Selection Standardization and Musical Instruments Assessment of Music Instruments Preparation Subject in Music Education Study Program of Unimed (Published)
Factors which influences students to choose musical instrument such as: the role of musical instruments in musical performances, the influence of parents, the influence of teacher, the influence of sex, the availability of instruments, playing techniques and musicality. Selection standarization of musical instrument are used to see the extent of students in choosing musical instrument which is appropriate with the standard that has been determined by the lecturer. The standards for selecting musical instruments compiled by the lecturer team are: Piano Instruments, Swipe Instruments, Vocals, Blowing Instruments, Percussion Instruments, Drum Set Percussion Instruments / Percussion Instruments in addition to Drum Set / Standard and Voting Instrument Selection Assessment. From the standard of musical instrument, students choose musical instruments in accordance with established standards to take Music Instruments Preparation Subject and to achieve the competency of its subject.
The frontier issues of pragmatics in recent years have always been controversial. A kind of meaning, which is “conveyed but not literally and explicitly expressed by the utterance without a context” (not with a context) and its cognitive mechanism have drawn much attention from researchers. Scholars from different perspectives propose varied terms for the phenomena and cognitive processing models to explore the human processing mechanism. In 1994, Kent Bach coined the term “impliciture” (from “implicit”; cf. implicature) and proposed his tenet on the term. At present, three models are implied for the processing mechanism: post-Gricean “Context-driven,” Levinson’s “Default” and Bach’s “Standardization.” The current research investigated this issue by testing the processing of three types (time, location, possession) of context-free Chinese sentences with implicitures in an experiment to see which model is more acceptable for Chinese implicitures. The result showed that the implicitures were automatically computed and that impliciture types did not influence the processing of impliciture. In this case, both Default and Standardization were supported. The results suggested that further studies on implicitures, especially impliciture processing mechanisms by manipulating contexts, should be conducted from the perspective of different languages.
Rural Tourism Management Strategies in Gubugklakah Village Malang (Indonesia): Road to the Asean Tourism Forum (ATF) Awards (Published)
This article is the result of our study on the rural tourism management strategies in Gubugklakah Village Malang. The study aims to investigate how the strategies applied based on the standardization of the vision of the Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia in seeking for tourism destinations to be nominated in ASEAN Tourism Forum (ATF) awards. Based on the findings, we proposed the restructuring of management comprising the formation of institutional structure, the initiation of tourist village program, the establishing of secretariat, and social media promotion. This proposal has been adjusted with the standards set by the ministry. The method used was in-depth interview on the management and local authority to obtain the relevant data. This proposal is expected to be used by the ministry as reference to realize the vision.