Mineral and Antinutrients of Fresh and Squeezed-Washed Bitter Leaf (Vernonia Amygdalina) As Affected By Traditional De-Bittering Methods (Published)
The effect of traditional de-bittering methods on the mineral and anti-nutrient components of fresh and squeezed-washed bitter leaf was studied. Palm oil, Potash, Salt and boiling process was used in the squeeze-washing at 3 pre-processing methods of squeeze-wash and periods of 3 to 8 minutes. The percentage retention and losses of mineral and anti-nutrients increased simultaneously during squeeze-washing. Copper, magnesium, calcium and anti-nutrient had retention of 55 to 100% for samples squeezed-washed with palm oil than the other squeeze- washed samples. This could be due to rigidity of the cells which did not allow much nutrients to leach into the squeezed leaf-water. Loss of minerals and anti-nutrients was observed to be influenced directly by the cause-and-effect of disintegration changes which usually leads to softening due to the severity of the squeeze-washing on the bitter leaf instead of cellular composition or level of minerals and anti-nutrients initially present. Palm oil should be used in the squeeze-washing of bitter leaf for better nutrient retention.