Over the years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a nosocomial and community pathogen worldwide, causing a plethora of diseases. A distinctive type of MRSA has also emerged in livestock and companion animals. Its isolation in chicken has been reported in some countries and its propensity for zoonotic transmission potentially represents a serious risk-factor for poultry farm workers and the general population. Nasal and cloacae swabs of chickens selected at random from 9 poultry farms and clinical isolates of staphylococci from Ebonyi State, Nigeria, were collected and screened for S. aureus using standard microbiological procedures. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the S. aureus to a panel of 14 commonly used and regulated antibiotics in the area were determined using the Kirby-Bauer disc agar diffusion (DAD) method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Out of a total of 325 S. aureus isolated, 76% (247/325) were from poultry, while 24% (78/325) were from the clinics. The prevalence rates of S. aureus in broilers and layers were 49% and 51% respectively. The percentage carriage of MRSA in poultry was 6.1% and 15.3% in the clinics. The percentage of isolates showing multi antibiotic resistance index (MARI) of 0.3 and above was 13.97% displaying 46 antibiotic resistance patterns. All the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were multidrug resistant. This underscores the need for discretion in the application of antibiotics in animal feeds and its empirical use in the hospitals.
Staphylococcus aureus is one of a major human pathogen which has long been implicated in some life threatening condition. It can cause community acquired and hospital acquired infections. The infection usually proceeds by colonization of S.aureus. In addition to that the risk of healthy individuals to get the infection from the carriers (community acquired) is increasing problem. So in order to insurance a good quality of patients care continuous and regular surveillance schedule is essential. The aim: to study the prevalence of S. aureus carrier frequency among students in Basra medical college and Basra dentistry college. A total of 100 nasal swabs were collected. 50 swabs were from Basra medical student (32 male and 18 female) and 50 swabs were from Basra Dentistry students (33 male and 17were female), were subjected to bacteriological investigation following standard protocol. S. aureus isolates were identified by mannitol fermentation and coagulase positivity. Highest nasal colonization rate was found among medical student (39.5%) while represented18.4% in dentistry students (P>0.05). Highest positive rate was observed among male than female and in clinical student than the pre clinical students of both college. Conclusion: These results indicate that both dentistry and medical students might have been contaminated with S.aureus during clinical practice which may act as a source of infection to the other individuals which. May leads to many complications like increase the rate of nosocomial infection and multiple drug resistance.
Antimicrobial Activity of Medicinal Plants and the Biological Effects of Selected Plants on Staphylococcus Aureus (Published)
Several natural products especially secondary metabolites have formed the basis of medicines, although it’s been often difficult to justify the presence of these compounds in the biochemistry of plant; this as posited by Cragg et al., in their presentation on Ethnobotany and the Search for New Drugs, Ciba Foundation Symposium draws a challenge to scientists. It has been suggested that these compounds may have been synthesized by the plants as part of the defense system of the plant; a good example is that plants are known to produce phytoalexins as a response to attack by bacteria and fungi. Cragg and Newmann in Biodiversity: A continuing source or novel drug leads, support this though stating that the compound produced provides an invaluable resource that has been used to find new drug molecules This paper is set to identify the antimicrobial activity of these medicinal plants and their biological effects. The sampled out plant extracts include Thymus vulgaris, Berberis vulgaris and Calluna vulgaris with which inhibition or activation by different chemical catalysts is performed to establish their effects in the tested natural extracts. Experimental design is used where the reagents are determined and chemical reactions performed in the procedures as outlined in the methodology section. The results of the microbial activity based on the level of concentration is then recorded for every crude extracts and the effects of each with different antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus. This study reflects that berberine showed excellent synergistic activity against Staphylococcus aureus at relatively low concentration and thus can be used against staphylococcus infections
ESSENTIAL OIL EUGENIA ASTRINGENS CAMBESS. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT ANTIMICROBIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC. (Published)
The essential oil from the leaves of Eugenia astringens Cambess (OE-2) was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus modified. The essential oil chemical composition (0.17% yield) was analyzed in GC-MS. The main component in the leaves was the α – pinene. The result of the quantification of the OE-2 sample, the calibration curve showed that the percentage of α-pinene in the essential oil is 2.5% ± 3.9. Cytotoxic potential of the essential oil of Eugenia astringens Cambess was assessed by indirect diffusion in agarose gel in a strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil obtained in vitro antibacterial activity relevant for high dosage (25 µL). It has been found that the use of essential oil (12.5mL) along with the antibiotic (amoxicillin, 12,5 µL volume) did not potentiate the drug action, this remains invariable. The linearity of the calibration curve was proven in the evaluated concentration range, but through the linear model obtained by Ordinary Least Squares Method.