Tag Archives: Spillover

The Obstacles to Using Performance Appraisal and Reward Systems as Tools for Improving Employee Performance (Published)

Performance appraisal and incentive systems are one of the fundamental tools utilised by succeeding businesses, both public and private, in increasing employee performance, as they serve to keep employees on their toes and motivated to work for the organization’s betterment. Personal bias, recent effects, spillover, and a lack of clarity in the job description are some of the characteristics that militate against using performance appraisal as a strategy for improving employee performance, according to the findings. The study suggested, among other things, the creation of a clearly defined benchmark for rewarding employees who perform exceptionally well in their job delivery. This is to ensure transparency in the process of rewarding employees for a job well done, as this will encourage others to perform better. Finally, a performance appraisal should not only be based on an employee’s recent performance or spill-over, personal bias but the employee’s overall performance over the period under review.

Citation: Etalong, Thomas Alama; Chikeleze, Francis Okechukwu; Chukwunyelum, Afam Onyeka (2022) The Obstacles to Using Performance Appraisal and Reward Systems as Tools for Improving Employee Performance, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.10, No.5, pp.86-93


Keywords: Performance Appraisal, Reward system, Spillover, personal bias, recent effects

Positive and Negative Consequences of Balancing Paid Work and Informal Family Care: A Survey in Two Different Sectors (Published)

In The Netherlands about 70% of informal caregivers combine their caregiving activities with paid employment, and thus have to manage the boundaries between work and family roles. Our cross-sectional study examined whether employed informal caregivers differ from non-caring colleagues with respect to negative and positive spillover effects, health and work-related outcomes, use of formal support arrangements and experiences with a supportive work environment. Participants were recruited from a large healthcare and a financial company. Quantitative data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Highly statistically significant, bidirectional, differences were seen with respect to work-family conflict and enrichment, but only in the health care company. In both companies health-related outcomes were scored lower among employees with family caregiving tasks. Work-related outcomes and experiences of formal and informal organizational support and hindrance were evenly distributed. Integration of professional and informal caregiving roles might explain the bidirectional blurring of boundaries between work and family.

Keywords: Employment, Informal Caregiving, Role Integration, Spillover, Work-Family Conflict, Work-Family Enrichment