arabic, Attitudes, Education, Parents, State, University, Yobe, department of Arabic

The State and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: The Challenge of National Security (2009-2015) (Published)

In the checklist of Nigeria’s security challenges, the Boko Haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, an Orthodox Islamist proselyte, the Boko Haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the Nigerian State. The group deployed improvised explosive devices, guerrilla warfare, suicide bombings, hostage taking, rape, and other heinous atrocities to undermine Nigeria’s sovereignty and national security. As a corollary to this pursuit, the paper is poised to unravel and expose the underlying factors through the context of the theory of post colonial state. The overriding tendency to cease and manipulate the state apparatus by the dominant power elite structurally disarticulates and weakens the state on the one hand and sustains the Boko Haram vicious campaigns of terror on the other hand. The paper therefore recommends a total reappraisal of the nature and character of the Nigerian state on the basis of entrenching a veritable democratic culture and de-emphasizing the frantic quest for political power by competing factions of the ruling class.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Security, State, ruling class and sovereignty.

State Police and Police- Operational Efficiency: Footing For Strengthening National Security In Nigeria: – A Scrutiny of Ojo in Lagos State (Published)

The current insecurity in Nigeria which includes widespread killings, kidnappings, cultism and police brutality justifies the agitation for creation of state police in Nigeria. Hence, this paper assessed the creation of state police and police operational efficiency as footing for strengthening national security in Nigeria. The study applied theoretical and quantitative methods; information was sourced secondarily through content analysis of textbooks, journals and newspaper. The quantitative data was obtained through administration of 250 questionnaires to the residents of Ojo Local Government by applying simple random sampling and convince techniques. Findings showed that 66 %( 165) of the respondents were male while 34% (85) of the respondents were female, 79%(198) of the respondents strongly agreed that state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria while 15%(37), strongly disagreed that creation of state police will resolve insecurity in Nigeria however 6%(15) of the respondents were neutral. The paper recommends creation of state police with strict judicial control and deployment of smart security technologies. This study will be of immense benefits to government at various levels, NGOs, the Nigeria Police Force and the researchers in the field of security and public administration.

Keywords: Efficiency, Lagos, Nigeria, Police, Police-operation, State

Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)

Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Education, Sokoto, State, nomadic children

Exhibition and Oral Publicity as a Predictor of Utilization of Information Resources in University Libraries in Abia and Imo States (Published)

The general purpose of the study is to determine how exhibitions and oral publicity relate to utilization of information resources in university libraries in Abia and Imo States of Nigeria. The study covers the entire population of 394 library users.328 copies of the questionnaire were completed and returned for analysis representing 83.2%.The survey research design was used for the study. The survey research design was used for the study. Findings show that there is a significant relationship between library exhibitions and utilization of information resources in university libraries in Abia and Imo states ( 2 cal = 244.2 ≥  2 tab = 21.03), oral publicity and utilization of information resources ( 2 cal = 115.7 ≥  2 tab = 21.03). The study recommends that Library exhibitions must maintain a minimum standard to ensure that useful results and responses from users are obtained. University libraries should increase the number of potential patrons of their services by mounting exhibitions at regular intervals. Libraries should publicize their collections by linking oral publicity to their collections and services. Acquisition of major information resources and donations should be publicized orally to promote their use and to spur others to emulate the donors with their own donations.

Keywords: Exhibition, Imo, Information resources, Oral Publicity, State, University Libraries Abia

Context as the Principal Determinant of the Behaviour of States in Global Politics (Published)

This paper seeks to offer an explanation of the behaviour of states in global politics. It argues that a key lesson we can learn from international history is that the behaviour of states in global politics is principally determined by the context in which they behave or act; context determines whether states behave in line with the tenets of realism, liberalism, constructivism, English School, critical theories, or a combination of two or more theories. In order to concretise the discussion, the paper does a historical analysis of the international history of Africa which proves that context is the principal determinant of the behaviour of states in global politics; this is not only true of African international history, but also true of world history. Then the paper concludes that the sooner we learn this lesson, the better we will be able to create contexts that will engender desirable state behaviour!

Keywords: Africa, Context, Global Politics, International History, State, Theory


Interest in collaboration between state and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) has grown dramatically in recent years in Kazakhstan. This article explores the history of NGOs, and NGO–state cooperation in Kazakhstan, in terms of the mechanisms and forms, the benefits and achievements, and the constraints and success factors. It highlights the positive dimensions in the NGO–state relationship in terms of the legal environment, in the different forms of public participation, and in the financial support provided by government. At the same time, there is a need to provide a real collaboration of NGOs with government. The NGO–state relationship in Kazakhstan is, still, in the early stage of development and is neither confrontational nor complementary. Currently, state social contracts are the most significant source of NGO funding. There is, however, a need to improve mechanisms for state contracting, in order to reflect the needs and priorities of NGOs’ constituents, to provide transparency of social contracts, to build institutional capacity of public sector agencies, and to strengthen long-term collaboration between NGOs and the state.

Keywords: Collaboration, Kazakhstan, Non-Governmental Organizations, State